introduction not listed by title by place by editor by publisher by special subject covers
1789-1810 1811-1820 1821-1830 1831-1840 1841-1850 1851-1860 1861-1872

American children’s periodicals, 1851-1860

This bibliography—with an introduction—is available as an ebook from Barnes & Noble and amazon.com.

[NOTES: Unless noted, page size is the size when trimmed, usually for binding; page size is approximate. Page size is described as height by width, thus: [measurement in inches]? h x [measurement in inches]? w

about frequency: semimonthly: twice a month (usually 24 issues per year); biweekly: every other week (usually 26 issues per year); bimonthly: every other month (usually 6 issues per year)

about availability: selections or complete issues available for free on the Internet, or available at libraries on microform or in databases

abbreviations:

APS, American Periodical Series (microfilm; also, digital database)

AAS, American Antiquarian Society, Massachusetts

AASHistPer, American Antiquarian Society Historical Periodicals (digital database; series 1-5)

Batsel, Union List of United Methodist Serials, 1773-1973, comp. John D. Batsel and Lyda K. Batsel (Evanston, Illinois: n. p., 1974)

NUC, National Union Catalog

OCLC, database available at many institutions via WorldCat (information may also be available in the NUC)

ULS, Union List of Serials in Libraries of the United States and Canada, ed. Winifred Gregory (New York, New York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1927)]

Christian Sunday School Journal ; 1851-

published: Cincinnati, Ohio: J. Grant

frequency: monthly

• Religious focus

source of information: AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 3

The Standard-Bearer ; 1851-after 1867

cover/masthead: 1858 | 1867

published: New York, New York: Protestant Episcopal Society for the Promotion of Evangelical Knowledge, 1851-after 1867; publisher at 11 Bible House, Astor Place.

• 1853, printed by J. A. Gray, 97 Cliff St.

• 1858, printed by John A. Gray, 16 & 18 Jacot St.

• 1867, publisher at 3 Bible House; printed by John A. Gray & Green

frequency: monthly

description: 1853, 1858: 16 pp.; page size untrimmed, 6.5″ h x 4.25″ w. Prices: 1 copy, 25¢/ year; 25 copies, $5/ year; 50 copies, $10/ year

• 1867: 16 pp.; page size, 6″ h x 4″ w. Prices: 1 copy, 50¢/ year; 10 copies, $4/ year; 25 copies, $9/ year; 50 copies, $17/ year

• Religious focus: Protestant Episcopal

source of information: Sept & Dec 1853; June 1858; Feb 1867 issues; AAS catalog; Maxwell

available: AASHistPer, series 4

bibliography:

Checklist of Children’s Books, 1837-1876, comp. Barbara Maxwell. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Special Collections, Central Children’s Department, Free Library of Philadelphia, 1975.

The Youth’s Monitor ; 1851-after 1854

edited by: Daniel P. Kidder

published: New York, New York: Lane & Scott, 1851-1853?

• New York, New York: Carlton & Phillips, 1854-?; 1854, publisher at 200 Mulberry St.

• For the Methodist Episcopal Church Sunday School Union

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 24 pp.; page size, 5.75″ h x 3.75″ w. Price, 2¢/ each; 25¢/ year

• Religious focus: Methodist

relevant quotes:

• Introductory: “This Magazine takes the place of the Sunday-Scholar’s Mirror. … A mirror may shine very brightly, and may reflect accurately the face of him who looks into it, and yet one does not wish to be looking into a mirror all the time. It is important to encourage the young in all their attempts to do good, and to conquer evil; but it is equally important to admonish them of the numerous dangers which [p. 6] beset their path, of the great necessity of redeeming time, and of giving their hearts to the Lord. This latter will be the office and aim of the Monitor. It will present its reader with grave truth in a pleasing garb, and will endeavor to merit both the confidence and the respect of all who seek instruction and profit from its pages.” [“Introduction.” 1 (Jan 1851): 5-6.]

• “We are not insensible of the difficulties we have before us in the task of preparing a monthly series of articles designed to be admonitory of youth. Yet we have hope that our readers, although young, are of a character that will appreciate the fidelity of friendship, and will be glad to have the dangers of life pointed out to them early and plainly. We do not devote our pages to fault-finding, nor to dry precepts, and formal advice, however wholesome. Our object is to illustrate both vice and virtue, by means of interesting narratives, and speaking pictures. We hope, therefore, that our readers will regard us as a pleasant and friendly monitor, although a faithful one.” [“Introduction.” 4 (1854): 5-6]

• The 1854 issues seem to have been late: “Owing to some hinderances in our publication office, this monthly magazine was late in making its appearance the present year; consequently our notice of it comes very late. Still we think it desirable for our friends to know that such a publication is continued, and sold in numbers at two cents each, or sent to subscribers for twenty-five cents a year.” [“Youth’s Monitor for 1854.” Sunday School Advocate 13 (March 11, 1854): 93]

continues: The Sunday-Scholar’s Mirror (1847-1850): “This Magazine [The Youth’s Monitor] takes the place of the Sunday-Scholar’s Mirror. In our serial literature for children, it is found by experience to be well to change the titles occasionally, for the sake of variety and good effect. Thus the Encourager followed the Children’s Magazine, the Mirror the Encourager, and now the Monitor succeeds the Mirror.” [Youth’s Monitor ; p. 5] An advertisement for a bound volume explains that the Monitor was “the Juvenile Magazine which has taken the place of ‘The Sunday Scholar’s Mirror.’ ” [Notice #22. The Methodist Quarterly Review 5 (Jan 1853): 142]

source of information: 1851-1854 bound vols; Advocate ; AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 3 & 4

bibliography:

• “Introduction.” The Youth’s Monitor 1 (Jan 1851): p. 5-6.

• Notice #22. The Methodist Quarterly Review 5 (Jan 1853): 142.

• “Periodicals for Youth.” Sunday School Advocate 13 (Feb 11, 1854): 78.

• “Youth’s Monitor for 1854.” Sunday School Advocate 13 (March 11, 1854): 93.

Youth’s Gem and Southern Cadet ; Jan 1851-?

edited by: J. C. Reagan

published: Macon, GA: J. C. Reagan.

frequency: semimonthly

description: newspaper format

perhaps continues: The Gem (Milledgeville, GA; 1850)

source of information: Flanders

bibliography:

• notice. Southern Lady’s Companion. 4 (Jan 1851): 2.

• Bertram Holland Flanders. Early Georgia Magazines: Literary Periodicals to 1865. N.p.: The University of Georgia Press, 1944; p. 92.

The Young Christian ; Jan 1851-1859

edited by: Jan 1851-1855, G. L. Demarest

• 1856, Rev. H. R. Nye

• 1857-1859, H. R. Nye & G. L. Demerast

published: New York, New York: B. B. Hallock, Jan 1851-1859.

• Cincinnati, Ohio: n.p., Jan 1851-1859.

frequency: monthly

description: 1851: 36 pp.; page size, 5.75″ h • Religious focus: Universalist

absorbed by: The Myrtle (Boston, Massachusetts; 2 Aug 1851-1918)

source of information: AASHistPer, series 3; AAS catalog; OCLC; Eddy

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• Richard Eddy. Universalism in America. Boston: Universalist Publishing House, 1886; vol 2, p. 598. [google books]

Sabbath School VisitorPresbyterian Sabbath School Visitor ; 1 Jan 1851-26 Sept 1909

cover/masthead: 1851-1852, 1855-1856 | 1857-1860 | 1865-1871 | 1872-1873

edited by: 1870, W. E. Schenck. 1872, John W. Dulles

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Presbyterian Board of Publication; 1855-March 1857, publisher at 265 Chestnut St.; April 1857-1873, publisher at 821 Chestnut St. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Sabbath School Union. New York, New York: Presbyterian Board of Publication; 1855-Aug 1856, publisher at 285 Broadway; Jan 1857-1873, publisher at 530 Broadway; 1861, publisher at 15 Chatham Square.

frequency: semimonthly, 1851-1852, 1855-1860 • monthly, 1865-1866 • monthly & semimonthly, 1868-1871

description: 4 pp.

• 1851-1852: page size, 12.25″ h x 9.5″ w; prices, 1 copy, 25¢/ year; 40 or more copies, $5/ year

• 1855-1860, 1865-1866: page size, 14.5″ h x 10.5″ w; prices, 1 copy, 25¢/ year; 8 or more copies, 12¢/ year

• 1868-1871: page size, 14.5″ h x 10.5″ w; prices: semimonthly, 1 copy, 50¢/ year; monthly, 1 copy, 25¢/ year; 8 or more copies, 8¢/ year

• 1872: 14.25″ h x 10.25″ w; prices: semimonthly, 1 copy, 50¢/ year; monthly, 1 copy, 25¢/ year

• Circulation: 1851, 34,000. 1856, 43,000. 1861, 70,000. 1869, 100,000. 1870, 150,000

• Religious focus: Presbyterian

relevant quotes:

• Intended to provide “positive juvenile literature in place of other less desirable material … constantly reaching the hands of children” (in Bates, p. 13)

• At the beginning, both issues for each month were sent at the same time: “The Visitor is intended as a semi-monthly publication, but, in order to reduce the postage one-half, we have deemed it best to send both the numbers for the month at the same time, and on one sheet. It will, of course, be understood that the superintendents will have the numbers separated, and one circulated on the first, and the other in the middle of the month.” [“To Pastors and Sabbath-School Superintendents.” 1 (1 Jan 1851): 1]

relevant information: Selections were reprinted as The Youth’s Visitor; or, Selections in prose and verse from the Presbyterian Sunday-school Visitor (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Presbyterian Board of Publication, 1853)

source of information: 1851-1852, 1855-1860, 1865-1872, scattered issues & bound volumes; Bates; Rowell; Kenny; NUC; AAS; Alexandria Gazette ; Jackson Citizen

available: AASHistPer, series 5

bibliography:

• “General Assembly (Old School).” New York Observer and Chronicle 29 (5 June 1851): 1-2; mention on page 2.

• Notice of The Youth’s Visitor. New York Observer and Chronicle 31 (29 Dec 1853): 414.

• Notice of The Youth’s Visitor. German Reformed Messenger 19 (8 February 1854); p. 4035.

• “Old School Presbyterian General Assembly.” Charleston Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 54 (26 May 1856): 1.

• “General Assembly.” New York Observer and Chronicle 34 (29 May 1856): 172.

• “The Presidency and the New Element of Religion—Additional Newspaper Statistics.” The New York Herald [New York, New York] 26 Sept 1856: 4.

• Advertisement. The Biblical Repertory and Princeton Review 32 (April 1860): 389.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; pp. 51, 65. [google books]

• “Presbyterian General Assembly.” Alexandria Gazette [Alexandria, Virginia] 24 May 1861: 2.

• Advertisement. New York Evangelist 39 (9 Jan 1868): 7.

• “The Presbyterian General Assemblies: The East.” Jackson Citizen [Jackson, Michigan] 25 May 1869: 1.

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 735. [google books]

• “Philadelphia Letter.” New York Evangelist 42 (14 Dec 1871): 2.

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 161. [archive.org]

• Barbara Snedeker Bates. “Denominational Periodicals: The Invisible Literature.” Phaedrus 7 (Spring/Summer 1980): 13-18.

The Children’s Friend ; April 1851-1853

cover/masthead: 1853

published: Rochester, New York: O. R. L. Crozier; publisher at the “office of the Advent Harbinger, Talman Block, opposite the Arcade”.

frequency: monthly; first of month

description: 8 pp.; price, 1 copy, 38¢/ year; page size, 11″ h

• Religious focus: Seventh-Day Adventist

relevant quote: The Friend was not a profitable concern: Crozier had lost about $300 on volume one and solicited donations to make up $100 of the deficit; as of Feb 1853, he had received $20. Crozier was blunt in his appeal to readers who wanted the paper to continue: “Unless something more is done to sustain this paper, we shall be obliged to discontinue its publication at the end of the present volume, which closes with the next number. [Transcriber’s note: The next number would be March 1853.] From present appearances, the deficit will be about the same on this volume as on the last.—After setting down the deficit of the first volume at only two-thirds of what it really was, we have received only about one-fifth of that! … We have done what we could to awaken an interest in this matter, but almost in vain: and we have come to the conclusion, that when we have paid the bills [p. 93] for this volume our duty in that direction will be done.” [The Children’s Friend 2 (Feb 1853): 92-93]

source of information: AASHistPer; AAS

available: AASHistPer, series 4

The Myrtle ; 2 Aug 1851-1918

edited by: 2 Aug 1851-1875, Rev. John G. Adams

• 1866-1868, Phebe Hanaford

• 1869-1875, Mrs. H. A. Bingham

• 1875-1905, Elizabeth M. Bruce

published: Boston, Massachusetts: J. M. Usher; 1852, 1861, publisher at 37 Cornhill.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Universalist Publishing House, 1865-1876.

frequency: 1851, weekly; 1852-1871, semimonthly; 1871, weekly

description: 1852: page size, 10″ h; price, 50¢/ year

• 1861, price 50¢

• 1870: 4 pp.; page size, 21″ h x 14″ w; price, 50¢

• 1872: 8 pp.; octavo; price, 50¢

• Religious focus: Universalist

absorbed: The Young Christian (Jan 1851-1859)

source of information: Miller; Fisher; AAS catalog; Eddy

available: AASHistPer, series 4 & 5

bibliography:

The Boston directory for the Year 1852. Boston: George Adams, 1852; p. 35. [google books]

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 30. [google books]

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 665. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 73. [archive.org]

• L. B. Fisher. A Brief History of the Universalist Church, for Young People, 4th ed., revised. N. p.: n. p., n. d.; p. 169.

• Richard Eddy. Universalism in America. Boston: Universalist Publishing House, 1886; vol 2, p. 598. [google books]

• Russell E. Miller. The Larger Hope: The First Century of the Universalist Church in America, 1770-1870. Boston, Massachusetts: Unitarian Universalist Association, 1979; vol 1, p. 560.

The Flower Basket ; -until March 1852

edited by: J. J. Buchanan

published: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: J. J. Buchanan

relevant quote: Buchanan addressed a notice to his readers, dated 19 Feb 1852: “Owing to a want of proper encouragement, and a decline of health, I am compelled to suspend the publication of The Flower-Basket; and that those who have not received their full proportion of numbers may be supplied with a work as good, if not superior, I have made arrangements with the gentlemanly proprietors of “The Student ” to supply the numbers still due you.” [“The Student and Flower-Basket United.” The Student 4 (April 1852): 185]

absorbed by: The Student (Nov 1848-Oct 1855)

source of information: Student ; Lyon

bibliography:

• “The Student and Flower-Basket United.” The Student 4 (April 1852): 185.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 225.

Youth’s Enterprise ; in 1852

source of information: mentioned in The Western Gem, and Musician 4 (Sept 1852): 36.

Monday Express ; in 1852

edited by: J. Mitchell, jr.

published: Little Rock, AR: J. Mitchell, jr.

frequency: weekly

description: Price, 5¢/ month

source of information: Gem

bibliography:

• Notice. The Genius of Youth 1 (1 June 1852): 7.

• Notice. The Western Gem, and Musician 4 (July 1852): 20. online

The Youth’s Banner ; 1852-after May 1853

edited by: J. C. Mitchell • May 1853, J. G. Mitchel & W. T. Robinson

published: Little Rock, AR: J. C. Mitchell • Little Rock, AR: J. G. Mitchel & W. T. Robinson, 1853.

frequency: weekly • 1853, semimonthly

description: page size, 12.5″ h. Price, 1853: 50¢/ year

relevant quote: The Banner was “devoted especially to the developement [sic] of the young.” [Notice. The Western Gem 6 (May 1853): 15.]

• The Banner was the subject of some ribbing by the North Carolina University Magazine, which asserted that “The editor of the [National Intelligencer] does not ‘gas’ and embellish more than the editor of the Youth’s Banner.” [“Backwoods”; pp. 385-386.]

source of information: Gem ; OCLC

bibliography:

• “Backwoods.” “Newspapers versus Mammon.” The North Carolina University Magazine 1 (Nov 1852): 385-387. [google books]

• Notice. Monthly Literary Miscellany, February 1853, p. 63-64. online

• Notice. The Western Gem 6 (May 1853): 15. online

The Youth’s Instructor (also Instructor) ; 1852-after Jan 14 1936

edited by: to 5 Jan 1904, Adelaide B. Cooper

• 12 Jan 1904, Fannie M. Dickerson; Lora E. Clement

published: Washington, DC: Review & Herald Publ. Association.

• Washington, DC: Seventh-Day Adventists, 1936.

frequency: weekly

description: Page size, 15.25″ h • 75¢

source of information: Garwood; OCLC

bibliography:

• Irving Garwood. American Periodicals from 1850 to 1860. Macomb, Illinois: Irving Garwood, 1931.

• Gertrude C. Gilmer. Checklist of Southern Periodicals to 1861. Boston: F. W. Faxon Company, 1934; p. 65.

The Child’s Paper ; Jan 1852-1897?

cover/masthead: 1853-Dec 1857, 1864-1868, 1870-1871 | Jan 1858-March 1861 | April 1861-Dec 1863

edited by: Rev. Wm. A. Hallock and Mrs. H. C. Knight, 1869-1872

published: New York, New York: American Tract Society, 1852-1897?; 1861, publisher at 150 Nassau St.

• Boston, Massachusetts: N. P. Kemp, Nov 1854-Dec 1855; publisher at 28 Cornhill, Nov 1854-Dec 1855; publisher at 40 Cornhill, 1864-1867. Boston, Massachusetts: H. E. Simmons, 1870-1871; publisher at 116 Washington St.

• Also published in Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cincinnati, & New Orleans

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/year

description: 4 pp.; page size, 14″ h x 9 5/8″ w • Price, 1854-1855, 1857-April 1864: “payable in advance, in packages of not less than ten copies,” 10/$1 (10¢ ea); 50/$4.50 (9¢ ea); 100/$8 (8¢ ea).

• before? Nov 1864-1871: “in packages of not less than EIGHT copies,” 8/$1; 40/$5; 100/$12

• Circulation: 1852, 125,000/ month [“The American Tract Society.” The Independent 4 (13 May 1852): 78] • 1853, 250,000/ month [“The American Tract Society.” The Christian Observer 32(14 May 1853): 78] • 1855, 300,000/ month [“The American Tract Society.” The Missionary Magazine 35 (Aug 1855): 370] • 1856, 305,000/ month [“The American Tract Society.” German Reformed Messenger 21 (14 May 1856): 4306] • 1857, 310,000/ month [“The American Tract Society.” German Reformed Messenger 22 (20 May 1857): 2] • 1858, 300,000/ month [“The American Tract Society.” German Reformed Messenger 23 (26 May 1858): 2] • 1859, 300,000/ month [“The American Tract Society.” New York Evangelist 30 (19 May 1859): 2] • 1863, 225,000/ month [“The American Tract Society.” New York Evangelist 33 (14 May 1863): 8] • 1864, 263,083/ month [“American Tract Society.” New York Evangelist 35 (19 May 1864): 2] • 1868, 350,000/ month [“American Tract Society.” The Ladies’s Repository 29 (Aug 1868): 156]

• Religious focus

relevant information:

• In 1860, stories from the Paper were published as Flowers of Spring Time (American Tract Society).

• On the list of periodicals subscribed to by the Massachusetts State Reform School in 1867. [Twenty-First Annual Report]

relevant quotes:

• The Paper changed as a result of the American Tract Society’s schism over slavery, as the Friends’ Review noted in its introduction to a reprinting of “The Slave Mother”: “The publication, by the American Tract Society, of the following article in The Child’s Paper affords a striking instance of the change in public sentiment since the time when that Society carefully expunged from its books and tracts every remark of an anti-slavery character.” [“The Slave Mother.” Friends’ Review 18 (8 Oct 1864): 87-88]

• After the Civil War, one clergyman distributed the Paper to new readers: “ ‘When in South Carolina, some one sent me monthly twenty numbers of the Child’s Paper, which I distributed to the children, black and white, and all were very eager to get them. I also gave away about fifty primers to the needy learners of the A B C’s.” [“Help those that need Help.” New York Evangelist 39 (6 Aug 1868): 4]

source of information: 1854-1855, 1857-1868, 1870-1871 issues & bound vol; Independent ; Christian Observer ; Missionary Magazine ; Kenny; Rowell; OCLC; NUC

available: AASHistPer, series 3, 4, 5

bibliography:

• “The American Tract Society.” German Reformed Messenger 17 (24 Dec 1851): 3398.

• “The American Tract Society.” The Independent 4 (13 May 1852): 78.

• “The American Tract Society.” The Christian Observer 32 (14 May 1853): 78.

• Notice. The Youth’s Casket 3 (Dec 1854): 270. online

• “The American Tract Society.” The Missionary Magazine 35 (Aug 1855): 370.

• “The American Tract Society.” German Reformed Messenger 21 (14 May 1856): 4306.

• “The American Tract Society.” German Reformed Messenger 22 (20 May 1857): 2.

• “The American Tract Society.” German Reformed Messenger 23 (26 May 1858): 2.

• “The American Tract Society, Boston.” The Liberator 28 (10 Dec 1858): 198.

• “The American Tract Society.” New York Evangelist 30 (19 May 1859): 2.

• “Tract House On Fire.” New York Observer and Chronicle 37 (15 Dec 1859); 398.

• Bucer. “ ‘The Tract Journal’ and ‘Child at Home,’ vs. ‘American Messenger’ and the [‘]Child’s Paper;’ or Boston vs. New York.” German Reformed Messenger 25 (27 June 1860): 2.

• Zwingli. “The Schism in the American Tract Society.” German Reformed Messenger 25 (11 July 1860): 1.

• Notice of Flowers of Spring Time. New York Observer and Chronicle 38 (13 Dec 1860): 394.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 29, 49. [google books]

• “The American Tract Society.” New York Evangelist 33 (14 May 1863): 8.

• “American Tract Society.” New York Evangelist 35 (19 May 1864): 2.

• “The Slave Mother.” Friends’ Review 18 (8 Oct 1864): 87-88.

• “Reduction of Terms.” The Children’s Friend (Richmond, Virginia) 21 Dec 1867: p. 95.

Twenty-First Annual Report of the Trustees of the State Reform School. Boston, Massachusetts: Wright & Potter, 1868; p. 18. [google books]

• “American Tract Society.” The Ladies’s Repository 29 (Aug 1868): 156.

• “Help those that need Help.” New York Evangelist 39 (6 Aug 1868): 4.

Geo. P. Rowell & Co’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1869; p. 76. [archive.org]

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 705. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; pp. 125-126. [archive.org]

• Notice. Christian World 23 (June 1872); p. 199.

The Youth’s Casket ; Jan 1852-Dec 1857

cover/masthead: 1856

edited by: 1852-1853, Harley Thorne (penname of James O. Brayman?)

• 1853-1854, James O. Brayman

• Nov 1854-1857, Harriet E. G. Arey

published: Buffalo, New York: Beadle & Vanduzee, Jan 1852-March 1853; printed by Phinney & Co.

• Buffalo, New York: Beadle & Brother, April 1853-Nov 1853.

• Buffalo, New York: E. F. Beadle, Dec 1853-Dec 1855.

• Buffalo, New York: Beadle & Adams, Jan 1856-1857.

frequency: monthly

description: 1852-1857: page size, 8.75″ h x 5 11/16″ w; price, 50¢/year

• 1852: 16 pp.; first issues, cover was white printed in reddish orange

• 1853-1857: 24 pp.: “[I]t will this year have twenty-four pages ….” (Jan 1853; p. 27). Price: 1854, 50¢/ year

• Circulation (from magazine): 1853, 3000-4000

relevant quotes:

• Introductory: “We here present you with the first number of the ‘Youth’s Casket.’ We have taken great pains to make it acceptable to you. Do you think we have succeeded? There are few periodicals published especially for children and youth, but those few, so far as we are acquainted with them, are excellent. [Note: In 1852, there were at least 40 children’s periodicals being published in the U. S.] … We frankly confess that, in part, we labor that we may obtain money; but in return for the money which you send us we shall exert ourselves to do you good, and to repay you with that which will be really of more value to you than that which you part with. … [T]hat you may be both instructed and entertained, the Casket will present you, we trust, with a pleasant variety of historical, scientific, and philosophical information, and with equally as pleasant a variety of tales, and articles relating to sports, pastimes, &c., all which we hope will be quite to your taste. Besides all this, the Casket will salute your eyes with ever so many pictures; and we shall try to make them pretty too, very pretty, for we know that young folks are especially fond of such. Now if we fulfill these encouragements will you not help us along? We trust you will.” [“Introductory Address.” 1 (Jan 1852): 1-2]

• The first issue was later than planned: “Our Present Number.—It is before you, though in consequence of a long spell of sickness, it is late. For the same reason together with a slight miscalculation as to space we have not given you so great a variety of subjects as we had intended. However we have now got so good a start that we think we shall find no difficulty in making all future numbers about right. We feel sure that at all events no future number will be less acceptable to you than the present.” [“Our Present Number.” 1 (Jan 1852): 20]

• The first two issues were reprinted: “In consequence of the increasing demand for the Casket, we have been obliged to print a second edition of the January and February numbers, and also to print, this month, double the number of the last. And here we wish it to be understood—for we have often been asked—that as every number of the Casket is stereotyped, back numbers will be furnished whenever called for.” [“A Second Edition.” 1 (March 1852): 51]

• The title was a bit too similar to that of another periodical: “We see that some of our correspondents and exchanges designate our magazine as the “Youth’s Cabinet.” Now this is, truly, a very excellent title of a very excellent magazine; but it is not the title of our magazine, which, by a simple reference to the cover, all will see is the “Youth’s Casket.” [“Our Title.” 1 (April 1852): 68]

merged with: Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine, Jan 1858: “[T]he Casket is making its face as like to [Forrester’s] as possible, and … most of our contents are similar this month.” [Oct 1857; p. 243] “The Casket and Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine are to be united the first of January 1858 ….” [Nov 1857; p. 267]

source of information: 1852-1855, 1857 vols; Jan 1856 issue; German Reformed Messenger ; OCLC; Lyon; Johannsen; Kelly

bibliography:

• Notice. The Buffalo Morning Express. 31 Dec 1851.

• Notice. Western Literary Cabinet 9 (Nov 1853); p. 160.

• Notice. Michigan Journal of Education and Teachers’ Magazine 1 (July 1854); p. 240.

• Notice. German Reformed Messenger 20 (20 Dec 1854); p. 4214.

• Advertisement. Prisoner’s Friend 9 (1 Nov 1856); p. 86.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 42. [google books] [source evidently based on outdated information: listed here only for completeness]

• Frank H. Severance. “Bibliography: The Periodical Press in Buffalo, 1811-1915,” Buffalo Historical Society Publications 19 (1915); pp. 177-312.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 209-213.

• Albert Johannsen. The House of Beadle and Adams. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1950; vol 1, pp. 414-418.

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

The Schoolmate ; Feb 1852-Oct 1855

cover/masthead: Nov 1852-1854

edited by: A. R. Phippen

published: New York, New York: George Savage, Feb 1852-Jan 1854; 1852, Savage at 22 John St.; later, Savage at 58 Fulton St.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Morris Cotton & Co., Dec 1852-Aug 1854; Cotton at 120 Washington St.

• New York, New York: A. R. Phippen, Feb? 1854-1855?; Phippen at 68 Fulton St., 1854

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: Feb-Oct 1852, 32 pp.; page size, 9.5″ h x 6″ w

• Prices: 1 copy, $1/ year, in advance; 6 copies, $5/ year; 12 copies, $9/ year; 10¢/ copy

• Vol 1, 9 issues (Feb-Oct 1852); vol 2-4, 12 issues each (Nov-Oct)

relevant quotes:

• The cover changed between volume 1 & 2: “On the 1st of November we shall visit our friends in an entirely new dress, and with several new and interesting features.” [1 (Sept 1852): 251] The new cover was intended to express the subjects explored in the Schoolmate: “As the winter months draw near, the season of gloom without, it is a good plan to make every thing bright and cheerful within, and it is partly for this reason that we present the Schoolmate, to our friends this month in a new and more beautiful dress, that it may be still more entertaining as a fireside companion and schoolroom friend. How do you like the new cover?—by studying it carefully you will see that it is a complete picture of all the objects for which this work is intended.” [“The Teacher’s Desk.” 2 (Nov 1852): 31]

• A. R. Phippen may have taken over as publisher in Feb 1854: “The editor of the Schoolmate having taken the office formerly occupied by George Savage, will, in future, give strict attention to editing and publishing the magazine. The delay which has been so troublesome in some of the late numbers, will be avoided, and our subscribers will have their magazines mailed to them by, at least, the first of each month.” [Schoolmate. 3 (Jan 1854): 92] The Jan 1854 issue lists George Savage as the New York publisher.

merged with: The Student (Nov 1848-Oct 1855); to form The Student and Schoolmate ; Nov 1855-1872

source of information: 1852-1853 vols; 1852-1854 scattered issues; Lyon; Kelly

available: AASHistPer, series 3 & 4

excerpts online

bibliography:

• “Editor’s Table.” Maine Farmer 20 (11 March 1852): 2.

• “Periodicals.” The Ladies’ Repository 12 (May 1852): 198.

• Notice. Spirit of the Times 22 (26 June 1852): 228.

• Notice. The Youth’s Casket 1 (Nov 1852): 180. online

• Advertisement. The Huntress 16 (7 Jan 1854): 4.

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

The Favourite Magazine of Instruction and Amusement for Boys and Girls (also The Favorite); April-Sept 1852

cover/masthead: 1852

edited by: Daniel H. Jacques (“Uncle Daniel”)

published: New York, New York: Thaddeus Hyatt, Daniel H. Jacques, April-Sept 1852; publisher at 97 Cliff St.

frequency: monthly

description: 32 pp.; page size, 9.5″ h; price, $1/ year • Lyon states that the last issue was Oct 1852.

relevant quotes:

• The prospectus promised much: “Translations from French and German Story-books; Selections from English Juvenile Publications, not elsewhere reprinted in this country; Stories from History and mythology; Sketches of Travel and Adventure in Foreign Counties; Conversations on Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Physiology, Natural History, and Botany; Tales, Poetry, Games, Riddles, Charades, Enigmas, Conundrums, &c.” [1 (April 1852): cover page 4; back cover]

• The editor anthropomorphized the magazine in order to point out its wide variety of subjects: “This is our FAVORITE. He wishes to make your acquaintance. He desires to be useful to you, to amuse and instruct you; to be your FAVORITE as well as ours! … He will tell you pleasant stories; relate wonderful adventures in foreign lands; describe strange animals and birds, and curious manners and customs; talk with you about philosophy, chemistry, and botany; propound riddles, enigmas, and so forth; and do many other things which I have not room to mention. It will be his aim to teach you a great many things, though he will set for you no dry, hard lessons.” [“Introduction.” 1 (April 1852): 31.]

• On the merger with The Student: “Arrangements have been made with us to supply the subscribers to ‘The Favorite’—a monthly magazine published in this city by Messrs. Hyatt and Jacques—with The Student; that magazine having been discontinued. Hereafter they will receive The Student instead of The Favorite.” [“To the Subscribers of ’The Favorite’.” The Student. 5 (Oct 1852): 192]

absorbed by: The StudentThe Student and Family Miscellany (Nov 1848-Oct 1855)

source of information: The Student, Oct 1852 (located in Winterthur Library, Wilmington, Delaware); AASHistPer, series 3; Maine Farmer ; Dechert; Lyon; AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• “Editor’s Table.” Maine Farmer 26 (24 June 1852): 2.

• Notice. The Western Gem, and Musician. 4 (Sept 1852): 36. online

• Dorothy Dechert. “The Merry Family: A Study of Merry’s Museum, 1841-1872, and of the Various Periodicals that Merged with It.” Master’s thesis. Columbia University, 1942.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 29-32.

The Genius of Youth ; 1 June 1852-mid/late 1852

cover/masthead: 1852

edited by: Ross Alley

published: Olean, IN: Ross Alley

frequency: monthly

description: 8 pp.; price, 15¢/ year

relevant information:

• Perhaps named after The Genius of the West, a periodical for adults published by Howard Durham in Cincinnati, Ohio.

• Ross Alley wrote a few poems for The Western Gem, and Musician in 1852; the Gem ’s editor, Howard Durham, published “To Love” in Genius and advertised the periodical. [The Western Gem, and Musician 5 (Dec 1852): 12]

• Like older publishers, Alley offered premiums, in this case for works on temperance written by young writers.

• Alley appears to have reinvented his periodical each time his family moved to a new town.

relevant quote: Alley invited writers of all ages to submit pieces: “It will be devoted exclusively to the interests of the young; and the contents will be composed, principally, of the writings of authors who have not yet spent ‘the days of their youth.’ However, when we are offered articles of true merit, by ‘children of a larger growth’ we will in no case reject them. We have engaged the service of a host of youthful writers, whose merry carols will make our columns as musical as a summer grove when birds are warbling in their glee. Our columns will at all times, be open for the reception of articles from the pens of our young readers, as one of our objects is to encourage the young, in their endeavors to ‘become something in the world.’ ” [editorial. 1 (1 June 1852): 6]

continues: The Youth’s Casket (early 1850-1852?)

continued by: The Forest Rose (1852-1853; for adults) • The Literary Messenger (1853-Sept 1854; for adults)

The Forest Rose: 4 pp.; page size, 19″ h x 13″ wide

• The Rose was described in a notice: “The Forest Rose, edited and published by our poetical young friend, Ross Alley, has just been commenced in Olean, Ind. It is a spicy and spirited paper, in fact just a sheet as the editor’s talent would give us reason to expect. After the third of May it will be published weekly at 75 cts per annum. Its success has our best wishes and hopes.” [The Western Gem, and Musician 5 (15 March 1853): 47]

• Most of the Sept 9, 1853 issue of the Rose was reprinted in a tribute to Ross Alley. [King-Benham; pp. 61-79]

source of information: AASHistPer, series 3; Gem ; King-Benham; AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• Notice. The Western Gem, and Musician 4 (June 1852): 12. online

• Mention. The Western Gem, and Musician 4 (August 1852): 28. online

• Notice. The Youth’s Casket 1 (Nov 1852): 179-180. online

• Emma King-Benham. Memorial Volume to the Boy, Pioneer-Poet-Printer Ross Alley. Terre Haute, IN: np, 1929. Printed by the Viquesney Company; pp. 35-36, 61-79.

Youth’s Instructor ; Aug 1852-1970 • Insight ; 1970-present?

edited by: 1852-1853, James White

• 1854, Anna White

• 1855-1857, James White

• 1858-1864, G. W. Amadon

• 1864-1867, Adelia P. Patten

• 1867-1869, G. W. Amadon

• 1869-1871, G. H. Bell

• 1871-1873, Jennie R. Trembley

published: Rochester, New York: Review & Herald Publishing Association, 1852-1855.

• Battlecreek, Michigan: Review & Herald Publishing Association, 1855-1903.

frequency: 1852-1869, monthly (Kenny lists as weekly) • 1870, semimonthly

description: Aug 1852: price, 25¢/ year

• 1869-1872: 8 pp.; price, 50¢

• Religious focus: Seventh-Day Adventist

source of information: Kelly; Rowell

available: AASHistPer, series 4 & 5

bibliography:

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 33. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1869; p. 49. [archive.org]

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 670. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872. [archive.org]

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Der Schul- und Hausfreund (The friend at school and at home) ; 1853-

edited by: Conrad Bär

published: Buffalo, New York: Conrad Bär.

frequency: semimonthly

description: Lutheran magazine • German-language periodical

source of information: Arndt; Fraser

bibliography:

• Karl J. R. Arndt & May E. Olson. German-American Newspapers and Periodicals: 1732-1955. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer Publishers, 1961.

• Sybille Fraser. “German Language Children’s and Youth Periodicals in North America: A Checklist.” Phaedrus 6 (Spring 1979): 27-31.

Youth’s Western Banner ; Aug 1853-1853

published: Chicago, Illinois: Isaac C. Smith & Co. In Andreas: Isaac C. Smith and Oliver C. Fordham

frequency: monthly

relevant information: According to James and Loveless, it was “devoted to temperance, morality and religion.”

source of information: Garwood; James & Loveless

bibliography:

• Anna Morgan. My Chicago. Chicago: Ralph Fletcher Seymour, 1916; p. 172. [google books]

• A. T. Andreas. History of Chicago. Chicago: A. T. Andreas, 1884. vol 1: p. 408. vol 2: 33. [google books]

• Edmund J. James and Milo J. Loveless. A Bibliography of Newspapers Published in Illinois Prior to 1860. Publications of the Illinois State Historical Library #1. Springfield, Illinois: Hillips Bros., 1899. [archive.org]

• Herbert E. Fleming. Magazines of a Market-Metropolis. PhD diss. University of Chicago, 1906; p. 405. [google books]

• Franklin William Scott. Newspapers and Periodicals of Illinois, 1814-1879. Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library, vol 6, Bibliographical Series, vol 1. Springfield, Illinois: Illinois State Historical Library, 1910; p. 67. [archive.org]

• Irving Garwood. American Periodicals from 1850 to 1860. Macomb, Illinois: Irving Garwood, 1931.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 144.

Forest Garland ; 1853-1854

edited by: Stephen R. Smith • Walter F. Straub • Smith and Lapham

published: Cincinnati, Ohio: J. C. Richardson & Co.

frequency: monthly

description: Page size, 9.75″ h; price, 50¢/ year • Nov-Dec 1853 issue is vol 1, #11-12

relevant information: temperance focus

source of information: Gem ; OCLC; Lyon

bibliography:

• Notice. The Western Gem, and Musician 6 (July 1853): 30. online

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 144.

Little Traveler ; 1853-1855

published: Waynesville, Ohio

frequency: monthly

relevant information: perhaps the periodical founded by Howard Durham

source of information: Kelly

bibliography:

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Youth’s Galaxy ; Jan-June 1853

edited by: “Obadiah Oldfellow”

published: New York, New York: Benjamin Ela; Jan 1853, publisher at 116 Nassau St.; March 1853, publisher at 185 Nassau St.

• New York, New York: E. H. Fletcher; publisher at 117 Nassau St.

• Lyon describes two copies in different states: “In an undated copy at the Rare Book Room, Library of Congress, the publisher is given as Benjamin Ela of New York. A duplicate volume in the New York Public Library is dated 1854, and the publisher is given as E. H. Fletcher.” [p. 145] The undated copy published by Ela appears to be the 1853 original; the 1854 copy published by Fletcher is probably a reprint.

frequency: monthly

description: 36 pp.; page size, 7.5″ h x 5.75″ w. Price: $1/ year

• Apparent reprint of Parley’s Magazine (16 March 1833-1844); another reprint by Fletcher appeared in 1857

• Only 6 issues?

• “End of vol. 1” is printed at the bottom of the last page of my copy of the 1854 edition; however, no later volumes have been located.

• Available as a bound volume in 1857: “The Youth’s Galaxy is a finely illustrated book for the young. It treats upon a great variety of subjects—a sort of little Encyclopedia. The price is 75 cents, and it is published by Edward H. Fletcher, 29 Ann Street, N. Y.” [Republication of Parley’s Magazine. 1 (1857): 10.]

relevant quote: Introduction: “Now I call this new work the ’Galaxy,’ because I intend to crowd it full of all manner of bright things. I name it the ‘Youth’s Galaxy,’ because I mean to fill it with things which will be particularly bright to the eye of the young. … Ample materials are at my command; all my lifetime have I been accumulating them. I shall aim to make this publication, not in name only, but in truth, a literary and moral ‘Youth’s Galaxy.’ ” [1 (Jan? 1854): 8]

source of information: 1854 bound volume; New York Evangelist ; Independent ; Lyon

bibliography:

• Advertisement. New York Evangelist 24 (6 Jan 1853): 3.

• Notice. The Independent 5 (17 March 1853): 42.

• Advertisement. The Independent 5 (17 March 1853): 44.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 144-145.

The Little Pilgrim ; Oct 1853-April 1869

cover/masthead: 1853 | 1854-1855 | 1861-1866 | 1867-April 1869

edited by: Sarah J. Lippincott (“Grace Greenwood”)

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Leander K. Lippincott; 1861, publisher at 319 Walnut St.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: Oct 1853 is vol 1 #1; Jan 1854 also vol 1 #1 (see “relevant information”)

• 1853-1856: 8 pp.; quarto; page size, 12.75″ h x 9″ w; price, 50¢/ year.

• 1857: 12 pp.; page size, 9.5″ h x 6″ w

• 1858, 1861-65: 14 pp.; page size, 9.5″ h x 6.25″ w. Prices: 1 copy, 50¢/ year; 5 copies, $2/ year; 14 copies, $5/ year

• 1866: 14 pp.; page size, 9.5″ h x 6.25″ w. Prices: 1 copy, 50¢/ year; 5 copies, $2.75/ year; 9 copies, $5/ year; 14 copies, $7/ year; 19 copies, $9/ year; 50 copies, $22/ year

• 1868-April 1869: 32 pp.; page size, 7″ h x 5.25″ w untrimmed. Prices: single copy, 7¢; 1 copy, 75¢/year; 5 copies, $3.50/ year; 9 copies, $6.50/ year; 19 copies, $12/ year; 50 copies, $28/ year

relevant information: Though the Pilgrim began in Oct 1853, the Lippincotts preferred to begin each volume with the January issue; thus, both the Oct 1853 and Jan 1854 issues are marked “Vol. I No. 1.” The last few issues for 1854 reminded those who had subscribed in Oct-Dec 1853 that not only was it time to renew, but that since their new subscription would begin with the issue for Jan 1855, they needed to include extra money for the Oct-Dec 1854 issues. Thus a subscriber renewing in Oct 1854 should send money for 15 issues (62¢, instead of 50¢); a renewal in Nov 1854 should be for 14 issues, etc.

relevant quotes:

• The complexities of 19th-century American currency is clear from instructions for subscribers: “ ‘The Little Pilgrim’ makes his visits for so small a charge, that it necessary for him to economise in every direction. In view of this, he begs that, as far as possible all subscriptions under five dollars, may be forwarded in gold dollars, and larger amounts in Philadelphia, Eastern Pennsylvania, New Jersey or New York City Bank notes. By keeping this in mind, his friends can, with little trouble and no expense to themselves, save ‘The Little Pilgrim’ a good many dollars in the course of a year, which he must otherwise lose in the heavy discount to which notes of distant sections of the country are subject in Philadelphia.” [“A Few Suggestions to Our Friends Great and Small.” 1 (Oct 1853): 5.]

• The Pilgrim’s antecedent was made clear to subscribers to The National Era: “In size and general character, this publication will resemble Mrs. Margaret L. Bailey’s lately discontinued Friend of Youth, the place of which it is designed to take.” [Advertisement. The National Era 7 (8 Sept 1853): 143]

• The connection between periodicals was confusing to at least one editor: “It is said to be a continuation of the Friend of Youth, lately published in Washington by Mrs. Bailey; but we can’t quite see how that is, when it has another name, another place of publication, and another editor.” [“The Little Pilgrim.” The National Era 7 (3 Nov 1853): 174] That the Pilgrim began a year after the Friend ended probably didn’t help.

• Subscribers to Friend of Youth with issues remaining on the subscription were sent the Pilgrim in its place: “Since our last issue [Jan 1854], we have received from Dr. Bailey a list of the names of those subscribers to whom The Friend of Youth was indebted when its publication was discontinued, with pay for the same; and we shall furnish The Little Pilgrim to all of them to the full extent of their respective payments. To some half dozen or more, only five copies were due; the claims of these will cease with this number, and unless their subscriptions are renewed before our next issue their names will be dropped from our books.” [“The Friend of Youth.” 1 (Feb 1854): 14]

• In 1854, the first picture of the Pilgrim appeared on the masthead; the illustration was by F. O. C. Darley: “Are you not all charmed and delighted, dear readers, with our new heading? Was there ever in the world, think you, so comely a little pilgrim as Mr. Darley has sketched for us? We are sure you cannot refuse to greet, with a most hearty welcome, this little stranger. The freshness and youth of his round, sunny face, must win quick responses from the freshness and youth of your generous hearts; and his sweet, wondering eyes draw tender, loving looks from yours—especially yours, ye little maidens. Is he not beautiful to behold?” [1 (Jan 1854): 4]

• A supplement was sent with the Feb 1854 issue “to all who did not begin at the first beginning. It makes a full sized extra number and contains the first three European sketches, the ‘Salutatory,’ poem, and other articles. All who did not get the October number are entitled to a copy ….” [1 (Feb 1854): 12]

• The format was changed in Jan 1857 because the tall page size was difficult to store: “In the old style, it was found that our paper was too long to fit on the book-shelves, and too thin to be bound more than once in two years. It now contains sixteen pages about a third less in size than the old ones. Three of these pages we shall devote, usually, to select advertisements—to pay for the considerable additional expense which this change has involved, and one to the beautiful (we are sure you will all think it so) new arrangement of The Little Pilgrim‘s picture in a title-page—leaving twelve large octavo pages of reading matter; which is about equal to the amount contained in the old form, and more than is contained in many of the dollar magazines.” [“Our New Shape.” 4 (Jan 1857): 8.]

• The coming merger with The Little Corporal was announced on the inside front cover (cover page 2) of the April 1869 issue: “This will be the last number issued of ‘The Little Pilgrim’ as a distinctive magazine. Henceforth it will be incorporated with ‘The Little Corporal,’ published at Chicago by Alfred L. Sewell & Co. … Our friends are not to think ‘The Little Pilgrim’ is dead; he has only become a sort of Siamese-twin to ‘The Little Corporal,’ hand in hand with whom, we trust, he will make his monthly rounds for many a year to come, bringing pleasure and profit to such an army of girls and boys as was never before enlisted under one banner. His mother’s hand and brain will still guide him on his way, so that he will not lose his identity in that of his larger brother; Grace Greenwood will be a constant contributor. In thanking our friends for the patronage they have bestowed upon ‘The Little Pilgrim’ through so many years, we ask that it may be continued under this new association, believing that they will not only lose nothing by the change, but gain much. We believe ‘The Little Corporal’ has already the largest circulation of any juvenile magazine in the world. It has our best wishes that, with ‘The Little Pilgrim’s’ aid, it may increase and multiply three fold.” [“Notice.” 16 (April 1869): cover page 2]

• Announcing the merger in June 1869, the Corporal printed a “goodbye letter” by Sarah Lippincott, dated 23 April 1869: “My dear Little Pilgrim: It is with sorrow, though with hope, that I let you go out of your old home, and from parental care, to your newer and grander field of duty, at the west. … We comfort ourselves, your father [Leander Lippincott] and I, with the assurance that an honorable career is before you, as the Aide of that victorious young General of Juveniles, still known, like the great Napoleon, under his first familiar title of ‘The Little Corporal.’ ” [Little Corporal, 8 (June 1869): 91]

• “Subscribers to The Little Pilgrim will be supplied with numbers of The Little Corporal instead of The Pilgrim until the end of the time for which they have paid.” [Little Corporal 8 (June 1869): 92]

absorbed: Friend of Youth ; 1849-Oct 1852

absorbed by: The Little Corporal ; July 1865-April 1875

source of information: 1854-1869, scattered issues & volumes; The Little Corporal, June 1869; Lyon

available: AASHistPer, series 4 & 5

• microfilm: Nineteenth-century children’s periodicals. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1979.

• excerpts in Lessons of War: The Civil War in Children’s Magazines, ed. James Marten. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1998.

bibliography:

• Advertisement. The National Era 7 (8 Sept 1853): 143.

• Notice. Western Literary Cabinet 9 (Nov 1853); p. 159.

• “The Little Pilgrim.” The National Era 7 (3 Nov 1853): 174.

• “The Little Pilgrim.” Graham’s American Monthly Magazine 43 (Dec 1853): 653.

• Notice. The Knickerbocker 42 (Dec 1853): 654-655.

• Notice. Michigan Farmer 11 (1 Dec 1853): 369.

• Notice. Godey’s Lady’s Book Jan 1854: 80.

• “Grace Greenwood.” American Phrenological Journal 19 (Jan 1854): 5-8.

• Notice. The Little Forester 1 (Feb 1854): 13. online

• “L.” [Leander Lippincott] “The Friend of Youth.” The Little Pilgrim 1 (March 1854): 21.

• “Editors’ Table.” Peterson’s Magazine 27 (April 1855): 316.

• Notice. The Knickerbocker 46 (Dec 1855): 655.

• Advertisement. American Phrenological Journal 22 (Dec 1855): 139.

• “Literary Notices.” Home Journal 48 (1 Dec 1855): 3.

• “Our New Shape.” The Little Pilgrim 4 (Jan 1857): 8.

• Notice. Maine Farmer 27 (15 Dec 1859): 2.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 65. [google books]

• Notice. Maine Farmer 30 (11 Dec 1862): 2.

• Notice. Maine Farmer 33 (7 Dec 1865): 2.

• Notice. Southern Cultivator 25 (Oct 1867); p. 329.

• Notice of sale. American Literary Gazette and Publishers’ Circular 13 (1 June 1869): 55.

• “Grace Greenwood.” [Sarah J. Lippincott] “A Mother’s Good Bye.” The Little Corporal, 8 (June 1869): 91.

• “The Little Pilgrim: A Distinguished Recruit.” The Little Corporal, 8 (June 1869): 92.

• Notice of merger. Western Christian Advocate 36 (23 June 1869); 197.

• J. Thomas Scharf and Thompson Westcott. History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: L. H. Everts & Co., 1884; vol 3, p. 2024. [google books]

• Eleanor Weakley Nolen. “Nineteenth Century Children’s Magazines.” The Horn Book Magazine. 15 (January/February 1939): 55-60.

• Mabel F. Altstetter. “Early American Magazines for Children.” Peabody Journal of Education 19 (Nov 1941); p. 132.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 214-220.

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

• James Marten. “For the Good, the True, and the Beautiful: Northern Children’s Magazines and the Civil War.” Civil War History 41 (March 1995): 57-75.

Lessons of War: The Civil War in Children’s Magazines, ed. James Marten. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1998.

The Little Wolverine ; May-August 1854

edited by: Mrs. C. M. Sheldon

published: Detroit, Michigan

frequency: monthly

description: 30¢/ year • Only four issues

relevant information: In May 1854, a specimen issue was sent to subscribers to the Western Literary Cabinet, which was edited by Mrs. Sheldon.

relevant quote:

• In praise of the editor: “We ought to have noticed earlier this little sheet recently established by our neighbor, Mrs. E. [sic] M. Sheldon, the popular Editress of the Western Literary Cabinet. we hail this paper with much pleasure, and feel an assurance that in the hands of the lady who conducts it, it will prove as useful as pleasant to the little people for whom it is designed. We advise our young friends to send for a copy for themselves.” [Michigan Journal of Education]

source of information: Casket ; Western Literary Cabinet ; Farmer; Lyon

bibliography:

• “The Little Wolverine.” Western Literary Cabinet 10 (May 1854): 198.

• Notice. The Youth’s Casket. 3 (June 1854): 149. online

• Notice. Odd Fellows’ Literary Casket 1 (June 1854); p. 382.

• Notice. Michigan Journal of Education and Teachers’ Magazine 1 (July 1854); p. 240.

• Silas Farmer. History of Detroit and Wayne County and Early Michigan, 3rd ed. Detroit: Silas Farmer & Co., 1890; p. 677.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 145-146, 151.

Children’s Friend ; 1854-1904 • Friend for Boys and Girls ; 1905-1917

edited by: W. J. Shuey, 1869. D. Berger, 1870, 1872

published: Dayton, Ohio: Telescope Office, 1854-1904. • Dayton, Ohio: S. Vonnieda. • Dayton, Ohio: W. J. Shuey, 1869-1872.

frequency: semimonthly

description: 1854: 25¢/ year

• Price: 1869-1872, 30¢/ year

• Circulation: 1869, 30,000

absorbed: Missionary VisitorChildren’s Visitor (1865-1901)

continued by: Boys’ Friend (1918-1927) and Girls’ Friend (1918-1927)

source of information: Casket ; AAS catalog

available: excerpts in Lessons of War: The Civil War in Children’s Magazines, ed. James Marten. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1998.

source of information: Casket ; Batsel

available: AASHistPer, series 5

bibliography:

• Notice. The Youth’s Casket. 3 (June 1854): 149. online

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 57. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1869; p. 87. [archive.org]

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 720. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 142. [archive.org]

Lessons of War: The Civil War in Children’s Magazines, ed. James Marten. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1998.

The Little Forester ; Jan 1854-Oct 1855

cover/masthead: 1854

edited by: Jan-July 1854, Howard Durham • Aug 1854, Howard Durham, William T. Coggeshall, & Coates Kinney • Sept 1854, Mary M. Coggeshall

published: Cincinnati, Ohio: Howard Durham, Jan-July 1854. • Cincinnati, Ohio: C. S. Abbott & Co., Aug 1854. • Cincinnati, Ohio: William T. Coggeshall, Sept 1854-1855.

frequency: monthly; 2 vol/ year

description: 1854: 8 pp.; paper size, 11.75″ h x 9″ w. Prices: Jan-Oct 1854, 25¢/ year; Nov-Dec 1854, 50¢/ year

relevant quotes:

• The first issue was produced under difficulties: “The present number of the Little Forester is not a fair specimen of what the future numbers will be, except in size and form. The office in which we get our work printed is but just recovering from the recent strike of the jour. printers, and it was with the utmost difficulty that we could get any type set for it. The next number will challenge comparison with any similar publication. It will contain original contributions from several of the first writers in the West ….” [1 (Jan 1853): 4]

• The Forester gained new editors as some literary sparring broke out. W. H. Venable notes that “[s]ome business difficulty having arisen between Durham and Kinney, the latter bought the concern, taking as company Wm. T. Coggeshall, and Durham retired,” with a notice from Durham appearing in The Genius of the West, the magazine for adults which he also published: “For numerous reasons, more interesting to myself than to the public, I have withdrawn from the Genius of the West and Forester, leaving my partners ‘monarchs of all they survey.’ ” [W. H. Venable. “Early Periodical Literature of the Ohio Valley,” part 5. Magazine of Western History 8 (Oct 1888): 523] At first, all was decorous: “The readers of the Little Forester will observe that the name of Mr. Durham has disappeared from its columns, and that two names take its place. [Note: Durham’s name was still on the masthead for this issue.] Mr. Durham has withdrawn to engage in other enterprises, and his place is filled by Mr. Coggeshall and Mr. Kinney. Very likely you have all read Mr. Coggeshall’s stories, and Mr. Kinney’s poetry, … so that you will not feel that they are exactly strangers to you.” [2 (Aug 1854): 20.] The next issue was another matter, with C. S. Abbott inserting a few intriguing paragraphs in largish type: “We caution the public against being influenced by a circular, issued by Mr. Howard Durham. We have found him unworthy of confidence. Influenced by editorial jealousy, he suddenly deserted his post and violated all his engagements with us. Now he undertakes the labor, as he himself expresses it, of ‘sinking us in an infamous oblivion.’ … We must be excused from replying to an individual who asserts that he ‘could bring us to justice by course of law,’ but instead of that proper remedy, proceeds recklessly to assail us with gross and criminal libel. In the future the public will have cause to thank us for this brief word of caution.” [“Caution.” 2 (Sept 1854): 30.]

relevant information:

• In 1853, Durham also published The Genius of the West, which provided some material for the Forester. He was long a proponent of the “phonetic alphabet” and provided about a page of material in each issue of the Forester printed using that orthography. Durham did the same in his other publications, including The Western Gem and The Little Traveler. The result was at least one nearly indecipherable page in every issue. (The phonetic alphabet had other adherents in Cincinnati: Longley & Brother published several works in the alphabet in 1849 and 1850; see the Morgan Bibliography of Ohio Imprints, 1796-1850, at olc7.ohiolink.edu/morgan.)

• Durham was pleased with the rate of subscribing in the first months: “The Little Forester is going ahead finely, and has received some days as high as forty and fifty subscribers.” [1 (Feb 1854): 12]

• Mary Coggeshall offered readers more than her editorial talents: “We wish to be the personal friend of each reader of the Little Forester and we will esteem it a privilege to select for and send to mothers any books, toys, or information concerning dress, which they may wish from the city and can order through us. Children ask your mothers what the ’Forester’ Editor can send you.” [2 (Oct 1854): 36]

• Subscribers received 10 issues of the Forester for 1855 before receiving two issues of The Youth’s Friend: “This number completes the twelve for which many of the patrons of the ‘Forester’ subscribed, they having received ten ‘Foresters,’ and in place of the two more due, we have furnished the present [Jan 1856] and last numbers of the ‘Youth’s Friend.‘ Mr. and Mrs. COGGESHALL have united with us, to solicit a continuance of our short acquaintence, friendship, and patronage. Your former Editor’s promises have been cheerfully given to labor with us for your profit and pleasure, in making the ‘Friend’ not only as good, but better than any other youth’s paper now published anywhere; and we feel assured we can do it.” [“To the ‘Little Forester’ Subscribers.”]

merged with: The Youth’s FriendYouth’s Monthly Friend (also Monthly Youth’s Friend) ; 6 March 1846-1860

source of information: 1854 issues; Garwood; Lyon; AAS

available: AASHistPer, series 4

bibliography:

• “Literary Notices.” Western Literary Cabinet 10 (March 1854); 120.

• “To the ‘Little Forester’ Subscribers.” The Youth’s Friend 10 (Jan 1856): 60.

• W. H. Venable. “Early Periodical Literature of the Ohio Valley,” part 5. Magazine of Western History 8 (Oct 1888): 523.

• Irving Garwood. American Periodicals from 1850 to 1860. Macomb, Illinois: Irving Garwood, 1931; p. 24.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 146-147.

Schuylkill County School Journal ; Jan 1854-

edited by: “teachers in the Public Schools”

published: Pottsville, Pennsylvania: Benjamin Bannen

frequency: monthly

description: 16 pp.; page size, 10.25″ h • Prices per issue: 4¢ to scholars; 50¢ other subscribers

relevant quote: “As its title indicates, it is … devoted to the interests of the public schools particularly in Schuylkill county. Besides affording a medium of communication with the public to the teachers themselves, we perceive, it is purposed to appropriate a considerable portion of its columsn to communications from the scholars.” [“Schuylkill County School Journal.” German Reformed Messenger 19 (4 Jan 1854): 4014]

source of information: German ; AAS catalog; OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 4

bibliography:

• “Schuylkill County School Journal.” German Reformed Messenger 19 (4 Jan 1854): 4014.

• “Educational Periodicals.” The Connecticut Common School Journal and Annals of Education 1 (May 1854): 156.

Juvenile Temperance Watchman (also Juvenile Watchman) ; 2 Jan 1854-

edited by: Howard Owen

published: Brunswick, Maine: Howard Owen.

frequency: semimonthly

description: Newspaper format

relevant information: At age 12, Owen had published a weekly paper titled the Sun. [Richardson]

source of information: Lyon; OCLC

bibliography:

• H. W. Richardson. “The Press of Cumberland County.” In History of the Press of Maine, ed. Joseph Griffin. Brunswick: 1872; pp. 84. [archive.org]

• Irving Garwood. American Periodicals from 1850 to 1860. Macomb, Illinois: Irving Garwood, 1931.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 146.

Monthly Instructor and Fire Side Companion ; July 1854-June 1855 • Forrester’s Playmate ; Jan 1854-Dec 1858 • Youth’s Casket and Playmate ; Jan 1859-after April 1867

cover/masthead: Playmate | Casket & Playmate

edited by: Dexter S. King (“Mark Forrester”)

published: Boston, Massachusetts: William Guild & Co., 1854-1867. Publisher at 156 Washington St., Aug 1855-Feb 1860; at 109 Washington St., April-Aug 1860; at 5 Water St., Aug 1862; at 15 Water St., July 1864-April 1865; at 33 School St., May 1865-Feb 1867; at 134 Washington St., April 1867.

frequency: monthly; 2 vol/ year

description: 32 pp.; page size, 8″ h x 5.5″ w

• Prices: 1855-1857, 10¢/ issue; 1 copy, $1/ year in advance, $1.25/ year otherwise; 4 copies, $3/ year; 10 copies, $7/ year. 1859, $1.25/ year; $1/ year in advance. 1860, 1 copy, $1.25/ year, $1/ year in advance; 3 copies (67¢/ issue), $2/ year; 10 copies (60¢/ issue), $6/ year; 20 copies (50¢/ issue), $10/ year. April 1865-March 1866, 1 copy, $1.25/ year in advance; 5 copies, $5/ year; specimen copy, 10¢. April 1866-April 1867, 1 copy, $1.50/ year in advance; 5 copies, $6/ year; specimen copy, 10¢

• Also referred to as The Playmate and Instructor. Bound volumes of Youth’s Casket and Playmate also titled Forrester’s Playmate

• May have missed three issues between 1860 & 1862: vol 16 begins with April 1862

• Double issues: Nov/Dec 1864 (48 pp.); Dec 1865/Jan 1866 (72 pp.)

• Vol 25 begins with Jan 1867

absorbed: Sargent’s School Monthly ; Jan-before Dec 1858: “Epes Sargent, Esq., recently editor and publisher of Sargent’s School Monthly, having transferred that work to us, will become a contributor to the pages of the Playmate during the coming year. It is but justice to say, that his popularity as a writer for the young will add greatly to the value of our Magazine.” [Forrester’s Playmate 9 (Dec 1858): 189]

source of information: Aug 1855-Ap 1867, scattered issues & bound volumes; Lyon

available: AASHistPer, series 4

• excerpts in Lessons of War: The Civil War in Children’s Magazines, ed. James Marten. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1998.

• excerpts online

bibliography:

• “Editor’s Table.” Maine Farmer 22 (22 June 1854): 2.

• “Editor’s Table.” Maine Farmer 23 (14 June 1855): 2.

• Advertisement. German Reformed Messenger 22 (7 Jan 1857): 4.

• “Editor’s Table.” Maine Farmer 25 (11 June 1857): 2.

• Advertisement. New York Evangelist 31 (5 Jan 1860): 5.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 31. [google books]

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 221-223.

Lessons of War: The Civil War in Children’s Magazines, ed. James Marten. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1998.

The Little Traveler ; Nov 1854-after Dec 1854

cover/masthead: 1854

edited by: Howard Durham • John W. Henley

published: Cincinnati, Ohio: Howard Durham.

frequency: monthly

description: 8 pp.; page size, 12″ h x 9″ w; prices: 1 copy, 50¢/ year; 3 copies, $1/ year; 10 copies, $3/ year; 20 copies, $5/ year

• Jan 1855 would begin volume 2: “Finding that our present edition will not be equal to the demand, we have concluded to commence a new volume with our January number, in order to enlarge the size of our monthly editions, so that subscribers may have all the numbers complete from the beginning of the volume; and also, in order that subscriptions may begin and end with the volumes, we will send to all subscribers who began with the November number, the whole of the twelve numbers for 1855—thus giving them fourteen numbers instead of twelve; and we will send to all new subscribers commencing with January, the copies for November and December, so long as the editions may hold out, which, however, from present prospects will not be very long.” [“The Little Traveler for 1855.” 1 (Dec 1854): 12.]

relevant quotes:

• Prospectus: “Our design is to furnish a pleasant, moral, literary paper for the young.” [1 (Nov 1854): 5.]

• Durham was rather blunter than many editors about the economic promise of publishing a periodical: “Well, who ever saw a nicer or more appropriate heading for a Young People’s Paper? It can’t be surpassed anywhere in our opinion. It cost us a good big ‘pile’ of money, and it will take quite a number of subscribers to renumerate us for this outlay; but one thing we are certain of—it will after all, be a cheap heading, for the Little Traveler will ‘walk right into the affections’ of all the folks, both big and little.” [“Our Heading.” 1 (Nov 1854): 5.]

relevant information:

• Business for the Traveler was handled by John W. Henley.

• Durham was long a proponent of the “phonetic alphabet” and provided in each issue of the Traveler about a page of material printed using that orthography. (He did the same in his other publications, including The Western Gem [for adults] and The Little Forester.) The result was at least one nearly indecipherable page in every issue. (The phonetic alphabet had other adherents in Cincinnati: Longley & Brother published several works in the alphabet in 1849 and 1850; see the Morgan Bibliography of Ohio Imprints, 1796-1850, at olc7.ohiolink.edu/morgan.)

• The Traveler seems to have been published as a result of some literary warfare: from January through July of 1854, Durham edited The Little Forester. Durham also published The Genius of the West, for adults. By Aug 1854, Durham had sold his share of the publishing company to his partner. [W. H. Venable. “Early Periodical Literature of the Ohio Valley,” part 5. Magazine of Western History 8 (Oct 1888): 523] Durham’s name appeared in the masthead of the August issue of the Forester, along with the names of two new editors. In September, however, the Forester ’s new publisher inserted some intriguing paragraphs in the largest type in that issue: “We caution the public against being influenced by a circular, issued by Mr. Howard Durham. We have found him unworthy of confidence. Influenced by editorial jealousy, he suddenly deserted his post and violated all his engagements with us. Now he undertakes the labor, as he himself expresses it, of ‘sinking us in an infamous oblivion.’ … We must be excused from replying to an individual who asserts that he ‘could bring us to justice by course of law,’ but instead of that proper remedy, proceeds recklessly to assail us with gross and criminal libel. In the future the public will have cause to thank us for this brief word of caution.” [“Caution.” The Little Forester 2 (Sept 1854): 30.] In 1855, Durham founded another magazine for adults to compete with the one he sold to his partner. [W. H. Venable. “Early Periodical Literature of the Ohio Valley,” part 5. Magazine of Western History 8 (Oct 1888): 523]

source of information: 1854 issues; Venable

bibliography:

• W. H. Venable. “Early Periodical Literature of the Ohio Valley,” part 5. Magazine of Western History 8 (Oct 1888): 523.

Schul- und Jugend-Zeitung (School and young people’s newspaper); about 1855

edited by: Carl Beyschlag

published: Cincinnati, Ohio: Carl Beyschlag.

description: German-language periodical

source of information: Arndt; Fraser

bibliography:

• Karl J. R. Arndt & May E. Olson. German-American Newspapers and Periodicals: 1732-1955. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer Publishers, 1961.

• Sybille Fraser. “German Language Children’s and Youth Periodicals in North America: A Checklist.” Phaedrus 6 (Spring 1979): 27-31.

The Children’s Book of Choice and Entertaining Reading for the Little Folks at Home (also, The Children’s Monthly Book) ; Jan 1855-April 1860

edited by: Jan 1855-1859, “Uncle Robin”; “Aunt Alice”

• 1860, George C. Connor

published: Nashville, Tennessee: South-Western Publishing House, Graves, Marks & Co., Jan 1855-1860.

frequency: monthly

description: Jan-Dec 1855: 32 pp.; price, $1/ year

• Religious focus: Baptist

continued by: Youth’s Magazine ; April 1860-April 1861

source of information: Kelly; “Catalogue”; Nashville Directory ; Kenny

bibliography:

• Three notices. Tennessee Baptist 11 (17 Feb 1855); p. 2.

• “Catalogue of Publications of the South-Western Publishing House.” Published at end of Our Lord’s Great Prophecy, by D. D. Buck; Nashville, Tennessee: South-Western Publishing House, Graves, Marks & Co., 1857. [google books]

• “Catalogue of Publications of the South-Western Publishing House.” Published at end of Campbellism Exposed, by A. P. Williams; Nashville, Tennessee: South-Western Publishing House, 1860. [archive.org]

Nashville City and Business Directory, for 1860-61. Nashville, L. P. Williams & Co., 1860; p. 89. [google books]

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 68. [google books]

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

• Mary D. Manning. “ ‘Trust Not Appearances’: Admonitory Pieces from Two Tennessee Juvenile Periodicals of the 1850s.” University of Mississippi Studies in English. 5 (1984-1987): 131-139.

The Boys’ Daily JournalBoys’ Journal ; 1 May 1855-1857

edited by: Henry R. James, James W. Hopkins, and Charles R. Foster

published: Ogdensburg, New York: Henry R. James, James W. Hopkins, and Charles R. Foster

frequency: Daily Journal: daily (except Sunday); Boys’ Journal: weekly

relevant information:

• Material from the daily was collected into the weekly.

• The young publishers had previous experience as students of the Ogdensburg Academy, having helped publish the Morning Glory and Young America.

continued by: The Daily Journal (The Ogdensburg Journal) ; The Weekly Journal.

source of information: Coggeshall; Gazetteer ; French; WorldCat; AAS

bibliography:

• W. T. Coggeshall. The Newspaper Record. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lay & Brother, 1856; p. 39. [google books]

Gazetteer and Business Directory of St. Lawrence County, N. Y., for 1873-4, comp. Hamilton Child. Syracuse, New York: Journal office, 1873; p. 72. [google books]

• J. H. French. Gazetteer of the State of New York. Syracuse, New York: R. Pearsall Smith, 1860; note 14, p. 573. [google books]

The Pupil: A Monthly Treasury for School Children ; Oct 1855-March 1856?

cover/masthead: 1855

edited by: Asa Fitz

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Nathaniel L. Dayton; publisher at 20 Washington St.

frequency: monthly; 2 vol/ year

description: 24 pp.; page size, 7.5″ h; price, 50¢/ year

relevant information:

• Descriptions of the magazine in the Harvard and New York Public Library online catalogs refer to a notice tipped into the last issue that with volume 2 the publisher would be changed to Higgins & Bradley.

• Issues may have been reprinted in 1856 as The Pupil’s Cabinet: A Treasury for Children, by Asa Fitz (Boston: Higgins and Bradley, 1856); the height of the book is the same as that of the magazine.

• The last issue listed in online catalogs is issue 5.

source of information: AASHistPer, series 4; WorldCat

available: AASHistPer, series 4

The Student and Schoolmate ; Nov 1855-1865 • The Student and Schoolmate, and Forrester’s Boy’s and Girl’s Magazine ; 1865-1866 • The Student and Schoolmate ; 1866-1871 • The Schoolmate ; 1872

cover/masthead: 1857 | 1862-1864 | 1867 | 1869

edited by: Nov 1855-1856, A. R. Phippen; Norman A. Calkins.

• 1856-1857, A. R. Pope; Norman A. Calkins

• 1857-1862, Norman A. Calkins; A. R. Pope, associate ed.

• 1858-1862, Norman A. Calkins; Francis Forrester (“Father Forrester”) & William T. Adams (“Oliver Optic”), associate ed.

• 1858-1862, Francis Forrester, associate ed.

• 1861-1864, William T. Adams.

• 1864-1872, Joseph H. Allen.

published: New York, New York: Calkins & Stiles, Nov 1855-July 1858; publisher at 348 Broadway, 1856-1858. New York, New York: N. A. Calkins, Aug 1858-June 1864; publisher at 348 Broadway, Aug 1858-Feb 1860; publisher at 135 Grand St., Jan 1861-April 1864; publisher at 130 Grand St., May-June 1864. New York, New York: Schermerhorn, Bancroft, & Co., Aug-Dec 1864. New York, New York: American News Co., Feb-Nov 1867.

• Boston, Massachusetts: James Robinson, Nov 1855-1856? Boston, Massachusetts: Robinson and Richardson, 1856-April 1857. Boston, Massachusetts: James Robinson & Co., June 1857-Oct 1859; publisher at 119 Washington St., 1857-Oct 1859. April 1858-Nov 1859, printed by George C. Rand & Avery, 3 Cornhill. Boston, Massachusetts: Robinson, Greene & Co., Nov 1859-Feb 1860; publisher at 120 Washington St., Nov 1859-Feb 1860. Boston, Massachusetts: Galen James & Co., 1861-1863; publisher at 15 Cornhill. Boston, Massachusetts: Joseph H. Allen, 1864-1872; publisher at 119 Washington St., 1864; publisher at 203 Washington St., 1867-1869.

frequency: monthly; 2 vol/ year

• 1855-1857, vol begins in Nov & May; 1858-1872, vol begins in Jan & July

description: 1855-1864: 36 pp.; page size untrimmed, 8.5″ h x 5.75″ w; price, $1/ year

• 1867, 40 pp.; page size untrimmed, 9″ h x 6″ w. Price, 15¢ each; $1.50/ year

• 1869, title on cover: The Schoolmate ; 48 pp.; page size, 9″ h x 6″ w. Price, 15¢ each; $1.50/ year

• Circulation: 1870, 9,000

variations: Individual issues show a surprising number of differences.

• Sept 1857 issue apparently published in Boston marked “Vol 4, new series,” while the same issue apparently published in New York simply reads, “Vol 4”

• Copy of Oct 1858 issue numbered vol 6, #4 consists of pp. 109-144; another copy of Oct 1858 numbered vol 6, #6 consists of pp. 181-216

• Title on cover of Feb 1868 & April 1869 reads The Schoolmate

relevant information: Advertised as The Student and Schoolmaster in 1860 [The Independent 12 (5 Jan 1860): 7]

• On the list of periodicals subscribed to by the Massachusetts State Reform School in 1867. [Twenty-First Annual Report]

absorbed: Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine, and Fireside Companion ; Jan 1848-Dec 1857

source of information: 1857-1864, 1867, scattered issues; April 1869 issue; 1861-1871, bound volumes; Lyon; Kelly; Men Who Advertise

available: AASHistPer, series 4 & 5

• excerpts in Lessons of War: The Civil War in Children’s Magazines, ed. James Marten. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1998.

excerpts online

bibliography:

• Notice. Prisoner's Friend 8 (1 Feb 1856): 165.

• Advertisement. The Independent 12 (5 Jan 1860): 7.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; pp. 31, 51. [google books]

• Notice. Massachusetts Teacher and Journal of Home and School Education 16 (June 1863): 219.

• Notice. Urbana Union 2 (2 Sept 1863): 1, col 2.

• Notice. The Ladies’ Repository November 1867; p. 398. [google books]

Twenty-First Annual Report of the Trustees of the State Reform School. Boston, Massachusetts: Wright & Potter, 1868; p. 18. [google books]

• Notice. The Children’s Friend (West Chester, Pennsylvania) 3 (Eleventh month 1868): 356. online

Geo. P. Rowell & Co’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1869; p. 46. [archive.org]

• “Magazines for the Young.” Massachusetts Teacher and Journal of Home and School Education 23 (Jan 1870): 37-38.

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 666. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 75. [archive.org]

• Harriet L. Matthews. “Children’s Magazines.” Bulletin of Bibliography. 1 (April 1899): 133-6.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 224-228.

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

• James Marten. “For the Good, the True, and the Beautiful: Northern Children’s Magazines and the Civil War.” Civil War History 41 (March 1995): 57-75.

Lessons of War: The Civil War in Children’s Magazines, ed. James Marten. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1998.

Die Glocke (The bell) • Sonntagschul Glocke (Sunday-school bell); about 1856-1900?

edited by: 1872, H. Liebhart

published: Cincinnati, Ohio: L. Swormstedt & A. Poe, 1856-7 June 1860.

• Cincinnati, Ohio: A. Poe & L. Hitchcock, 14 June 1860-1865?

• Cincinnati, Ohio: Hitchcock & Walden, 1866?-July? 1880.

• Arndt lists later publishers

frequency: weekly • semimonthly, 1861, 1872

description: 4 pp.; large quarto

• 1857: price, 25¢/ year

• 1872: 4 pp.; page size, 21″ h x 15″ w; price, 40¢/ year

• Circulation: 1857, 8643. 1861, 14,500

• German-language periodical

• Religious focus: German Methodist Church

source of information: Arndt; Fraser; Kenny; Rowell; Ladies’ Repository

available: AAS series 5 (1876 only)

bibliography:

• “Editor’s Table: Business of the Western Book Concern.” The Ladies’ Repository 17 (April 1857): 256.

• “Literary Notices: Our Periodical Press.” The Ladies’ Repository 17 (Dec 1857): 757.

• “Literary, Scientific, and Statistical Items: Sunday School Periodicals.” The Ladies’ Repository 21 (May 1861): 313.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 56. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 140. [archive.org]

• Karl J. R. Arndt & May E. Olson. German-American Newspapers and Periodicals: 1732-1955. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer Publishers, 1961.

• Sybille Fraser. “German Language Children’s and Youth Periodicals in North America: A Checklist.” Phaedrus 6 (Spring 1979): 27-31.

Der Christliche KinderzeitungChristliche Kinderfreund (Christian children’s friend); June 1856-after 1879

published: Cleveland, Ohio: W. F. Schneider, 1856?-after 1872

frequency: 1856-1860, monthly; 1861-1876, semimonthly; 1879, weekly, semimonthly, monthly

description: 4 pp.; small folio

• Circulation: 1856, 5000 • 1861, 2,100 • 1868, 14,000 • 1879, 30,000

• German-language periodical

• Religious focus: Evangelical

relevant information:

The Ladies’ Repository, in 1861, lists the place of publication as Bremen.

• Apparently this is the periodical listed as Christliche Vunderfreund in the report of the 1868 General Conference.

• “ ‘May I Beg You, Please, Sir?’ ”—from the Kinderfreund— was published in the Zion’s Herald and Wesleyan Journal (19 Sept 1866).

source of information: Arndt; Fraser; Rowell; Ladies’ Repository; 1868 “General”; Johnson

available: AASHistPer, series 5 (1876 only)

bibliography:

• “Literary, Scientific, and Statistical Items: Sunday School Periodicals.” The Ladies’ Repository 21 (May 1861): 313.

• “General Conference of 1868.” Western Christian Advocate 35 (27 May 1868): 169.

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 141. [archive.org]

• Crisfield Johnson, comp. History of Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Np: D. W. Ensign & Co., 1879; p. 196-197. [archive.org]

• Karl J. R. Arndt & May E. Olson. German-American Newspapers and Periodicals: 1732-1955. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer Publishers, 1961.

• Sybille Fraser. “German Language Children’s and Youth Periodicals in North America: A Checklist.” Phaedrus 6 (Spring 1979): 27-31.

The Young Spectator ; 15 Third month (March)-24 Fifth month (May) 1856

edited by: Norwood Penrose Hallowell

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Norwood Penrose Hallowell.

frequency: semimonthly

description: Page size, 11″ h

• 6 issues total

• Religious focus: Society of Friends (Quaker)

source of information: NUC; OCLC

Young America ; March 1856-after March 1858

edited by: 1856-1857, G. M. Dillworth • 1858, W. H. Whitehead

published: West Chester, Pennsylvania: G. M. Dillworth, 1856-1857; at the “office of the Republican & Democrat, North High Street, next door to Agricultural Warehouse” • West Chester, Pennsylvania: S. L. Tucker, 1858.

frequency: monthly

description: 1856-Jan 1857: 4 pp.; page size untrimmed, 9.25″ h x 6.5″ w; price, 25¢/ year • 1857-1858: 4 pp.; page size untrimmed, 12″ h x 9.25″ w; price, 25¢/year

• Dec 1856 is vol 1 #9; May 1857 is vol 2 #2 (whole #14); March 1858 is vol 1 #12 (whole #24)

• May-July 1857 contains the only serial to appear in the periodical: “A Villain Foiled,” by D. C. M. F. X. V.

relevant quote: “In the local column of the Public Ledger, some time ago we noticed a very flashy, (that is to say it was calculated to attract much attention,) notice of a little monthly paper, like our own, called ‘The Young Examiner,’ was published by two boys, the eldest of whom was only seventeen. Now we do not feel inclined to envy these young men, but still, we do not think there is anything to very extraordinary about their publishing a paper, for there are two of them, and there is only one of us, and we too are only seventeen, and a leetle more. Some, we suppose, will say if you are only one, why do you use the plural in speaking of yourself. We mean, simply, me and my paper, thus making two. … The question is: ‘Is there anything so very remarkable in the fact, that two boys, in the city of Philadelphia, (where they certainly have greater advantages than we have, here in the country,) publish, “The Young Examiner,” [sic] when one boy, in the borough of West Chester, publishes “Young America” ’ (And here permit us to say that this one boy sets all his own type and works off his own paper, on a hand press, besides writing editorials, selecting copy and doing all the etcetras which belong to the publishing of a newspaper.)” (May 1857, p. 3)

source of information: Dec 1856-March 1858, scattered issues (located in Chester County Historical Society, West Chester, Pennsylvania); Kelly

available: AASHistPer, series 4

bibliography:

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Children’s Banner ; 1857-after 1885

cover/masthead: 1867, 1869

edited by: 1867-1869, L. N. Stratton

• 1869-1870, Adam Crooks

• 1872: Adam Crooks; L. N. Stratton

published: Syracuse, New York: Adam Crooks, 1869-1872.

frequency: semimonthly: 1st & 3rd Wednesday

description: 1867-1869: 4 pp.; price, 35¢/ year

• 1869-1872: 4 pp.; page size, 20″ h x 14″ w; price, 1 copy, 30¢/ year

• 1885: 8 pp.

• Circulation: 1870, 7,500

• Religious focus: Methodist

relevant information: Listed as part of Centennial newspaper exhibition, 1876 [Centennial]

source of information: AASHistPer, series 5; Rowell; Centennial ; International

available: AASHistPer, series 5

bibliography:

Geo. P. Rowell & Co’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1869; p. 81. [archive.org]

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 712. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; pp. 133-134. [archive.org]

Centennial Newspaper Exhibiton, 1876. New York: G. P. Rowell & Co., 1876.; p. 121; online at Making of America, Michigan

• S. N. D. North. History and Present Condition of the Newspaper and Periodical Press of the United States, with a Catalogue of the Publications of the Census Year [1880]. N. p.: n. p., n. d.; p. 304. [google books]

The International Cyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1885; vol 15, p. 359. [google books]

Der Lämmer-Hirte (also Der Lämmerhirt, Der Lämmer Hirte, Der Lammerhirte, Lammerherte, Laemmerhirte ) (Shepherd of the young); 1857-1940

cover/masthead: 1864

edited by: 1857?-1875?, J. C. Beinhauer • 1864: Imanuel Boehringer • 1870-1872, C. Bank

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: August Pohlig & Co.; 1870-1872, office at 54 N. 6th St.

• Chambersburg, Pennsylvania

• Cleveland, Ohio: Deutsches Verlagshaus.

• All for the Deutsch-Reformirte Kirche in den Vereinigten Staaten

frequency: 1857-1875, monthly • 1875-1940, semimonthly

description: 4 pp. • German-language periodical

• 1864: Page size, 9.25″ h •

• 1866: Price, 40¢/ year

• 1870-1872: page size, 21″ h x 15″ w

• AAS copy is 15 April 1864, marked vol 2 #4

• OCLC describes a copy which is 15 volumes in one; beginning date is 1857; Arndt lists a beginning date of 1858, but questions it; therefore, I have listed the beginning date as 1857.

• Circulation: 1866, abt 4000; 1871, 9000; 1880, 7000

• Religious focus: German Reformed Church

relevant quotes:

• The form changed in Jan 1866: “The January and February numbers of this children’s monthly has been issued in its new form. The other numbers will now follow in due succession. Its friends will find it to be an advance on the former issue.” [German]

• Like most periodicals, it sometimes teetered on the brink of financial ruin, as the editor pointed out in 1866: “The question now remains to be settled, Shall it be sustained? We start with a subscription list of a little over four thousand. To cover expenses and insure its continuance, this number must be increased to at least twenty thousand.” [German]

absorbed: Der Morgenstern

source of information: OCLC; AAS catalog; Arndt; Rowell

available: AASHistPer, series 4

bibliography:

• “The ‘Laemmerhirte.’ ” German Reformed Messenger 31 (14 Feb 1866): 2.

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 735. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 162. [archive.org]

• Karl J. R. Arndt & May E. Olson. German-American Newspapers and Periodicals: 1732-1955. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer Publishers, 1961.

Republication of Parley’s Magazine ; 1857

edited by: “Uncle Stephen”

published: New York, New York: Edward H. Fletcher; publisher at 29 Ann St.

frequency: “monthly”: my bound copy apparently has 24 issues, with 8 issues in volume 1 and 16 issues in vol 2.

description: 16 pp.; page size, 9″ h x 5.25″ w; price, 10¢/ each, $1/ year in advance

• Stereotyped pages from the original Parley’s Magazine were reprinted inside elaborate borders which enlarge the page size to match that of other children’s magazines of the 1850s. In the bound volume, unnumbered pages containing editorial material are added to individual issues.

relevant quotes:

• “It is gratifying to observe that in these times of financial trouble and difficulty, the periodical literature of land [sic] suffers no more. … Uncle Stephen greets some new acquaintance every month, and though our magazine commences in times of adversity, yet it steadily gains its way.” [“Editorial.” (Nov?): np]

• “This Magazine is just what its title purports:—1st. A re-print of the old Parley’s Magazine excepting some articles of a temporary or local character, relating to the time when they were published: 2nd. New Matter, Editorials, &c., by the present Editor (’Uncle Stephen.’) That Parley’s Magazine was the best work of the kind that has ever been published is so palpable as to need no demonstration. In re-editing, every thing valuable in ‘modern improvement,’ will be availed of, and a work presented that on the whole shall give back to the subscribers a full equivalent for his little outlay.” [title page] The final product is a quilt of 20-year-old material ham-handedly fitted together, with a few pieces from the 1850s added.

• “Uncle Stephen feels gratified by the success of the Magazine. The publisher has been obliged to re-print the September number, which he was very happy to do.” [“Our Prospects.” 1 (Oct): np]

source of information: bound volume

Pioneer ; 4 May 1857-13 Oct 1858

edited by: W. G. Reed; J. B. Gardner

published: Roxbury, Massachusetts: Reed & Gardner; publisher at corner of Centre St. and Smith St.

frequency: biweeekly, Monday; no issues in August

description: 3 volumes

source of information: OCLC; Lyon

bibliography:

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 147.

Young ReaperThe Young Reaper ; Jan 1857-1908?

cover/masthead: 1857 | 1859, 1861-1864 | 1865-1868 | 1869-1871

edited by: B. Griffith • B. Griffith and A. E. Dickinson, Jan 1871-?

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Baptist Publication Society, Jan 1857-1908? 1857, publisher at 118 Arch St.; 1869-1871, publisher at 530 Arch St. • Boston, Massachusetts: American Baptist Publication Society, 1857; publisher at 79 Cornhill. • New York, New York: American Baptist Publication Society, 1869-1871; publisher at 76 E. Ninth St. • Chicago, Illinois: American Baptist Publication Society, 1869-1871; July-Aug 1869, publisher at 38 Lombard Block; Sept 1869-March 1871, publisher at 7 Custom House Place • St. Louis, MO: American Baptist Publication Society, 1869-1871; publisher at 209 N. Ninth St.

frequency: 1857, monthly • later, monthly & semimonthly • 1 vol/ year

description: 1857: 4 pp.; page size, 15″ h x 10.5″ w. Prices: 1-19 copies, 13¢ each/ year; 20-49 copies, 10¢ each/ year; 50-99 copies, 9¢ each/ year; 100+ copies, 8¢ each/ year

• 1859: 4 pp.; page size, 13.75″ h x 10″ w. Prices: semimonthly: 1 copy, 25¢/ year; 10-49 copies, 10¢ each/ year; 10-99 copies, 9¢ each/ year; 100+ copies, 8¢ each/ year. monthly: 10 copies, $1/ year; 15 copies, $1.50/ year; 20 copies, $2/ year

• 1861: price, 25¢

• 1869-1872: 4 pp.; page size untrimmed, 14″ h x 10″ w. Prices: monthly: 1 copy, 50¢/ year; 10+ copies, 12¢/ year. semimonthly: 1 copy, 75¢/ year; 10+ copies, 24¢/ year

• Circulation: 1857, 50,000/ month. 1870, 300,000

• Religious focus: Baptist

relevant information: Like most religious publications, the Reaper wasn’t intended to make a profit: “[T]he Society publishes this paper at cost. After much gratuitous labor, if it can be made to pay for itself, we ask no more. But it will not do this without a large increase in its circulation. Our estimate of its expenses is based upon the issue of 100,000 copies. … As this is the only Baptist Sabbath-school paper in the country, we desire to make it all that our schools can ask, and we solicit in return their patronage.” [“A Word to Our Friends.” May 1857: 18.]

interesting information: “Glad and Free,” a poem from the point of view of freed slaves published in 1 April 1866, drew the disgust of a southern pastor, as a later historian explains: “[Charles] Manley wrote to the editor of the Young Reaper, ‘if he thought proper to publish any more such articles in the paper, I would prefer that he would not send them to us; as I should not distribute them and did not care to pay postage on what would be waste paper.’ The editor replied that he thought Manley was too sensitive about the freedpeople. Manley declared that while the editor could publish what he wanted, ‘even those things which he knew would be offensive to Christians at the South, we would also reserve to ourselves the right of not circulating papers which contained objectionable statements—especially when the objection to them was that they were false and irritating.’ The poem deeply troubled Manley because it attributed the end of slavery to the work of Christ, an idea utterly opposed to his understanding of the South’s recent history.” [Stowell 120-121]

continues: The Young Reaper (Jan 1844-1856): “The Young Reaper, [a] beautiful Sabbath School Paper for youth, will be issued on the first of January next in a new and greatly improved style, by the American Bapsist [sic] Publication Society.” [Advertisement. Christian Secretary 35 (26 Dec 1856): 3]

source of information: 1857, 1859, 1869-1871 scattered issues; Missionary Magazine ; OCLC; Rowell

available: AASHistPer, series 4 & 5

bibliography:

• Advertisement. Christian Secretary 35 (26 Dec 1856): 3.

• “American Baptist Publication Society.” The Missionary Magazine 37 (Sept 1857): 346.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; pp. 31, 65. [google books]

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 735. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 161. [archive.org]

• J. Thomas Scharf and Thompson Westcott. History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: L. H. Everts & Co., 1884; vol 3, p. 2026. [google books]

• Daniel W. Stowell. Rebuilding Zion: The Religious Reconstruction of the South, 1863-1877. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998; p. 120-121, 227.

Youth’s Cabinet and Little Joker ; April 1857-after June 1857

cover/masthead: 1857

edited by: “Uncle Ezekiel Loveyouth” [Joseph F. Witherell]

published: Dexter, Maine

frequency: monthly; “the first of every month”

description: 4 pp.; folio; page size untrimmed, 15.25″ h x 10.75″ w. Price: 25¢/ year • Pages in the June 1857 issue are not numbered

relevant quote: “The Youth’s Cabinet & Little Joker [i]s a first class Juvenile Paper, devoted to pure and elegant literature, presented in a form adapted to the tastes and capacities of youth. Each number will contain a carefully selected and tastefully arranged Melange of Tales, Sketches, Poetry, Essays, Enigmas, Puzzles, Editorials, &c. &c. And as “A little nonsense now and then,/ Is relished by the best of men,” we conclude it will not be repugnant to the literary palates of our young friends, we shall, therefore, devote a portion of the paper to Anecdotes, Wit, Humor, &c.” [“The Youth’s Cabinet & Little Joker.” Youth’s Cabinet and Little Joker. 1 (June 1857): 4]

relevant information:

• Witherell edited Uncle Ezekiel’s Youth’s Cabinet (May 1844-15 March 1846?), published in Concord, New Hampshire. After moving his family to Maine, Witherell opened a printing shop and published The Gem and Literary Gazette for adults. In 1857, the front page of the Gem bore an amusing resemblance to that of the Cabinet, with the same borders, the same font in the masthead, and the same “Poet’s Boudoir” at the top of column one.

• Regularly advertised in the Gem in 1857, the Cabinet is not mentioned in issues for 1859; probably it had folded.

• “The Little Joker” was a regular column in The Gem and Literary Gazette.

• The names and addresses of subscribers were published in each issue. The 100 subscribers listed in the June 1857 issue were mostly from Maine; a handful of subscribers were from Massachusetts, and one was from Grand Rapids, Michigan.

• New subscribers were promised a veritable avalanche of premiums, distributed in a complex method. Premiums included “Ten Bound Volumes Little Joker” (an illustrated collection of humorous stories which may have appeared originally in the Gem), “Ten Bound Volumes Youth’s Cabinet” (a 92-page collection of stories, poems, and other pieces which may have appeared earlier in Uncle Ezekiel’s Youth’s Cabinet), and one year of The Schoolfellow. Unfortunately for Witherell, the Schoolfellow merged with Robert Merry’s Museum in September 1857.

source of information: June 1857 issue; scrapbook & vertical file articles, & pieces in The Gem and Literary Gazette, at the Dexter Historical Society, Dexter, Maine

bibliography:

• Advertisement. Maine Farmer 25 (16 April 1857): 3.

Clark’s School Visitor ; 1 April 1857-1866 • Our Schoolday Visitor ; 1867-1870 • The Schoolday Visitor Magazine ; 1871-Nov 1872 • The Schoolday Magazine ; Dec 1872-15 April 1875

cover/masthead: 1869 | 1872

edited by: 1 April 1857-1868, Alexander Clark.

• 1867, William Clark (“Uncle Charlie”); Emily R. Freeman.

• 1868-April 1875, William Clark; Mr. J. W. Daughaday; Mr. J. A. Becker; Alice Hawthorne (music dept.)

published: Steubenville, Ohio.

• Cleveland, Ohio.

• Jeddo, Ohio, 1861.

• Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J. W. Daughaday, 1860-1875; 1867, publisher at 1308 Chestnut St.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Daughaday & Becker, 1869; publisher at 424 Walnut St.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J. W. Daughaday & Co., 1872; publisher at 434 and 436 Walnut St.

frequency: monthly

description: 1860: 8 pp. 1864: 16 pp.; octavo; price, 50¢/ year.

• 1867: 32 pp.; price, $1.25/ year

• 1869: 32 pp.; page size untrimmed, 10″ h x 7″ w; price, $1.25/ year

• Circulation: 1870, 20,000; 1872, 15,000

relevant quotes:

• On the founding of the magazine: “At seventeen years of age [Clark] became a teacher, and continued in the service for about six years. During this time he conceived the idea of a schoolday paper, and started the School Visitor, afterwards the Schoolday Magazine, for a time setting his own type and working the editions upon a hand-press.” [“Alexander Clark” 222]

• Changes in the Vistor for 1867: “ENLARGEMENT.—That very popular young people’s magazine, ‘Clark’s School Visitor,’ has been enlarged to double its former size, and otherwise materially improved. ‘Our Schoolday Visitor,’ now entering upon the eleventh year of its publication, richly merits the very liberal patronate it will everywhere receive.” [“Our Schoolday Visitor.” American Phrenological Journal 45 (Jan 1867): 30]

• At least one editor felt that Clark was radical: “Mr. Clark is a preacher and editor in Pittsburg, a thorough radical in its scriptural meaning, making his journal, The Schoolday Visitor, a vehicle of the most advanced claims of the day ….” [Review of The Gospel in the Trees. Zion’s Herald 46 (9 July 1868): 329]

• On the final name change: “Hereafter our Magazine will be known as THE SCHOOLDAY MAGAZINE, instead of THE SCHOOLDAY VISITOR MAGAZINE, as heretofore. This change has been made in order to distinguish our publication more clearly, from the numerous ‘VISITORS’ that are now being published. It has not been decided upon hastily, but upon mature consideration, and after calling a council of many of the ‘VISITOR’S’ most devoted friends. The new name is only a modification of the old, and is shorter, more euphonious and more easily remembered. It tells at once, without explanation, as with the old precisely what our periodical claims to be, a Magazine for the schooldays, a period that reaches from the time we lisp our ‘first lessons’ by a mother’s knee until we go out to take our places in the business of life. A magazine, not for the school only, but for the home circle as well. [“A Special Word.” 16 (Dec 1872): 335.]

relevant information:

• Stephen Foster, “the well known song writer,” is listed as a “regular musical contributor” in 1861. [Advertisement. The Connecticut Common School Journal and Annals of Education 8 (Dec 1861): 390]

• In 1872, an engraving of “Uncle Charlie” was made available as a premium for subscribers; a copy of the engraving was printed on page 331 of the December 1872 issue.

absorbed by: St. Nicholas ; Nov 1873-Feb 1940, 1943

source of information: 1869, 1870, 1872 scattered issues; American Phrenological Journal ; Youth’s Companion ; Kenny; Lyon; ; Rowell; OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 5

bibliography:

• Notice. Massachusetts Teacher and Journal of Home and School Education 12 (Nov 1859): 442.

• “Book Notices.” The Connecticut Common School Journal and Annals of Education 7 (Feb 1860): 64.

• Advertisement. The Youth’s Companion 34 (15 March 1860): 43.

• Advertisement. The Youth’s Companion 34 (27 Sept 1860): 155.

• Advertisement. The Independent (15 Nov 1860): 8.

• Advertisement. The Connecticut Common School Journal and Annals of Education 8 (Dec 1861): 390.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 57. [google books]

• Advertisement. American Phrenological Journal 36 (Dec 1862): 134.

• “Book Notices.” The Connecticut Common School Journal and Annals of Education 10 (Jan 1863): 30.

• “Alexander Clark.” American Phrenological Journal 37 (April 1863): 85.

• Advertisement. American Phrenological Journal 37 (April 1863): 94.

• “Book Notices.” Massachusetts Teacher and Journal of Home and School Education 16 (June 1863): 220.

• Advertisement. The Liberator 34 (1 Jan 1864): 3.

• “Literary Notices.” American Educational Monthly 1 (March 1864): 96.

• “Book Notices.” The Connecticut Common School Journal and Annals of Education 11 (July 1864); 219.

• Advertisement. The Round Table 4 (17 Nov 1866): 250.

• “Our Schoolday Visitor.” American Phrenological Journal 45 (Jan 1867): 30.

• Advertisement. Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine 74 (Jan 1867): 105.

• Advertisement. Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine 76 (Jan 1868): 109.

• Review of The Gospel in the Trees. Zion’s Herald 46 (9 July 1868); 329.

• Advertisement. Scientific American 20 (7 Oct 1868); 239.

• Advertisement. The Independent 21 (28 Oct 1869): 6.

• “The Publishers’ Department.” Herald of Health 15 (Jan 1870): 48.

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 736. [google books]

• Advertisement. New York Evangelist 43 (21 Nov 1872): 5.

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 162. [archive.org]

• “Alexander Clark.” In Matthew Simpson. Cyclopaedia of Methodism, 5th rev. ed. Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1883; pp. 222-223. [google books]

• Sheldon Emmor Davis. Educational Periodicals During the Nineteenth Century, Bureau of Education Bulletin no. 28. Washington, DC: Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education, 1919; p. 97. [archive.org]

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 229-235.

The Child’s Magazine ; May 1857-April 1858

cover/masthead: 1857-1858

edited by: Mary Bartol

published: Portland, Maine: George R. Davis & Bro., 1857-1858; printed Ira Berry, Corner Fore & Exchange Streets

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year; volume begins with May issue

description: 36 pp.; page size untrimmed, 8″ h x 5″ w; price, $1/ year in advance

relevant quote: Prospectus: “The Child’s Magazine is offered to the Public, in the hope that its aim may be successful. The Editor will strive to present, in its pages, articles of a serious and agreeable nature, such as may attract the fancy and fix the attention of the young. Stories, miscellaneous matter, and anecdotes of animals will appear in its numbers. In the former will be given examples of moral principle, as applied to daily, practical life; in the miscellany will be offered what may be gleaned from the stores of wise minds, both of the past and present age; and in anecdotes of animals, will be illustrated, in the department of Natural History, that wonderful system of Divine Providence which ‘careth for the sparrow’ and ‘clothes the lilies of the field.’ … Subscriptions may be addressed to Ira Berry, Printer, corner Fore and Exchange Streets, Portland.” [vol 1; back cover]

source of information: Nov 1857 issue; Feb 1858 issue; Lyon; AAS catalog; NYPL catalog

bibliography:

• Notice. The Monthly Religious Magazine and Independent Journal 17 (May 1857): 368.

• Review. The North American Review 85 (July 1857): 277.

• “Editor’s Table.” Maine Farmer 26 (22 April 1858): 2.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 147.

Boys’ Monthly Gazette ; May 1857-April 1858?

edited by: James H. Lee

published: Charleston, Massachusetts: James H. Lee.

description: Page size, 7″ h

source of information: OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 4

Young America ; June 1857-after June 1858?

edited by: John Hageman

published: Cincinnati, Ohio: John Hageman.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: Page size, 11.75″ h

source of information: OCLC

The Catholic Youth’s Magazine ; Sept 1857-Aug 1861

edited by: Martin J. Kerney

published: Baltimore, Maryland: J. Murphy. Baltimore, Maryland: John Murphy & Co.; 1861, publisher at 182 Baltimore St.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 1857: 32 pp.; page size, 6″ h x 4.5″ w

• Religious focus: Catholic

relevant quotes:

• The magazine was designed to counteract the “pernicious” influence of Protestant periodicals: “In presenting to the public a Magazine designed for the use of Catholic youth, it is unnecessary to enlarge on the manifold reasons which demand its publication. Every one conversant with the spirit of the times, and the strenuous efforts which are made to pervert the minds of Catholic youth and to draw them from the Church, will readily admit its importance. Those especially having charge of youth, have experienced the want of such a periodical, and have earnestly solicited its publication. They have witnessed with regret, that while the children of other denominations have been abundantly supplied with Sunday school journals, magazines, and other periodicals adapted to their age, no similar works have been provided for Catholic youth. In this respect we should not permit our neighbors to surpass us. Catholic youth should have a work which they could call their own; one which they would prize, and whose periodical visits they would look forward to with pleasure.” [“Introduction.” 1 (Sept 1857): 1]

• The publisher was more blunt as the periodical closed: “Mr. Kerney [the editor] had long harbored the desire of seeing his young countrymen enjoying the benefits to be derived from a periodical suitable to their wants and the exigency of the times. Among the millions of beautifully printed and illustrated children’s magazine scattered over the country by the Protestant press both of England and the United States, he saw nothing that he could recommend to a Catholic family. They were excellent in many respects, but their bigotry, misrepresentation and ignorance on Catholic subjects, rendered them extremely dangerous to the youthful, unsuspecting, but inquiring mind. Mr. Kerney felt it to be a duty incumbent on every Catholic of literary pretensions, to do something towards counteracting the influence of such publication, and of others still more pernicious.” [“Preface to Volume IV.” 4 (Aug 1861): iii]

• The publisher described the magazine as the very essence of Catholicism: “[I]t was to be pervaded by a reverential and loving spirit, a geniality of sentiment, a happy hopefulness, and a broad, warm charity, all so redolent of Catholicity,—in fact, the very essence of the divine old Faith, which, while fully satisfying the head, never fails to fill the heart with active sympathy for our fellow creatures of every race and of every clime.” [“Preface to Volume IV.” 4 (Aug 1861): iv]

• The Youth’s Magazine folded for a variety of reasons: “With this number we close the Fourth Volume of our little Magazine, and we regret to add that, owing to the death of the Editor, and to the lamentable difficulties under which our beloved country is just now laboring, we are compelled to suspend its further publication for the present.” There was, however, another reason not unfamiliar to publishers of early American periodicals for children: money. Like Spare Hours (Jan-Dec 1866), the Youth’s Magazine was disappointed that Protestant periodicals succeeded where Catholic periodicals failed: “[C]andor compels us to add that, considering the surprisingly low price, (50 cents a year,) at which the work has been issued, we should not have been at all surprised at finding four times the number of names on our subscription list, though even then it would have hardly done more than paid expenses. It was the only publication of the kind in the English language, and the cost was not quite one cent a week!” [“Preface to Volume IV.” 4 (Aug 1861): iv]

• The publisher was, however, hopeful: “As soon as some happy turn (which we pray Providence to hasten,) in our country’s difficulties shall make a revival of the Book-Trade, now so terribly depressed, probable, the publication of our llittle Magazine will be resumed on the same plan as heretofore, and if not with the same ability as was displayed by our lamented and highly esteemed friend [Kerney], at least with the same determination to render it worthy of being welcomed into the bosom of every Catholic family throughout our land.” [“Preface to Volume IV.” 4 (Aug 1861): iv]

relevant information: Secondary sources have had a bizarre difficulty with the magazine’s name: 1860, referred to as “The Catholic Youth’s Monthly” [Schem; p. 72]; 1866, referred to as the “Youth’s Catholic Magazine”; 1869, referred to as “The Youth’s Magazine”; 1912, referred to as “Child’s Youth’s Magazine.”

source of information: 1857-1861 vols; AAS catalog; OCLC; Burns

available: AASHistPer, series 4

bibliography:

• Alexander J. Schem. The American Ecclesiastical Year-Book. New York: H. Dayton, 1860; vol 1, p. 72. [google books]

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 27. [google books]

• Notice. Brownson’s Quarterly Review 2 (April 1861): 275.

• Notice of Spare Hours. The Catholic World 2 (Feb 1866): 718.

Geo. P. Rowell & Co’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1869; p. 43. [archive.org]

• J. A. Burns. The Growth and Development of the Catholic School System in the United States. New York: Benziger Brothers, 1912; p. 140. [google books]

• Gertrude C. Gilmer. Checklist of Southern Periodicals to 1861. Boston: F. W. Faxon Company, 1934; p. 24.

• Eleanor Weakley Nolen. “Nineteenth Century Children’s Magazines.” The Horn Book Magazine. 15 (January/February 1939): 55-60.

The Young American ; 7 Oct 1857-1 Sept 1858

edited by: W. G. Wilson

published: Brookline, Massachusetts: Sampson & Phillips.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: Page size, 11″ h • Newspaper format

source of information: NUC; OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 4

The Excelsior ; 1858

edited by: W. L. Richardson; G. B. Kettell

published: Boston, Massachusetts: S. H. Porter, 1858.

frequency: biweekly

description: newspaper format; vol 1, #7 is 1 June 1858

merged with: Young America Monthly Magazine (Jan-Dec 1858) to form Young America and Excelsior ; Feb-April 1859?

source of information: OCLC

The Orphans’ Friend ; 1858-after 1882

edited by: 1866, Mrs. J. W. Wilkie

published: Auburn, New York: Cayuga County Orphan Asylum Board of Managers, 1866. • Auburn, New York: Cayuga Asylum for Destitute Children, 1882.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: May 1866 is vol 9 #4; March 1882 is vol 25 #3

source of information: AAS catalog; OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 5

The Sparkling Fount ; 1858-

cover/masthead: 1858

published: Boston, Massachusetts: McCurdy & Weston; publisher at 91 Washington St and 11 Cornhill

description: 32 pp.; page size, 9.25″ h

• Temperance focus

relevant quote:

• About the magazine: “In accordance with the expressed wish of many of the Bands of Hope in Massachusetts, the subscribers propose issuing a small pamphlet edition of Dialogues, Single Pieces, and other suitable matter for recitation at Band of Hope and other Juvenile Temperance Meetings. Many of the articles are original, and have been prepared and arranged for this work with great care. They are all of a high-toned character, and convey important moral instruction in a very attractive style.” [1 #1 (1858); cover page 2]

source of information: AASHistPer; AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 4

The Young Christian Soldier ; 1858-1881?

edited by: 1869-1872, 1875-1876, A. T. Twing

published: New York, New York: Domestic Missions, Protestant Episcopal Church; 1869-1872, publisher at 17 Bible House.

frequency: weekly & monthly editions

description: Page size, 15.25″ h. 1869-1872: 8 pp.; size, 21″ x 30″; price, 50¢

• Religious focus: Protestant Episcopal

source of information: AAS catalog; Rowell

available: AASHistPer, series 5

bibliography:

Geo. P. Rowell & Co’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1869; p. 78. [archive.org]

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 708. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 129. [archive.org]

Sargent’s School Monthly ; Jan-Dec 1858

edited by: Epes Sargent

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Epes Sargent; publisher at 289 Washington St., 1858?

frequency: monthly

description: page size, 9.75″ h

merged with: Forrester’s Playmate ; 1854-1867

relevant quotes:

• One editor took Sargent’s to task for its accuracy, while giving advice and cheering on the magazine: “ ‘Sargent’s School Monthly,’ for July, repeats the story of William Tell, as if it had not been blown sky-high at Cambridge, and its historical truth discarded. It is a good feature to introduce articles for declamation. The journal is spirited, tasteful, and morally sound, and we bid it a hearty God-speed.” [“Recent Pamphlets.” Christian Register 12 (21 Aug 1858): 1]

• On the end of the magazine: “Epes Sargent, Esq., recently editor and publisher of Sargent’s School Monthly, having transferred that work to us, will become a contributor to the pages of the Playmate during the coming year. It is but justice to say, that his popularity as a writer for the young will add greatly to the value of our Magazine.” [Forrester’s Playmate 9 (Dec 1858): 189]

relevant information: The contents for the May 1858 issue was published in The Monthly Religious Magazine and Independent Journal (19 [May 1858]: 5).

source of information: Massachusetts Teacher ; Lyon; OCLC; Forrester’s Playmate

available: AASHistPer, series 4

bibliography:

• “Books Received During the Month of December.” Massachusetts Teacher and Journal of Home and School Education 11 (Jan 1858): 40.

• Advertisement. The Monthly Religious Magazine and Independent Journal 19 (May 1858): 5.

• “Recent Pamphlets.” Christian Register 12 (21 Aug 1858): 1.

• Notice. Forrester’s Playmate. 9 (Dec 1858); p. 189.

• Sheldon Emmor Davis. Educational Periodicals During the Nineteenth Century, Bureau of Education Bulletin no. 28. Washington, DC: Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education, 1919; p. 98. [archive.org]

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 147.

Young America Monthly Magazine ; Jan-Dec 1858

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Richardson & Andrews.

• Boston, Massachusetts: W. G. Reed & J. B. Gardner.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Israel Moody. • Boston, Massachusetts: Richardson & Reed. [from NUC]

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: Page size, 7.5″ h

merged with: The Excelsior (1858) to form Young America and Excelsior ; Feb-April 1859?

source of information: AAS catalog; NUC

available: AASHistPer, series 4

Young People’s Monthly ; 15 July-Dec 1858

edited by: Martha M. Thomas

published: Cincinnati, Ohio: J. K. Alpaugh, 15 July-Dec 1858.

frequency: monthly

description: Page size, 9.75″ h; price, $1/ year

source of information: Ladies’ Repository ; AAS catalog; OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 4

bibliography:

• “Literary Notices.” The Ladies’ Repository 18 (Sept 1858): 570.

Band of Hope Visitor ; 1859

published: Rockland, Maine: Z. Pope Vose.

frequency: monthly

description: AAS has proposal: 25¢/ year in advance

• Temperance focus

• Apparently never published

source of information: AAS catalog

The Pastor’s Helper ; Jan 1859-June 1865 • The Child’s Treasury ; July 1865-after 1903

edited by: George B. Russell, 1859-1865 • Henry Harbaugh, 1865-1866 • Rev. Whitmer, 1871 • Darius William Gerhard, 1888-after 1903

published: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: George B. Russell, 1859-June 1865.

• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: S. R. Fisher & Co., July 1865-after 1867; 1865, publisher at 54 N. 6th St.

• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Board of Publication of the Reformed Church, 1869-1872; publisher at 54 N. 6th St.

• Lancaster County, Pennsylvania: Darius William Gerhard, 1888-after 1903.

frequency: 1859-1871, monthly. 1872-after 1878, monthly & semimonthly

description: 1869-1872: 4 pp.; page size, 21″ h x 15″ w

• Price: 1863, 25 copies: $4/ year. 1865, 10 copies, $2/ year; 25 copies, $4.50/ year. 1867, 1 copy, 40¢/ year. 1872, 10 copies, $3.50/ year; 25 copies, $8/ year. 1878: monthly, 1 copy, 40¢/ year; 10 copies, $2/ year; 25 copies, $4.50/ year. semimonthly, 1 copy, 75¢/ year; 10 copies, $3.50/ year; 25 copies, $8/ year

• Circulation: abt 1865, 14,000. 1867, over 20,000

• Religious focus: German Reformed Church

relevant quotes:

• The Helper was popular, but it may have been a bit above its intended audience: “It had held high rank from the first—some thought too high. Elder Santee, for instance, said it was a good paper, but put the feed too high up in the rack for the lambs.” [Russell; p. 146]

• George Russell points out that, unusually for a juvenile periodical, the Helper made money: “It was thought to be a wild venture, the first, and for years the only, English S. S. paper in the Reformed Church. It paid its own way from the first; but for some years of high prices during the war it was not profitable. The [p. 146] price of good printing paper was then twenty-two cents per pound, such as is now [in 1908] less than one-fourth of that cost. … Its regular circulation while issued by me went up to 14,000 a month, and began to pay for the earlier unprofitable years.” [Russell; p. 145-146]

• Russell blames that profitability for his losing control of the paper: ”[A]fter its success of seven years, the Eastern Board of Publication began to see what was in it. They then very innocently (?) asked me to turn it over to them, without money and without price, and gently (?) threatened also that if this were not done, they would start their own S. S. paper; which would of course surely cripple the Pastor’s Helper, and make both unprofitable. Without remedy to me, and with no offered remuneration for my past risk and unpaid labor for its seven years, they simply forced the transfer; and without any consideration for the deal.” [Russell; p. 146]

• On the name change: “ ‘The Pastor’s Helper’ has served its day, having done, as we believe, a noble and most excellent work, for which its projector and publisher deserves the graditude of the Church. A new name, however, is demanded for the new circumstances, under which its existence is to be continued. Have we done rightly in yielding to expressed wishes in this direction? We trust we have. Our new name is the result of much inquiry and consideration, and will, we think, be found expressive and appropriate. It will give the paper a place amongst the various publications of the same general character, already issued.” [“The Child’s Treasury.” German Reformed Messenger 30 (19 July 1865): 2.]

• Despite the Treasury’s purported popularity, to the apparent dismay of the publishers, “several hundred” copies of the July 1865 issue were still available in Oct 1865. [“Our Child’s Paper”]

• When, after years of requests, the Treasury added a semimonthly edition, the realities of printing the paper affected how subscribers got it: “As the paper is small, we are obliged to print to numbers on one sheet. Hence, as the monthly, issued as heretofore, forms the first number in each month of the semi-monthly, two of these are printed together. To save expense, they are also sent out in one package. All the subscribers, both the monthly and semi-monthly, will receive this number. Two of the intervening numbers, for the 15th of the month, will also be issued and sent out together. The semi-monthly subscribers only will receive these numbers. This explanation seems to be necessary, because some of the semi-monthly subscribers do not seem to understand, why they get the two numbers for the first of the month at the same time, and not the intermediate numbers also.” [“The Child’s Treasury.” Reformed Church Messenger 38 (17 Jan 1872): 4.]

source of information: Rowell; Russell; Bomberger; Biographical Annals ; Freedley; notices & advertisements (see below)

available: AASHistPer, series 5 (1876 issue only)

bibliography:

• “The Pastor’s Helper.” German Reformed Messenger 24 (12 Jan 1859): 2.

• “The Pastor’s Helper.” German Reformed Messenger 24 (9 March 1859): 2.

• “Our Sunday School Papers.” German Reformed Messenger 24 (11 May 1859): 2.

• “ ‘The Pastor’s Helper.’ ” German Reformed Messenger 24 (18 May 1859): 3.

• J. H. A. Bomberger. Five Year’s Ministry in the German Reformed Church. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, 1860; p. 70. [google books]

• Alexander J. Schem. The American Ecclesiastical Year-Book. New York: H. Dayton, 1860; vol 1, p. 57. [google books]

• “ ‘The Pastor’s Helper.’ ” German Reformed Messenger 25 (18 Jan 1860): 3.

• “A Helper.” German Reformed Messenger 26 (10 July 1861): 2.

• “The Pastor’s Helper.” German Reformed Messenger 27 (1 Jan 1862): 3.

• Advertisement. German Reformed Messenger 28 (18 March 1863): 3.

• “The Pastor’s Helper.” German Reformed Messenger 28 (25 March 1863): 1.

• “The Pastor’s Helper—Vol. VII.” German Reformed Messenger 30 (11 Jan 1865): 3.

• “The Pastor’s Helper.” German Reformed Messenger 30 (28 June 1865): 2.

• “The Pastor’s Helper.” German Reformed Messenger 30 (12 July 1865): 2.

• “The Child’s Treasury.” German Reformed Messenger 30 (19 July 1865): 2.

• “Write for The Child’s Treasury.” German Reformed Messenger 30 (16 Aug 1865): 2.

• Advertisement. German Reformed Messenger 30 (23 Aug 1865): 4.

• “The Child’s Treasury.” German Reformed Messenger 30 (23 Aug 1865): 2.

• “Child’s Treasury.” German Reformed Messenger 31 (20 Sept 1865): 3.

• “Our Child’s Paper.” German Reformed Messenger 31 (4 Oct 1865): 2.

• “Partnership and Sole-Ownership.” German Reformed Messenger 31 (11 Oct 1865): 2.

• “The Child’s Treasury in Families.” German Reformed Messenger 31 (3 Jan 1866): 2.

• “Is It Right?” German Reformed Messenger 31 (3 Jan 1866): 2.

• “Is It Possible!” German Reformed Messenger 31 (23 May 1866): 3.

• Edwin T. Freedley. Philadelphia and Its Manufactures … in 1867. Philadelphia: Edward Young & Co., 1867; p. 173. [archive.org]

• “Notices of Periodicals.” German Reformed Messenger 32 (3 July 1867): 3.

• Notice of death of Henry Harbaugh. Reformed Church Messenger 33 (15 Jan 1868): 4.

Geo. P. Rowell & Co’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1869. [archive.org]

• “Martinsburg, Pennsylvania.” Reformed Church Messenger 34 (20 Jan 1869): 5.

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870. [google books]

• “The ‘Child’s Treasury.’ ” Reformed Church Messenger 37 (4 Jan 1871): 4.

• G. “The Children’s Paper.” Reformed Church Messenger 37 (4 Jan 1871): 5.

• “The Child’s Treasury.” Reformed Church Messenger 37 (18 Oct 1871): 1.

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872. [archive.org]

• “The Child’s Treasury.” Reformed Church Messenger 38 (17 Jan 1872): 4.

• Advertisement. Messenger 47 (25 Dec 1878): 5.

• S. R. Fisher. “History of the Publication Efforts of the German Reformed Church.” Reformed Quarterly Review 1 (Jan 1885): 85-86, 90. [google books]

Appletons’ Cyclopaedia of American Biography, ed. James Grant Wilson and John Fiske. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1887; vol 3: 76-77.

Biographical Annals of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. N.p.: J. H. Beers & Co., 1903; pp. 55-56. [archive.org]

• George B. Russell. Four Score and More. Philadelphia: Heidelberg Press, 1908; pp. 145-147. [google books]

The Maine Spectator (also The Spectator) ; Jan 8-June 1859

edited by: Z. Pope Vose

published: Rockland, Maine: Z. Pope Vose

frequency: weekly: Saturday

description: Price, $1/ year

• Last issue located is 11 June 1859

relevant information: Vose appears to have had trouble getting subscribers: one advertisement lists the date of first issue as 13 Nov 1858. [“Newspaporial.” Maine Farmer 26 (21 Oct 1858): 2]

relevant quote: Like many children’s periodicals of the time, the Spectator had a column for letters from subscribers: “The ‘Stairway,’ the department of the paper designed to receive communications from its young readers, is meeting with much favor among the boys and girls. Such a paper has certainly better claims upon the people of Maine than the flash literature which floods us from abroad.” [“A Paper for the Young Folks.” Maine Farmer 27 (7 April 1859): 2]

source of information: Maine Farmer ; Eaton; description, Newspaper Archives, Special Collections, Raymond H. Fogler Library, University of Maine, Orono, Maine

bibliography:

• “Newspaporial.” Maine Farmer 26 (21 Oct 1858): 2.

• Proposal. Maine Farmer 27 (13 Jan 1859): 3. (Includes typographical error: “Jan. 8, 1858” should read “Jan. 8, 1859”)

• Notice of second issue. Maine Evangelist 4 (12 Feb 1859); p. 2.

• “A Paper for the Young Folks.” Maine Farmer 27 (7 April 1859): 2.

• “Notices of Books.” Maine Teacher 1 (May 1859): 378; copy at archive.org.

• Cyrus Eaton. History of Thomaston, Rockland, and South Thomaston, Maine. Hallowell: Masters, Smith & Co., 1865; vol 2, p. 33; copy online at Making of America.

Children’s Friend ; 1859-1873?

published: Nashville, Tennessee

description: Page size, 13.75″ h • Religious focus: Baptist

frequency: monthly

source of information: AAS catalog; OCLC; Kenny

bibliography:

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 68. [google books]

Die Taube (The dove); 1859-1862

edited by: A. O. Brickmann

published: Baltimore, Maryland: A. O. Brickmann.

frequency: monthly

description: Religious focus: Swedenborgian

• German-language periodical

source of information: Arndt; Fraser

bibliography:

• Karl J. R. Arndt & May E. Olson. German-American Newspapers and Periodicals: 1732-1955. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer Publishers, 1961.

• Sybille Fraser. “German Language Children’s and Youth Periodicals in North America: A Checklist.” Phaedrus 6 (Spring 1979): 27-31.

What Not ; 1859-1860

edited by: J. L. Brown

published: Bowdoinham, Maine: J. L. Brown

description: 4 pp.; 6″ h x 5″ w

• No. 3 is Oct 1859

relevant information: Brown was a trader. [Maine]

source of information: Lyon; Maine

bibliography:

History of the Press of Maine, ed. Joseph Griffin. Brunswick: 1872; p. 299. [archive.org]

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 148.

Boys and Girls Own Magazine ; Jan 1859-Dec 1861

published: New York, New York: William L. Jones; in 1860, at 152 Sixth Ave.

frequency: monthly

description: Price, 75¢/ year. Page size, 7.75″ h

source of information: Lyon; OCLC; “Pamphlets”

available: AASHistPer, series 4

bibliography:

• “Pamphlets Received.” New York Evangelist 31 (19 July 1860): 8.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 49. [google books]

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 148.

The Sunday-School Banner ; Jan 1859-Dec 1861

cover/masthead: 1859

edited by: John S. Hart

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Sunday School Union; publisher at 1122 Chestnut St., 1859

frequency: weekly, semimonthly, monthly, & 3 times/ month editions; 1 vol/ year

description: 4 pp.; page size untrimmed, 12.5″ h x 9.5″ w

• Prices, 1 copy, mailed: weekly, 50¢/ year; monthly, 13¢/ year; semimonthly, 25¢/ year; 3 times a month, 38¢/ year. 1 copy collected at the publisher or a Sunday-School Union depository: 1¢

• Religious focus

relevant quote: The Banner was a less expensive version of The Youth’s Sunday-School Gazette: “The Sunday-School Banner … [is] printed on less expensive paper than the [Youth’s Sunday-School] Gazette, but containing a portion of the cuts and matter of the Gazette, with other matter of its own.” [1 (April 1859): 4]

merged with Youth’s Penny GazetteThe Youth’s Sunday-School Gazette (also The Youth’s Sunday School Gazette) (11 Jan 1843-1861) and continued by Child’s WorldYouth’s World (1862-after 1884) • Baptist Teacher for Sunday-School Workers (for adults)

source of information: 1859 scattered issues; Danvill Quarterly Review ; Scharf; AAS catalog; OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 4

bibliography:

• Advertisement. New York Evangelist 29 (16 Dec 1858): 7.

• Advertisement. New York Evangelist 30 (13 Jan 1859): 7.

• Advertisement. New York Observer and Chronicle 39 (3 Jan 1861): 7.

• Advertisement for The Child’s World. The Danville Quarterly Review 1 (Dec 1861): 3.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; pp. 31, 48, 65. [google books]

• J. Thomas Scharf and Thompson Westcott. History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: L. H. Everts & Co., 1884; vol 3, p. 2014. [google books]

Youth’s Evangelist • The Youth’s Evangelist ; Jan 1859-1930?

cover/masthead: 1859-1862 | 1865

edited by: 1860-after Feb 1861, R. H. Pollock & G. W. Gowdy • late 1861-1865, 1869-1872, James M. Ferguson

published: Cincinnati, Ohio: R. H. Pollock, G. W. Gowdy, R. D. Harper, & J. P. Smart, 1859. • Cincinnati, Ohio: R. H. Pollock and G. W. Gowdy, May 1860-Feb 1861; 1860, publisher at Taft’s Buildings, corner of Fourth and Vine.

• Pittsburg, Pennsylvania: James M. Ferguson, late 1861.

• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: James M. Ferguson, 1862-1865; Jan 1862, publisher at P. O. Box 1865; April-July 1862, publisher at P. O. Box 518; 1865, publisher at 25 N. 6th St. or P. O. Box 901; 1872, publisher at 15 N. 7th St.

frequency: 1859, monthly • 1860-1865, semimonthly

description: 4 pp.; page size untrimmed, 14″ h x 10.5″ w

• Prices: 1859: 10 copies, $1/ year; 50 copies, $4.50/ year; sent out of state, 20 copies, $2.50/ year; 50 copies, $6/ year. 1860-1862: 1 copy, 35¢/ year; 4 copies, $1/ year; 10 copies, $2/ year; 50 copies, $5/ year. 1865: 1 copy, 45¢/ year; 4 copies, $1.50/ year; 10 copies, $3.25/ year; 50 copies, $11/ year. 1869-1870, 45¢

• 1859 circulation, 12,000-13,000

• Religious focus: Presbyterian

relevant quotes:

• The first issue may have been dated January 1859, but it wasn’t actually published then: “We have occasionally had some little complaint from our young friends because the Youth’s Evangelist did not come earlier in the month. … [L]est you should think we either did not care about pleasing you, or that we are lazy, or something of that kind, we must remind you we have done more than we promised. We promised you one paper each month. We now send you the seventh paper in four and a half months from the time we sent the first. We issued the January number in March. We have now caught up with time, and we hope to get a little ahead of it by and by.” [1 (July 1859): 1]

• Subscription price was a continuing concern: “Our kind friends and patrons have occasionally referred to the price of the Youth’s Evangelist, as being higher than papers of a similar character elsewhere. They patronize our enterprise, because it is in our own church. We are much gratified at this evidence of a willingness to support the enterprise of our own church at a sacrifice; and we can not say that we are sorry for the misapprehension, whch led to the exercise and manifestation of this kindness. We confess, however, that we are still more pleased to be able to show, that it is a mistake that the Evangelist is any higher in price, than any other Sabbath School paper, to which reference has been ma[d]e by friends—in proportion to its size, and quality of paper. Ours is a private enterprise, without any aid from churches, directly or indirectly, except the actual subscr[i]ption prices.” [“Price of the Youth’s Evangelist.” 3 (1 Feb 1861): 3]

• The masthead was redesigned in 1861: “We expected to have a new head, designed by an excellent artist, and very finely engraved, for the December numbers of the Evangelist; but as there was a great deal of labor on it, we could not get it finished in time. We will have it, and some other fine engravings ready for the January number.” [“New Head.” 3 (1 Dec 1861): 3] The new engraving still wasn’t ready the next month: “Although we have delayed the January numbers beyond our usual time, in order to have inserted our new Heading and some fine engravings, yet unforeseen circumstances have delayed their completion, and we have been compelled to go to press without them.” [4 (1 Jan 1862): 2]

continued by: The Pilot (for adults; 1930?-1955)

source of information: 1859-1865 scattered issues; OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 5

bibliography:

Geo. P. Rowell & Co’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1869; p. 99. [archive.org]

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 735. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 161. [archive.org]

Young America and Excelsior ; Feb-April 1859?

published: Boston, Massachusetts: William G. Reed. [from AAS] • Boston, Massachusetts: Richardson & Reed. [from NUC]

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: Page size, 7.5″ h

• Feb 1859 issue is vol 2 #1

continues: Young America Monthly Magazine ; Jan-Dec 1858 • The Excelsior ; 1858

source of information: AAS catalog; NUC

available: AASHistPer, series 4

Kinderzeitung (Children’s newspaper); 15 April 1859-15 March 1862

edited by: A. O. Brickmann

published: Baltimore, Maryland: A. O. Brickmann.

description: Organ of the New Jerusalem Church in the U. S. German Synod

• Religious focus: Swedenborgian

• German-language periodical

source of information: Arndt; Fraser

bibliography:

• Karl J. R. Arndt & May E. Olson. German-American Newspapers and Periodicals: 1732-1955. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer Publishers, 1961.

• Sybille Fraser. “German Language Children’s and Youth Periodicals in North America: A Checklist.” Phaedrus 6 (Spring 1979): 27-31.

The Weekly Magpie ; 30 April?-29 Oct 1859

cover/masthead: 18 June-9 July 1859 | 16 July-29 Oct 1859

edited by: Thomas Donaldson, jr

published: Edgewood, Maryland: Thomas Donaldson, jr; “Edgewood, near the ‘Relay House’ ”. The editor’s address was St. Denis P. O., Baltimore Co., Md. Printed at F. A. Hanzsche’s Book & Job Printing Establishment, 212 Baltimore St., near Charles.

frequency: 18 June-29 Oct 1859: weekly: Saturday

description: 18 June-29 Oct 1859: 4 pp.; page size, 9.25″ h x 5″ w; price: 5¢/week in advance; 6¢/week “when sent by mail, payable in postage stamps”

• 18 June 1859 is vol 1 #8

• Two-page supplements were published for the 1 Oct 1859 and 8 Oct 1859 issues.

• My copy of the 15 Oct 1859 issue has handwritten corrections on the poem “Election Day.”

• By August 1859, circulation was wide: “The Magpie has gone to the foot of the Andes, and to the Old World. It has even reached Kansas, Louisiana, Missippi, Alabama, and Georgia. In the north, as far as Vermont, New York, and New Hampshire; and we have a large number of subscribers in Massachusetts and other states, too numerous to mention.” [editorial. 1 (17 Aug 1859): 42.]

relevant quotes:

• The Magpie originally was a hand-written effort: “The Weekly Magpie has been in existence for several months. Formerly, it was in manuscript, but the demand for copies daily increased, so that we were not able to supply even one half of the applicants,—thus depriving the world of this enlightning and refining influences of this popular journal, and retarding, for some time, the march of civilization. … The sole object for which we demand subscriptions is in order to defray the expenses of printing; and all the profits will be scrupulously devoted to the enlargement and improvement of our paper.” [editorial. 1 (18 June 1859): 3]

• The editor definitely was not shy about the glories of his periodical: “The Magpie is devoted to Literature, Science, and to the diffusion of Useful Knowledge. We shall endeavor to make it as perfect as possible in its several departments, and we admit nothing that is not original. We have already employed some of the most celebrated authors on this side of the Atlantic (Sylvanus Cobb, jr., excepted), who will regularly write for The Magpie, and for no other periodical whatever. … Our Poetical department is unrivaled …. As to politics, we espouse the cause of no party. … We shall censure when censure is due, irrespective of party or politics. … The Magpie is also an excellent family paper. … It cheers and enlivens in the long winter evenings, when the family is cosily seated by the fireside, as they peruse with delight its thrilling columns. When the laborer returns from his day’s work, weary and careworn, and his children run to him … and tell him that they have just received the last number of The Magpie, his stern features relax and his countenance lights up, and, as he thinks of the pleasure that is in store for him, his joy is indeed unaffected.—After he has taken his simple meal of brown bread and coffee, the whole family draw their chairs around him, and listen with absorbing interest as he reads The Magpie to them. Ah! what a blank was in his existence before The Magpie was printed! Then, he used to smoke his pipe; now, he reads this excellent journal, and finds himself a much happier and better man. Therefore, let all who desire domestic happiness, the enlargement of the intellect, and the advancement of knowledge, take “The Magpie.” [editorial. 1 (18 June 1859): 3]

• The editor had strict requirements: “No Contributions are inserted from persons over 15 years of age. … No Advertisements competing with Howard County interests are received.” [masthead. 1 (18 June 1859): 1] However, his requirements for authors shifted when some of the writers “aged out” of the magazine: “Some of our contributors having arrived at the age of 15, we will be obliged to extend the rule. Hereafter, we will accept contributions from persons of 15 1/2 years of age.” [editorial. 1 (15 Oct 1859): 72]

• On the change in bird on the masthead: “The Magpie is at last on its own perch, which has been so long usurped by that most cruel and voracious of birds, the Eagle. This fact cannot fail to give great satisfaction to our readers, who no doubt, have been struck with the haughty and overbearing demeanour of the Eagle, and, on the other hand, with the dignified and pleasing deportment of the Magpie, whose intelligent countenance, together with its mild, though pensive expression, excite general admiration.” [editorial. 1 (23 July 1859): 22]

• The end of the Magpie was announced in the 15 Oct 1859 issue: “As The Magpie will be discontinued at the end of the month, our subscribers are requested to close their accounts as promptly as possible.” [editorial. 1 (15 Oct 1859): 72]

• The paper’s closing editorial was as grandiloquent as its opening: “There is an end to everything; so says the adage. Our magpie feels the force of it. Our faithful bird is about to quit the scenes of its labours, and wing its flight to another clime ….” [editorial. 1 (22 Oct 1859): 80.]

source of information: 1859 vol; OCLC

bibliography:

• Gertrude C. Gilmer. Checklist of Southern Periodicals to 1861. Boston: F. W. Faxon Company, 1934; p. 63.

I Will Try ; May 1859-after Oct 1860

cover/masthead: Nov 1859 | April 1860

edited by: J. S. Hostetter

published: Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania: J. S. Hostetter

frequency: monthly: beginning of the month; 1 vol/ year (see below)

description: 16 pp; page size untrimmed, 9″ h x 5 3/4 ″ w

• Prices: Nov 1859-April 1860: 1 copy, 30¢/ year; 10 copies, $3/ year. May-Oct 1860: 1 copy, 50¢/ year; 6 copies, $3/ year; 11 copies, $5/ year; 23 copies, $10/ year

relevant information: The May-Oct 1859 issues are vol 1 #1-6 (The AAS has a Sept 1859 issue marked vol 1 #5.) The Nov 1859 issue, however also is volume 1: “The first number of this little Friend of Youth was published in May, 1859, and has received, during the first six months, friends and patrons far beyond our most sanguine expectations. Back numbers being exhausted, we have made arrangements to commence a new volume with November 1859[.]” [“Terms, &c., of the ‘I Will Try.’ ” 1 (Nov 1859): 13.]

relevant quotes:

• “ ‘I will try[’] is published at the beginning of every month. Each number contains sixteen pages of fresh, choice, moral, instructive reading, adapted to the young mind. The mission of this little monthly is to serve as a link between home and school education—to befriend the boys and girls in their studies, and facilitate the teacher’s work by securing home influence in his favor.” [“Terms, &c., of the ‘I Will Try.’ ” 1 (Nov 1859): 13.]

• Hostetter was a teacher: “Two thirds of the nights of the past winter did we work until midnight, and that after a hard day’s work in the school room.” [“Editor’s Chat.” 1 (April 1860): 95.]

• Much was promised for volume 2: “[A]mong the many things suggested by old and young, one is that we should use better paper—that the paper is not nice enough for binding. [Note: The paper for my copies of the last issues of volume 1 is poor quality, and the printing looks washed out.] This is all true; but we cannot put better paper into it for thirty cents a year. This is impossible. Well, many, very many, have said, ‘If you use good, white paper, we will willingly pay fifty cents a year.’ So we have now concluded to use good white paper, and get I Will Try up in a superior style, and charge FIFTY CENTS.” Those who had already paid for a year would need to pay more or receive a magazine of lower quality: “[H]ow with those who subscribed last November? Why, they will have theirs printed on the same kind of paper we use now, unless they send us ten cents more, then they will receive, the remainder of their year, which is six months, the improved I Will Try.” [“Editor’s Chat.” 1 (April 1860): 95.]

• Advertising began to appear in volume 2, on the inside of the covers (cover page 2 and cover page 3).

source of information: Nov 1859-Oct 1860 issues & bound volume; AAS catalog; OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 4

The Little-Pig Monthly ; May, July 1859

cover/masthead: May 1859

edited by: Elijah Sparhawk Brigham

published: New York, New York: Dinsmore & Co.; publisher at 9 Spruce St.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Shepard, Clark & Brown; publisher at 110 Washington St.

frequency: monthly: 15th of the month

description: Vol 1 #1 is marked “May” on the cover; inside front cover announces contents of July issue. The Library of Congress has at its web site a scanned broadside advertising the magazine which describes the May issue as the “June number: Good for any month ”; its contents are those of the issue for May.

• May 1859: 104 pp.; page size untrimmed, 8″ h x 5.75″ w; prices: 25¢/ copy, $1/ 4 months; $3/ year

• OCLC lists issues for only May and July

• Copyright 1858, by L. F. Dinsmore

• Vol 1 #1 illustrated entirely by Thomas Nast

relevant quote: Introduction, for adults: “This work will be taken in hand as well by the gray head—who, hoping to recall youthful emotions, goes back for the thousand-and-oneth time to Blue Beard and Cinderella—as by the little toddler who, having just succeeded in mastering Mother Goose’s Melodies, sees only acres of solid reading in the picture-book fields before him. We prepare the book for children of whatever growth, and hope that all ages will find somewhat of mirth and profit in its pages. … One honest feature of our plan is, to make no particular professions about publishing original matter. We shall invite the assistance of the best writers in our line of satire, but shall depend mainly upon our own pen …. England being the mother country, we conceive we have the right, and therefore intend to seize from her whatever suits our purpose, without the least ceremony ….” [“To the Public Generally.” 1 (May 1859): 1-2]

relevant information: The May issue was referred to as the “June” issue in a broadside (see above); the July issue was the subject of a notice in the Sept 1859 issue of Godey’s. The publishers seem to have done what they could to stretch two issues of a monthly magazine to cover at least four months.

source of information: May 1859 issue; LOC broadside; AAS catalog; OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 4

bibliography:

• Notice of June issue: “New Announcements since our Last Issue.” American Publishers’ Circular and Literary Gazette 5 (4 June 1849): 271.

• Notice. Godey’s Lady’s Book and Magazine. 59 (Sept 1859): 276. online

• Advertisement. American Railway Times 11 (18 June 1859): 4.

• Notice. Ballou’s Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion 17 (9 July 1859): 26.

The Child at Home ; Dec 1859-1879?

cover/masthead: 1861, 1863-1866 (plain edition) | 1864-1866 (color edition) | 1867-1871 (plain edition) | 1870 (color edition) | 1872

edited by: 1861, I. P. Warren

published: Boston, Massachusetts: N. Broughton, for the American Tract Society, 1861; publisher at 28 Cornhill; printed by George C. Rand & Avery, 3 Cornhill. Boston, Massachusetts: American Tract Society, 1870; publisher at 164 Tremont St.

• New York, New York: I. W. Brinckerhoff, for the American Tract Society, 1861; publisher at 13 Bible House, Astor Place.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 1861: 4 pp.; page size untrimmed, 14.5″ h x 10.5″ w. Prices: 1 copy, 15¢/ year; 10 copies, $1/ year; 50 copies, $4.50/ year; 100 copies, $8/ year

• 1870: “plain edition”: price: 1 copy, 30¢/ year; 8 copies, $1/ year; 40 copies, $5/ year; 100 copies, $12/ year. “colored edition”: 4 pp.; page size, 14.5″ h x 10.5″ w; price: 1 copy, 50¢/ year; 10 copies, $4/ year; 25 copies, $7.50/ year

• Copies published 1862-May 1863: 1,595,000

• Beginning in July 1864, the Child was available in either a “plain” or a “colored” edition: “We commence this month the publication of an edition of the Child at Home with COLORED ENGRAVINGS. The Heading and Large Cut of the first page are printed in from six to eight brilliant colors, making a paper having no equal in America for beauty and attractiveness. … Notwithstanding the great expensiveness of those colored engravings, and of their printing, we propose to put the price exceedingly low. … Any person now receiving the plain edition, may change it for the colored for the remainder of the year, by sending us twenty cents additional for each copy. The plain edition will be continued as heretofore.” [“Colored Engravings!” Child at Home 5 (July 1864): 28] The masthead and front-page illustration were printed in red, blue, yellow, brown, and black.

relevant information: The Child appears to have been founded after a split in the American Tract Society on the subject of slavery. [Bucer]

• On the list of periodicals subscribed to by the Massachusetts State Reform School in 1867. [Twenty-First Annual Report]

source of information: 1861-1872 scattered issues; New York Evangelist ; AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 4 & 5

bibliography:

• Advertisement. New York Evangelist 30 (15 Dec 1859): 5.

• “The Tract Journal and Child at Home.” The Independent 12 (5 Jan 1860): 4.

• Bucer. “ ‘The Tract Journal’ and ‘Child at Home,’ vs. ‘American Messenger’ and ‘the Child’s Paper;’ or Boston vs. New York.” German Reformed Messenger 25 (27 June 1860): 2.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 31. [google books]

• “American Tract Society, Boston.” New York Evangelist 33 (21 May 1863): 6.

Twenty-First Annual Report of the Trustees of the State Reform School. Boston, Massachusetts: Wright & Potter, 1868; p. 18. [google books]

• “The American Tract Society, Boston.” New York Observer and Chronicle 46 (9 April 1868): 115.

• Advertisement. The Missionary Magazine 50 (Dec 1870): 8.

• Notice. Christian Union 4 (13 Dec 1871): 382.

• Notice. Christian World 23 (June 1872; p. 199.

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 74. [archive.org]

Youth’s Gazette ; 10 Twelfth month (Dec) 1859-23 Third month (March) 1861

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; printed by J. Van Court

frequency: semimonthly; 1 vol/ year

description: Religious focus: Society of Friends (Quaker)

• “Most of the pieces included in this pamphlet are semi-monthly productions of the Moorestown reading circle.”

• Vol 1: 10 Twelfth month 1859-17 Third month 1860, with 8 issues; vol 2: 8 Twelfth month 1860-23 Third month 1861, with 8 issues

source of information: AAS catalog; NUC

The Youth’s Temperance Visitor ; Feb 1860-April 1861, Sept 1862-after Jan 1872

cover/masthead: 1860, 1864-1870

edited by: Z. Pope Vose • 1869-1870, with Clara A. Sylvester

published: Rockland, Maine: Z. Pope Vose.

• Rockland, Maine: Rich & Vose, 1872.

frequency: monthly

description: 1859: price, 25¢/ year. 1863-1864: price, 40¢/ year. 1865, price, 35¢/ year. 1866-1867, 8 pp.; price, 50¢/ year • Newspaper format

• Circulation: Sept 1862, 3500; Aug 1863, 7000; 1865, 7000; 1869-1870, 10,700; 1872, 8000-9000

• Vol 1 #12 is Jan 1861

• Temperance focus

relevant information: A piece from the paper was reprinted in Band of Hope Record, a British temperance magazine.

• On the list of periodicals subscribed to by the Massachusetts State Reform School in 1867. [Twenty-First Annual Report]

relevant quotes:

• The Visitor ’s history was complicated by the Civil War: “It was continued through the first volume and was received with much favor by many leading friends of the cause, but its support was nevertheless inadequate. A second volume was commenced, but finding it impossible to obtain a sufficient support while the country was in the midst of the excitement attending the first months of the war against southern rebellion, the paper was discontinued after the issue of three months, and its subscription list transferred to another publication. The publication of the Visitor was renewed by Mr. Vose in September, 1862 ….” [Sprague and Twombly; p. 194]

• In an attempt to interest subscribers, in 1863 Vose offered to send a copy of the Visitor free for a year “to one active friend of temperance at each post-office in the United States.” [Portsmouth Journal of Literature and Politics]

• In 1867, Vose circulated to the Sons of Temperance and the Good Templars an advertisement for the Visitor which promised “AN ELEGANT AND COSTLY BANNER! worth from $200 to $800” to the order garnering the greatest number of subscribers before April 1867—provided that at least 15,000 subscriptions were received: “For 15,000 subscribers, the Banner shall not cost less than $200; for 25,000, not less than $400; for 40,000, not less than $800.”

• Apparently realizing the popularity of subscriber-written puzzles, rebuses, and conundrums, in 1869, Vose wrote to successful puzzle-writers for at least one other periodical, offering a subscription to the Visitor as payment: “Applying recently to my friend the Assistant Editor of ‘Oliver Optic’s Magazine’, for the addresses of some of the best rebus-contributors to that mag., she recommended you to me, with two or three others. I send you this note to solicit that you will favor the Visitor with occasional contributions of rebuses, &, if disposed, of other kinds of ‘head-work’. On receiving a favorable response I shall be pleased to send you the Visitor free in return for your favors.” [letter from Z. Pope Vose to “Herbert.” 16 Dec 1869] “Head-work” was the title of the puzzles column for Oliver Optic’s Magazine (5 Jan 1867-Dec 1875).

source of information: Young People’s Helper ; Maine Farmer ; Zion’s Herald ; advertising broadside for the Visitor, Jan 1867; OCLC; Lyon; Rowell

available: AASHistPer, series 4 & 5

bibliography:

• Advertisement. Maine Farmer 27 (15 Dec 1859): 2.

• “An American Name to Be Honoured.” Band of Hope Record [London, England] 1 (July 1861); pp. 113-115. [google books]

• Mention. Quarterly Journal of the Grand Division, Sons of Temperance, of the State of Maine July 1862; p. 11. [google books]

• Notice. The Maine Teacher and School Officer 6 (October 1863); p. 127.

• Notice. Portsmouth Journal of Literature and Politics [Portsmouth, New Hampshire] 17 October 1863; p. 2.

• “Youth’s Temperance Visitor.” Christian Ambassador 13 (24 October 1863); p. 171.

• Notice. Maine Farmer 31 (29 Oct 1863): 2.

• Advertisement. Clark’s School Visitor. 8 (March 1864)

• Advertisement. Zion’s Herald and Wesleyan Journal 35 (25 May 1864): 84.

New England Business Directory for 1865, The. Boston: Sampson & Murdock, 1865; p. 754. [google books]

Journal of Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Session of the Right Worthy Grand Lodge of North America. Chicago: Jameson & Morse, 1865; pp. 32-34. [google books]

Proceedings of the First New England Temperance Convention. Boston: J. M. usher, 1866; p. 44. [google books]

• Advertisement. Zion’s Herald and Wesleyan Journal 37 (7 Feb 1866): 23.

• Notice. The Farmer’s Cabinet 64 (22 February 1866); p. 2.

• Notice. The New-London Chronicle [New London, Connecticut] 17 March 1866; p. 2.

• Notice. The Ladies’ Repository November 1867; p. 398. [google books]

Twenty-First Annual Report of the Trustees of the State Reform School. Boston, Massachusetts: Wright & Potter, 1868; p. 18. [google books]

• “Youth’s Temperance Visitor.” The Universalist 1 (19 September 1868); p. 3.

• Notice. The Children’s Friend (West Chester, Pennsylvania) 3 (Eleventh month 1868): 356. online

Geo. P. Rowell & Co’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1869; p. 42. [archive.org]

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 660. [google books]

• Advertisement. Young People’s Helper. 10 (Jan 1872): inside front cover.

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872. [archive.org]

• Edwin Sprague and W. H. Twombly. “The Press of Knox County.” In History of the Press of Maine, ed. Joseph Griffin. Brunswick: 1872; p. 194. [archive.org]

Twentieth Annual Report of the Proceedings of the Maine Press Association for 1883. Bar Harbor, Maine: Mount Desert Publishing Co., 1883; pp. 19.

• Joseph Wood, comp. Proceedings of the Maine Editors and Publishers’ Association, for the Year 1866. Bar Harbor, Maine: Mount Desert Publishing Company, 1884; pp. 12-13.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 148.

The Little Pioneer ; Jan 1860-1861?

edited by: “Uncle John”

published: San Francisco, California: Hutchings & Rosenfield.

frequency: monthly

• March 1860 is vol 1 #3

description: Page size, 10.25″ h; price, $1.25/ year

relevant information: A story from the Pioneer, “Little Min-Yung and his Cat,” was reprinted in the California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences.

source of information: Kenny; California Farmer ; Scenes of Wonder

bibliography:

• Advertisement. Hutchings’s California Magazine May 1860; p. 2.

• “Something for the Children.” California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences 13 (3 Aug 1860): 174.

• “Little Min-Yung and his Cat.” California Farmer and Journal of Useful Sciences 13 (3 Aug 1860): 174.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 10. [google books]

Scenes of Wonder & Curiosity from Hutchings’s California Magazine, 1856-1861, ed. R. R. Olmsted. Berkeley, California: Howell-North, 1962; p. 201. [archive.org]

Youth’s Gazette ; Jan 1860-after 9 Sept 1865?

published: New York, New York: General Protestant Episcopal Sunday School Union & Church Book Society.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

source of information: OCLC

Children’s Guest ; Jan 1860-after 1872

cover/masthead: 1864

edited by: 1862, F. D. Harriman • 1862-1866, A. B. Hart

published: New York, New York: General Protestant Episcopal Sunday School Union and Church Book Society, Jan 1860. 1861, publisher at 762 Broadway

• New York, New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1869-1872; 1869, publisher at 762 Broadway; 1870-1872, publisher at 713 Broadway

frequency: 1860, semimonthly; 1861, 1866, 1869-1872, semimonthly & monthly editions

description: 4 pp.; page size, 14.5″ h x 10.5″ w.

• Prices: 1860, $1/ year. 1861, semimonthly, 50¢; monthly, 25¢. 1866, semimonthly, 35¢ each; monthly, 70¢ each. 1869-1872, semimonthly, 50¢; monthly, 25¢

source of information: American Publishers’ Circular ; OCLC; AAS catalog; Kenny; Rowell

available: AASHistPer, series 4 & 5

bibliography:

• Advertisement. American Publishers’ Circular and Literary Gazette 6 (24 March 1860): 145.

• Advertisement. The Round Table 4 (1 Sept 1866): 80.

• Advertisement. The Round Table 4 (27 Oct 1866): 202.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; pp. 46, 49. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1869; p. 75. [archive.org]

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 704. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 124. [archive.org]

The Lutheran Sunday-School Herald ; Jan 1860-Dec 1910

cover/masthead: 1864-Dec 1867 | Jan 1868-Aug 1870, 1873

edited by: Matthias Sheeleigh, 1864-1872

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Lutheran Board of Publication; publisher at 42 North 9th St.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 4 pp.; page size, 14″ h x 9.5″ w.

• Prices, 1864-1867: 1 copy, 25¢/ year; 6 copies, $1.25/ year; 10 copies, $2/ year; 25 copies, $3.75/ year; 100 copies, $12/ year.

• Prices, 1868-Nov 1869: 1 copy, 25¢/ year; 6 copies, $1.40/ year; 10 copies, $2.25/ year; 25 copies, $4/ year; 100 copies, $15/ year.

• Prices, Nov 1869-Aug 1870: 1 copy, 25¢/ year; 6 copies, $1.25/ year; 10 copies, $2/ year; 25 copies, $4/ year; 50 copies, $7.50/ year; 100 copies, $14/ year; 500 copies, $60/ year.

• Circulation: Dec 1865: 30,000 [“Our Dear Herald.” 6 (Dec 1865): 46] 1872, 32,000

• Religious focus: Lutheran

relevant information: While intended for children, the paper included a few pieces intended for Sunday-school teachers.

relevant quotes:

• The American Civil War increased costs for Herald as it did for all American periodicals: “The cost of paper is much increased; therefore many more subscribers are now needed.” [“The Herald.” 5 (Feb 1864): 6]

• In 1868, the Herald raised its prices closer to those of other Sunday-school papers: “[W]e shall be obliged to ask our dear friends for a little addition to the price. Many of our subscribers have themselves suggested this, and we find it necessary. The Herald has been furnished too low—lower than most others of its class—below the paying figure. Surely none will object to a slight increase in the terms.” [“The Herald for 1868.” 8 (Nov 1867): 42.]

• 1869 saw some lower prices: “This material reduction we have been encouraged by the increased patronage of the past year to make. We trust the coming year will so much more increase the circulation, that one year hence another reduction may be safely attempted.” [“Reduced Terms for 1870!!” 10 (Nov 1869): 42.]

• The type size changed in 1870: “Instead of present type, which the printers call Long Primer, we shall use a smaller size, known as Bourgeois. This will afford additional reading matter in each number, about equaling one-fourth, or another page. It will be substantially as though the paper contained five pages of the present type.” [“Smaller Type for 1870!!” 10 (Nov 1869): 42.]

continued by: Lutheran Boys and Girls: “With January 1911, our King’s Message and the Lutheran Sunday School Herald, will be merged into [Lutheran Boys and Girls]”. [Proceedings p. 147]

source of information: 1864-1870 bound issues; Proceedings ; Rowell

bibliography:

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 162. [archive.org]

Proceedings of the Third Annual Convention of the Synod of New York of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. Philadelphia: Lutheran Publication Society, 1910; p. 147.

Youth’s Magazine ; May 1860-April 1861

edited by: May-Aug 1860, George C. Connor

• Sept 1860-April 1861, “Uncle John”

• also, “Aunt Alice”; “Uncle Robin”

published: Nashville, Tennessee: Graves, Marks & Co., May 1860-April 1861.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 48 pp.

relevant information: Apparently referred to as “Youth’s Monthly Magazine” in 1860 and by Gilmer.

continues: The Children’s Book of Choice and Entertaining Reading for the Little Folks at Home (also, The Children’s Monthly Book) ; Jan 1855-April 1860

source of information: Kelly; OCLC; DeBow’s ; Gilmer

bibliography:

• Description of visit to Nashville. DeBow’s Review and Industrial Resources, Statistics, etc. Aug 1860: 248-251; mention on page 250.

• Gertrude C. Gilmer. Checklist of Southern Periodicals to 1861. Boston: F. W. Faxon Company, 1934; p. 65.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 149.

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

• Mary D. Manning. “ ‘Trust Not Appearances’: Admonitory Pieces from Two Tennessee Juvenile Periodicals of the 1850s.” University of Mississippi Studies in English. 5 (1984-1987): 131-139.

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