introduction not listed by title by place by editor by publisher by special subject covers
1789-1810 1811-1820 1821-1830 1831-1840 1841-1850 1851-1860 1861-1872

American children’s periodicals, 1841-1850

A newstand of American children’s periodicals, 1841-1850

This bibliography—with a detailed introduction—is available as an ebook from Barnes & Noble, Kobo, Apple, Scribd, 24symbols, and amazon.com.

[NOTES: Unless noted, page size is the size when trimmed, usually for binding; page size is approximate. Page size is described as height by width, thus: [measurement in inches]″ h x [measurement in inches]″ w

about frequency: semimonthly: twice a month (usually 24 issues per year); biweekly: every other week (usually 26 issues per year); bimonthly: every other month (usually 6 issues per year)

about availability: selections or complete issues available for free on the Internet, or available at libraries on microform or in databases

abbreviations:

APS, American Periodical Series (microfilm; also, digital database)

AAS, American Antiquarian Society, Massachusetts

AASHistPer, American Antiquarian Society Historical Periodicals (digital database; series 1-5)

Batsel, Union List of United Methodist Serials, 1773-1973, comp. John D. Batsel and Lyda K. Batsel (Evanston, Illinois: n.p., 1974)

NUC, National Union Catalog

OCLC, database available at many institutions via WorldCat (information may also be available in the NUC)

ULS, Union List of Serials in Libraries of the United States and Canada, ed. Winifred Gregory (New York, New York: H. W. Wilson Co., 1927)]

The Sabbath School Repository ; 1841

cover/masthead: 1841

published: Dover, New Hampshire: Trustees of the Freewill Baptist Connection. Printed by William Burr

frequency: monthly

description: 24 pp.; page size, 7.25″ h; price, 50¢

• AAS has Oct 1841 issue (vol 1 #4)

• Religious focus: Baptist

relevant quote: On the length of time the Repository was published: “The Sabbath School Repository was published in 1841, but was discontinued at the end of a year.” [“The Freewill Baptists”]

source of information: AASHistPer; Christian Review ; AAS

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• notice. Sabbath School Messenger. 5 (17 Sept 1841); p. 31. online

• “The Freewill Baptists.” The Christian Review 110 (1 Oct 1862); p. 568.

Juvenile Mirror and Youth’s Literary Companion ; 1841

cover/masthead: 1841

edited by: G. H. Hickman • April 1841, with an additional editor

published: Baltimore, Maryland: G. H. Hickman; 1848, publisher at 86 Baltimore St.

frequency: 2 Jan-27 March 1841, weekly: Saturday; 15 April 1841, monthly

description: 8 pp.; page size, 6.5″ h; price, $2/ year

• April 1841, “increased in size” [“The Juvenile Mirror” The Baltimore Sun]

relevant quotes:

• While the Mirror included biography and history, literature was a major focus: “The design of the work, more particularly, is to instil into the minds of children and youth, a love for literature, and the editor will feel himself highly flattered, by receiving suitable articles for insertion, especially from the juvenile portion of our readers.” [“To the Public.” 1 (2 Jan 1841); p. 1.]

• The editor of Godey’s was quite complimentary: “It is well filled with wholesome matter for the juvenile mind. Our friend Hickman has talent enough in his own family to fill a monthly, even larger than the Mirror.”

source of information: AASHistPer; AAS catalog; notices, etc., below

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• “Juvenile Mirror.” The Sun [Baltimore, Maryland] 8 (9 Jan 1841); p. 2.

• notice. The Sun [Baltimore, Maryland] 8 (29 Jan 1841); p. 2.

• “The Juvenile Mirror.” The Baltimore Sun [Baltimore, Maryland] 12 April 1841; p. 4.

• notice. Godey’s Lady’s Book June 1841; p. 283.

The Young Ladies’ Casket ; 1841-24 March 1842

edited by: vol 2: Lydia A. Duncan; Margaretta S. Compton

published: Charlestown, Massachusetts: Charlestown Female Seminary.

frequency: semimonthly

description: Page size, 8″ h

• Vol 2 is 23 Dec 1841-24 March 1842

relevant information: Apparently an amateur publication: “The young ladies of the Female Seminary in Charlestown, (Mass.) have published two numbers of a neat and talented little paper called the ‘Young Ladies’ Casket.’ ” [“Leaf & Stem Basket.”]

source of information: NUC

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• “Leaf & Stem Basket.” Southern Rose 6 (14 April 1838); p. 272.

Youth’s Magazine and Juvenile Harp ; Jan 1841-after July 1842

edited by: Benjamin F. Smith, 1841. Harriet Beecher Stowe, 1842

published: Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, Jan-Oct 1841.

• Cleveland, Ohio, Jan-Oct 1841.

• Cincinnati, Ohio: S. W. Johns, Nov 1841-1842

frequency: monthly: Jan-Oct 1841, 1st of month. Nov 1841-1842, 15th of month

description: 24 pp.; page size 7.75″ h. Prices: Jan-Oct 1841, 62½¢/ year. Nov 1841-1842, 1 copy, 75¢/ year; 10 or more copies, 50¢ each

relevant quotes:

• Prospectus: “This work is designed to promote the moral and intellectual improvement of the young, and also to furnish music for our Sabbath and Common Schools. … The ‘Youth’s Magazine and Juvenile Harp’ will be published simultaneously in Pittsburgh and Cleveland.”

• “This work was commenced last January [1841] in Pittsburgh, and is now published in this city [Cincinnati, Ohio]. The editor, Mr. B. F. Smith, has, we understand, met with great encouragement.” [“The Youth’s Magazine and Juvenile Harp.”]

source of information: Sabbath School Messenger ; Western Christian Advocate ; AAS catalog; OCLC; notices, etc., below

bibliography:

• “Prospectus of the Youth’s Magazine and Juvenile Harp.” The Pittsburgh Gazette [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania] 29 Jan 1841; p. 4.

• “The Youth’s Magazine and Juvenile Harp.” Western Christian Advocate 8 (26 Nov 1841); p. 126.

• notice. Sabbath School Messenger. 5 (1 April 1842); p. 83. online

• notice. Ladies Repository, and Gatherings of the West 2 (July 1842); p. 223.

Youth’s Family Instructor and Sunday School Visitor ; 7 Jan 1841-after May 1842

published: Portland, Maine: L. D. Fleming. • Newark, New Jersey: L. D. Fleming, 1842. • New York, New York: publisher at 135 Nassau St., 1842.

frequency: biweekly; Thursday

description: Page size, 10.25″ h; price, 50¢/ year

• Religious focus: Baptist

relevant quote: Fleming was pastor of the Casco Street Church and apparently turned to editing out of necessity: “He has lost the power of speech in preaching the word of life, but still wishes to be useful, and provide for the wants of his family, and has resorted to this commendable course to accomplish these desirable objects.” [Palladium Feb 1841]

source of information: notices, etc., below; OCLC; Richardson

available: “Winter,” a piece from the Instructor, was reprinted in The Eastern Rose-Bud (27 Nov 1841)

bibliography:

• “Youth’s Family Instructor and Sunday School Visitor.” Christian Palladium 9 (1 Feb 1841); p. 298.

• “Youth’s Family Instructor and Sunday School Visiter [sic].” Christian Palladium 9 (15 Feb 1841); pp. 313-314.

• “Youth’s Family Instructor.” Christian Palladium 10 (1 Jan 1842); p. 265.

• “Youth’s Family Instructor and Sunday School Visitor.” Granite Pillar and New-Hampshire Temperance Advocate 1 (May 1842); p. 3.

• H. W. Richardson. “The Press of Cumberland County.” In History of the Press of Maine, ed. Joseph Griffin. Brunswick: 1872; p. 68. [archive.org]

Robert Merry’s Museum ; Feb 1841-Nov 1872

cover/masthead: Feb 1841 | 1841-1843 | 1844 | 1845-1847 | early 1848 | 1848-1853 | 1854-1856 | 1857-1867 | 1868-early 1870 | late 1870-1872

edited by: Feb 1841-Dec 1854, Samuel Griswold Goodrich (“Robert Merry” & “Peter Parley”)

• Sept 1847-March 1848, Samuel Kettell.

• 1851-Nov 1855, Stephen T. Allen (“Robert Merry”)

• May 1854-before 1867, William C. Cutter (“Hiram Hatchet”)

• Jan 1855-1866, John N. Stearns (“Robert Merry”)

• April 1857-1859, Francis Chandler Woodworth (“Uncle Frank”)

• April 1857-Jan 1871, Susanna Newbould (“Aunt Sue”)

• Jan 1862-?, William A. Fitch (“Uncle William”)

• Oct 1867-1869, Louisa May Alcott

• 1870, “Uncle Miles”

published: Publishers are difficult to sort out precisely; following dates are taken from issues of the magazine and are organized by city.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Bradbury & Soden, Feb 1841-1844; office at 10 School St., 1841-1844; office at 12 School St., 1845-1846. Boston, Massachusetts: Bradbury & Guild, 1847; office at 12 School St. Boston, Massachusetts: Horace B. Fuller, 1868-Nov 1872.

• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Samuel Hill, April-May 1841. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Drew and Scammell, June 1841-after May 1842; Drew and Scammell at “Corner of Third and Dock Street”.

• New York, New York: Darius Mead, Jan 1845-Dec 1846; office at 148 Nassau St., 1845; office at 141 Nassau St., 1846. New York, New York: W. K. Vaill, April 1841; Vaill at 91 Nassau St. New York, New York: Bradbury & Soden, Feb 1842-June 1843; office at 127 Nassau St. New York, New York: George W. & Sylvester O. Post, Jan 1847-after April 1848; office at 5 Beekman St., Clinton Hall. New York, New York: James E. Hickman, before Aug-Dec 1848. New York, New York: D. McDonald & Co., Jan-Sept 1849. New York, New York: Stephen T. Allen & Co., Oct 1849-; office at 141 Nassau St., Oct 1849-May 1850; office at 142 Nassau St., June-Dec 1850; office at 116 Nassau St., 1852-1855. New York, New York: Stephen T. Allen, Isaac C. & John N. Stearns, Jan-Nov 1855. New York, New York: Isaac C. & John N. Stearns, Dec 1855-Dec 1856; office at 116 Nassau St., 1856. New York, New York: John N. Stearns & Co., 1857-April 1861; office at 116 Nassau St. New York, New York: John N. Stearns, May 1861-; office at 111 Fulton St., May 1861-March 1866. New York, New York: Eugene H. Fales, April 1866-1867; office at 111 Fulton St., April 1866; office at 172 William St., May 1866-July 1867.

frequency: monthly; 2 vol/ year

description: Feb 1841-Sept 1841, Nov 1841-Dec 1867: 32 pp. Oct 1841: 64 pp. Jan 1868-Dec 1869: 40 pp. Jan 1870-Nov 1872: 48 pp.

• Price: 1841: 12.5¢/ copy; 1 copy, $1.50/ year; 4 copies, $5/ year. 1843: $1/ year; 6 copies, $5/ year; 13 copies, $10/ year. 1844-Sept 1864: $1/ year. 1844: 4 copies, $3/ year; 7 copies, $5/ year; 15 copies, $10/ year; 32 copies, $20/ year; 40 copies, $24/ year. Oct 1864-: $1.50/ year.

• Page size untrimmed: Feb-June 1841, 8″ h x 6″ w; Nov 1841-Nov 1872, 8.5″ h x 6″ w

• Circulation: May 1841, 7000 (from magazine); July 1842, 12,000 (from magazine); Feb 1843, 12,000 (from magazine); June 1850, more than 12,000 (from magazine); 1850, 13,000 (from Kennedy); 1857, 20,000 (from the magazine; the number became the traditional number of subscribers, referred to many times by editors and subscribers); 1869-1872, 10,000 (from magazine).

• Issues were stereotyped from the beginning.

• Oct 1841 issue is a double issue, with two issues inside the paper cover. One issue is volume 2 #3; the other is volume 2 #4. The cover for the issue states that it is “Nos. 9 & 10. October. 1841.”

• Vol 1-vol 53 (Feb 1841-Dec 1867); new series, vol 1-vol 10 (Jan 1868-Nov 1872)

relevant information:

• “Robert Merry,” the putative editor of the magazine, first appeared in 1839 in Robert Merry’s Miscellany, a paperbound book published by Samuel Colman. While much of the material in the Miscellany is by Samuel Goodrich—who fictionalized his childhood to provide Merry’s background—the author isn’t listed. Many of the pieces in the Miscellany appeared in the Museum during its first year. In 1839, Colman also published Robert Merry’s Annual, a collection which includes none of Goodrich’s material.

• After the Museum absorbed The Schoolfellow in Oct 1857, former subscribers to the Schoolfellow received the Oct-Dec 1857 issues of the Museum inside a copy of the Schoolfellow’s cover altered to include the address of the Museum’s publisher.

• The Museum was one of only a handful of periodicals that William A. Alcott felt comfortable recommending to young readers in 1844. [p. 116]

• Before Eugene Fales bought the magazine in 1866, he was the office boy. Having enlisted in the army during the Civil War, he endured a romantic series of adventures which ended in his marrying one of the Museum’s subscribers. Ill health, however, forced him to sell the magazine to Horace B. Fuller, who gave it a more professional tone.

relevant quotes:

• “Robert Merry” introduced himself to readers on the first page: “Kind and gentle people who make up what is called the Public—permit a stranger to tell you a brief story. I am about trying my hand at a Magazine; and this is my first number.” [1 (Feb 1841); p. 1]

• The uniquely intimate relationship between editor and readers began the first year: “I return a thousand thanks to my many young friends, who have written me letters …. Jane R—— will accept my thanks for—she knows what! … The basket of chestnuts were duly received from Alice D——, and were very welcome. Ralph H—— will see that I have done as he requested; I have given a portrait of the fine gray squirrel he sent me, in this number. He is well, and as lively as ever.” [2 (Dec 1841); p. 187]

• Given the date on the announcement inserted into the Nov 1872 issue and the fact that the subscription ledgers apparently were available to the Companion’s publishers, the Museum probably was sold before the Boston Fire which destroyed Horace B. Fuller’s business in Nov 1872: “The Publisher of Merry’s Museum announces its discontinuance with the issue of the present number [November]. He has made an arrangement by which it will be merged into the Youth’s Companion, and the subscribers shall be furnished for their unexpired terms with that paper. … The Publisher feels assured that his friends and readers will find in the Youth’s Companion all of the qualities that have pleased them in this Magazine, and in addition, other attractive features which have made the Companion one of the most interesting and popular publications in the country. Its enormous circulation, almost one hundred thousand copies, enables the publishers to secure many of the finest writers of the day, and we hope our readers will not fail to renew their subscriptions to the Youth’s Companion for 1872, as we feel assured it cannot fail to please them.” [62 (Nov 1872): insert]

absorbed: The Youth’s Medallion ; 17 April 1841-10 Dec 1842 • Parley’s Magazine ; March 1833-1844 • The Playmate ; Sept 1847-May 1848 • Youth’s CabinetWoodworth’s Youth’s Cabinet ; 28 April 1837-March 1857 • The Schoolfellow ; Jan 1849-Sept 1857

absorbed by: The Youth’s Companion ; 16 April, 6 June 1827-Sept 1929

source of information: Feb 1841-Nov 1872 scattered issues and bound vols; APS reels 743 & 1499-1501; Dechert

available: AASHistPer, series 3

• APS II (1800-1850), reels 743 & 1499-1501

excerpts online

bibliography:

• notice. Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 14 (7 Aug 1841); p. 27.

• “ ‘Light of Zion & Sabbath School Contributor.’ ” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 14 (18 Sept 1841); p. 50.

• review. Rural Repository 18 (Sept 25, 1841); p. 63. online

• notice. Godey’s Lady’s Book, and Ladies’ American Magazine 23 (Oct 1841); p. 190.

• “Merry’s Museum.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 14 (8 Jan 1842); p. 114.

• notice. Sabbath School Messenger 5 (4 Feb 1842): 67. online

• advertisement. Brother Jonathan (12 Feb 1842): advertising cover, p. xxviii. online

• review. The New-York Mirror 20 (26 March 1842); p. 103. online

• notice. Brother Jonathan 1 (16 April 1842); p. 437. online

• notice. New York Evangelist 13 (8 Sept 1842); p. 143.

• notice. Ladies’ Pearl 2 (May 1842); p. 462. online

• William A. Alcott. The Boy’s Guide to Usefulness. Boston, Massachusetts: Waite, Peirce, and Company, 1844: note p. 116. [google books]

Doggett’s New-York City Directory for 1845 & 1846, 4th ed. New York: John Doggett, Jr., 1845; p. 429. [google books]

• notice. Scientific American 2 (27 March 1847); p. 213. online

• notice. Scientific American 2 (29 May 1847); p. 287. online

• notice. The Youth’s Casket 1 (March 1852); p. 52. online

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; catalog of newspapers, p. 31. [archive.org]

• notice. New York Daily Times 29 Dec 1854; p. 2.

• Franklin B. Hough. “Newspapers and Other Periodicals Published in New-York in 1855,” in Census of the State of New-York, for 1855. Albany, New York: Charles Van Benthuysen, 1857; pp. 488-489.

• advertisement. The Youth’s Companion, (12 Jan 1865); p. 8. online

• Henry C. Wright. “Letter From Henry C. Wright: ‘Merry’s Museum’ the Handmaid of Slavery.” The Liberator, 27 (March 20, 1857); p. 48, col 3-4. online

• “Children’s Papers.” Anti-Slavery Bugle 15 Dec 1860; p. 2.

• notice. Southern Cultivator 25 (Oct 1867); p. 329.

• notice. American Literary Gazette 9 (1 Oct 1867); p. 298. online

• Franklin B. Hough. “Newspapers and Other Periodicals,” in Census of the State of New York, for 1865. Albany, New York: Charles Van Benthuysen & Sons, 1867; pp. 592-593.

• “Children’s Magazines.” The St. Johnsbury Caledonian [St. Johnsbury, Vermont] 13 Nov 1868; p. 2.

• notice. American Literary Gazette 10 (15 Jan 1868); p. 177. online

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 666. [google books]

• notice of Feb issue. Sunday-School Times 12 (19 Feb 1870); p. 125.

Wentworth’s Boston Commercial Directory for 1871. Boston, Massachusetts: Wentworth & Co., 1870; p. 119. [google books]

• notice. Lowell Daily Citizen and News [Lowell, Massachusetts] 21 (7 Feb 1871); p. 2, col 1. online

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 75. [archive.org]

A Noble Life: John N. Stearns. New York: National Temperance Society and Publication House, n.d.

• William H. Coleman. “The Children’s ‘Robert Merry’ and the Late John N. Stearns.” The New York Evangelist 16 May 1895; p. 19. online

• Death notice for Horace B. Fuller. The Publishers’ Weekly (21 Jan 1899); p. 56. online

• Harriet L. Matthews. “Children’s Magazines.” Bulletin of Bibliography. 1 (April 1899); p. 133-136.

• William Oliver Stevens. “ ‘Uncle’ Peter Parley.” St. Nicholas Nov 1925; p. 78-81. online

• Frank Luther Mott. “Merry’s Museum.” In A History of American Magazines. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1930. Vol. 1; pp. 713-715. [useless: listed here only for completeness]

• Dorothy B. Dechert. “The Merry Family: A Study of Merry’s Museum, 1841-1872, and of the Various Periodicals that Merged with It.” Master’s thesis. Columbia University, 1942.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 13, 137, 142, 151, 152, 154, 162-167, 187, 376.

• Madeleine B. Stern. “The First Appearance of a ‘Little Women’ Incident.” American Notes & Queries 3 (Oct. 1943); pp. 99-100.

• John B. Crume. “Children’s Magazines, 1826-1857.” Journal of Popular Culture 7 (1973); p. 698-706.

• Justin G. Schiller. “Magazines for Young America: The First Hundred Years of Juvenile Periodicals.” Columbia Library Columns 23 (1974); pp. 24-39.

• Rex Burns. Success in America: The Yeoman Dream and the Industrial Evolution. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press, 1976; pp. 27-45.

• Jill Delano Sweiger. “Conceptions of Children in American Juvenile Periodicals: 1830-1870.” PhD diss. Rutgers University, 1977.

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

• Pat Pflieger. “A Visit to Merry’s Museum ; or, Social Values in a Nineteenth-Century American Periodical for Children.” PhD diss. University of Minnesota, 1987. online

• Pat Pflieger. “Robert Merry’s Museum and the Lure of the Sensational.” Paper presented at the American Culture Association conference, 1988. online

• Pat Pflieger. “Death and the Readers of Robert Merry’s Museum.” Paper presented at the American Culture Association conference, 1994. online

• Pat Pflieger. “An ‘Online Community’ of the Nineteenth Century.” Paper presented at the American Culture Association conference, 2001. online

• Pat Pflieger, ed. Letters from Nineteenth-Century American Children to Robert Merry’s Museum Magazine. Lewiston, New York: Mellen Press, 2001. online version: Dear Friend Robert Merry

The Tutor, and Boys’ and Girls’ Weekly Album ; 26 Feb 1841-30 Sept 1842

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: A. F. Cox?; publisher at 400 North Third St & 98 Green St., 1841

frequency: weekly; Friday?

description: 4 pp.?: described in one article as a “newspaper”; Historical Society of Pennsylvania owns two volumes: 128 pp. and 108 pp. Price: 2¢/ issue

relevant information:

• The Tutor may have had a putative editor: “Philip Pleasant.” Timothy Shay Arthur (T. S. Arthur) apparently wrote for the magazine.

• In 1841, A. F. Cox made an effort to have the Tutor used in the Philadelphia public schools: “[A communication] from A. F. Cox, relative to the introduction of a newspaper called the ‘Tutor,’ to all the schools, was laid on the table.” [“The Board of Controllers of Public Schools”]

relevant quote: A description: “We have received the first number of this work, which is published in quarto form, at 2 cents per number. It is intended particularly for the younger portion of the community, to promote their mental culture and moral character. Publication offices, No. 400 North Third street, and No. 98 Green street. [notice]

source of information: Lyon; online catalog, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; notices, etc., below

bibliography:

• notice. Public Ledger [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 23 Feb 1841; p. 2.

• “The Board of Controllers of Public Schools.” Public Ledger [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 17 Dec 1841; p. 4.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 137.

The Eastern Rose-Bud ; 6 March 1841-1842 • Eastern Rosebud and Sabbath School Companion ; 12 Nov 1842-22 April 1843

edited by: 1842-22 April 1843, John E. True

published: Portland, Maine: S. H. Colesworthy, 6 March 1841-22 April 1843.

frequency: 6 March 1841-1842, monthly • 12 Nov 1842-22 April 1843, semimonthly • 2 vol/ year

description: 6 March 1841-1842: page size, 5.75″ h • 12 Nov 1842-8 April 1843, 16 pp.; 22 April 1843, 12 pp. Page size, 7″ h x 5.25″ w. Prices, 50¢/ year; sabbath schools: 10 copies, $4; 20 copies, $7

• Religious focus: Universalist

relevant quotes:

• Introductory: “This little work is intended for the family circle, and especially for children and youth. … The work will embrace History, Geography, Travels, Stories, Natural History, Sketches, Adventures, Anecdotes, Fables, and a great variety of lively, useful, entertaining and instructive matter, which will be written or selected with a direct reference to the tastes and capacities of youthful minds.” [“Introductory Remarks.” 1 (6 March 1841): 1-2.]

• On the last issue: “The present number [22 April 1843] of the Rose-Bud will complete the second year of its publication. As we have not had sufficient patronage to defray the expenses of printing the work, we are obliged to discontinue it, at least for the present. If at any future time there should seem to be a demand for the publication of a work like the Rose-Bud, we may possibly revive it, but at this time, when the country is flooded with newspapers of all descriptions, from the larger cities, it is but a waste of time and money to attempt to carry on such a work to advantage to the publisher or with profit to the public.” [“Close of the Volume.” 4 (22 April 1843: 189.]

• The editor of the Evangelical Magazine wasn’t sorry to see the magazine go, critiquing the portraits of prominent ministers published in the Rose Bud with some stern words: “If such are a sample of the portraits intended to be circulated by the Rose Bud, we sincerely hope that its temporary suspension may be continued unto a perpetual sleep.” [A. B. G. “The Eastern Rose Bud”]

source of information: 1842-1843 vol; AASHistPer, series 3; OCLC; AAS catalog; notices, etc., below

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• “New Publications.” Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Advocate 12 (2 April 1841); p. 111.

• A. B. G. “The Eastern Rose Bud.” Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Advocate 14 (12 May 1843); p. 150-151.

• H. W. Richardson. “The Press of Cumberland County.” In History of the Press of Maine, ed. Joseph Griffin. Brunswick: 1872; p. 67. [archive.org]

• Richard Eddy. Universalism in America. Boston, Massachusetts: Universalist Publishing House, 1886; vol 2, p. 595. [google books]

Youth’s Medallion ; 17 April 1841-10 Dec 1842

cover/masthead: 1841-1842

edited by: “Uncle Christopher”

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Sleeper, Dix & Rogers, 17 April 1841-April 15, 1842; publisher at the Mercantile Journal Office, Wilson’s Lane.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Sleeper & Rogers, 30 April-11 June 1842; publisher at the Mercantile Journal Office, Wilson’s Lane.

frequency: biweekly: Saturday; 1 vol/ year

description: 8 pp.; quarto; page size, 12.75″ h x 10″ w. Prices, 1 copy, $1/ year; 6 copies, $5/ year; 20 copies, $15/ year.

relevant information: “Uncle Christopher” was a putative editor in the vein of “Robert Merry,” whose Robert Merry’s Museum had debuted two months earlier. Like “Uncle Robert,” Christopher was a traveler who told his story in early issues of the paper. “Uncle Christopher” and “Uncle Robert” are pictured nearly side-by-side in the last issue of the Medallion.

• One of dozens of periodicals in the largest private library in the antebellum South, owned by Hugh Graham, of Tennessee. [letter from Louise Patterson Miller]

• An 1841 bound volume was among rare books purchased by state librarian Johnson Brigham for the rare book collection of the Iowa state library, in 1901.

relevant quotes:

• From an early advertisement: “This paper will be devoted to the instruction and the entertainment of the young. It will be filled with articles relating to the news of the day—Biography—History—Science—Travels—Natural History—Short Essays—Interesting Stories—Fables and Anecdotes. The importance of cherishing Temperance, and all the moral virtues will be enforced. In a word, no exertions will be spared to furnish a miscellaneous newspaper, which shall be attractive to children, and meet the approbation of Parents.” [National Gazette 16 Aug 1841]

• Originally, the paper was to appear in Dec 1840 or Jan 1841. The editor promised that his publication would be “devoted to the entertainment, and moral and intellectual instruction of youth. This paper will be of neither a party nor sectarian character—but great care will be taken to render the Medallion attractive to children, and worthy the approbation of parents. In this paper the importance of temperance, and of early establishing correct habits and sound moral principles, will be enforced by argument and illustration. The first number of the medallion will be issued in December or January next … ” [advertisement. Christian Register and Boston Observer]

• Technical problems meant that the first issue was late: The publishers “had ordered a new press on which to print the new paper, being desirous of making it appear as favorable as possible in your eyes. This press, they had reason to expect, would be ready by the middle of March; but they have been disappointed; and what is a more serious matter, they have been compelled to disappoint the subscribers to the medallion. But as they have at length fairly commenced, there is good reason to believe that there will be nothing to prevent this little paper from being issued regularly every fortnight for a good while to come.” [“Good Bye.” 1 (17 April 1841); p. 8.]

• About the merger with Merry’s Museum: “There are several reasons which compel me to adopt this course—to only two of which I shall refer. At the time this youth’s paper was established, I was not aware of the number and variety of papers and magazines, intended expressly for youth, and conducted with great ability, which were in existence—and I was urged to the undertaking by friends, for whose opinions I had much respect, and who assured me that such a paper was wanted in the community. But about the time the Medallion was commenced, several other publications for youth, of a highly popular character, were issued from the press, and were received with much favor. This, of course, prevented, in some degree, the circulation of the Medallion; and, taken in connection with the embarassment of the times, has so limited the number of the subscribers, that it has hardly paid even the expense of paper and printing! Of course, the publishers have not felt warranted in expending further sums for the purpose of making the publication more attractive, and perhaps valuable—which would have been the case, had due encouragement been given. The other reason, to which I referred, is this. I have found, within the present year, that my labors, of a sedentary character, have seriously injured my health; insomuch that I have been compelled to devote much less time to preparing matter, and writing articles of interest for this paper, than I anticipated ….” As was common, readers who had paid for issues that now would not be received would receive instead issues of Merry’s Museum; unusually, however, those who already were subscribed to the Museum could get a refund: “ … I wish it to be distinctly understood that all who may now be subscribers to Merry’s Museum, or who for other reasons prefer receiving in money, the amount now due them of their subscriptions, will have the balance immediately returned to them, on application at the Counting Room of the Boston Mercantile Journal.” [“Uncle Christopher’s Farewell.” 2 (10 Dec 1842); p. 141.]

absorbed by: Robert Merry’s Museum ; Feb 1841-Nov 1872

source of information: Sept 1841-June 1842, scattered issues; AASHistPer; Dechert; notices, etc., below

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• “The Youth’s Medallion.” Knoxville Register and Weekly Times [Knoxville, Tennessee] 16 Sept 1840; p. 3.

• advertisement. Christian Register and Boston Observer 19 (5 Sept 1840); p. 143.

• review. Boston Recorder 26 (30 April 1841); p. 70.

• advertisement. Boston Post [Boston, Massachusetts] 23 April 1841; p. 2.

• notice. Christian Watchman 22 (30 April 1841); p. 71.

• The fourth number. Boston Post [Boston, Massachusetts] 2 June 1841; p. 2.

• notice. Sabbath School Messenger. 5 (2 July 1841); p. 11. online

• “Youth’s Medallion.” The National Gazette [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 16 Aug 1841; p. 3.

• “The Youth’s Medallion.” Boston Post [Boston, Massachusetts] 29 Nov 1841; p. 2.

• review. Brother Jonathan. 2 (30 April 1842); p. 18. online

• advertisement of vol 2. Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 14 (14 May 1842); p. 187.

• “Gathering the Books.” Evening Times-Republican [Marshalltown, Iowa] 30 Nov 1901; p. 1.

• “Seen and Heard”: letter from Louise Patterson Miller. The Knoxville Journal [Knoxville, Tennessee] 27 Nov 1926; p. 6.

• Dorothy B. Dechert. “The Merry Family: A Study of Merry’s Museum, 1841-1872, and of the Various Periodicals that Merged with It.” Master’s thesis. Columbia University, 1942.

Cold Water Army and Youth’s Picnic (also Cold Water Army) ; Aug 1841-1843

cover/masthead: 1841

edited by: Isaac F. Shepard; address in 1841: 11 Cornhill, Boston, Massachusetts

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Temperance Union, 1841; printed by William S. Damrell, 9 Cornhill

frequency: weekly: Thursday

description: 1841: 4 pp.; page size untrimmed, 15″ h x 10.5″ w

• price, $1/ year in advance

• Circulation: 1842, 1500 [Temperance Journal 10 (Aug 1842)]

• Temperance focus

relevant information: The sample issue may have been published in Aug 1841; issue two appeared the second week of Sept 1841. [“Prospectus”]

relevant quotes:

• Description: “Each number will contain one or more original cuts to illustrate and enforce some subject discussed or fact stated in the number. It will be devoted to the organization and support of the Cold Water Army. Tales founded on fact, and sketches of men and manners, will be prepared of suitably attractive character and useful influence, historical events will be rewritten to adapt them to impress the minds and hearts of the young, and such matters of news, incident and anecdote as may be thought interesting and instructive will be introduced. It is hoped the Cold Water Army and others will take it. Let two, four, or eight boys and girls take one between them, if unable to do so separately.” [1 (14 Oct 1841); p. 23]

• In 1842, the Army may have changed size: “Its size and mechanical execution very much resemble that of Merry’s Museum.” [Portland Transcript]

available:

• An extract from “Village Pencillings,” a story in the paper, was printed in Youth’s Companion [15 (29 Oct 1841); p. 97]

• “The Contrast,” a story from the Army, was published in the Christian Reflector [6 (1 Feb 1843); p. 17.]

source of information: 14 Oct 1841 issue; notices, etc., below

bibliography:

• “Cold Water Army and Youth’s Picnic.” Temperance Journal [Boston, Massachusetts] 9 (Aug 1841); p. 2.

• “Prospectus of the Cold Water Army and Youth’s Picnic.” Temperance Journal [Boston, Massachusetts] 9 (Nov 1841); pp. 2-3.

• “Cold Water Army and Youth’s Picnic.” Temperance Journal [Boston, Massachusetts] 10 (Aug 1842); p. 2.

• “The Cold Water Amy.” Portland Transcript 6 (20 Aug 1842); p. 151.

• “Cold Water Army and Youth’s Picnic.” Temperance Journal [Boston, Massachusetts] 10 (Jan 1842); p. 2.

• “The Cold Water Army.” Portland Transcript 6 (7 Jan 1843); p. 311.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 137.

The Young People’s Book ; Sept 1841-Aug 1842

cover/masthead: 1841

edited by: John Frost • T. S. Arthur, 1842

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Morton McMichael, 1841-1842; at 57 South Third St.; Nov 1841: printed by T. K. & P. G. Collins, #1 Lodge Alley.

frequency: monthly; 2 vol/ year

description: 32 pp.; page size, 9″ h x 5.5″ w. Prices, 1841: 1 copy, $2/ year; 3 copies, $5/ year; 6 copies, $10/ year; 20 copies, $30/ year, “invariably in advance.” 1842: 1 copy, $1.50/ year; 4 copies, $5/ year; 10 copies, $10/ year.

relevant quotes:

• Prospectus: “THE YOUNG PEOPLE’S BOOK … A MONTHLY MAGAZINE Devoted to the Instruction and Entertainment of Young Persons of Both Sexes; CONDUCTED WITH A SOLE VIEW TO THEIR IMPROVEMENT IN LITERATURE, SCIENCE, AND THE CONDUCT OF LIFE, written, not in the colloquial language which is addressed to very young children, but with such attention to the style as shall render it worthy the notice of those who are acquiring the art of Composition or forming their Literary taste; and filled with such various, original, and valuable matter as shall render the volumes, when bound up, worthy a place in the Family or School Library. … ONE OF THE LEADING OBJECTS OF THE WORK will be to point out and illustrate by practical examples the PROPER METHODS OF SELF-INSTRUCTION in the various departments of Literature and Art, to suggest appropriate departments of study and inquiry, to prescribe courses of Reading, and to indicate the progress which may be made in the Sciences, so far as the limits of the work will allow. … Arrangements have been made for receiving, and the publisher is now in the actual receipt of periodical publications of a similar design with that of THE YOUNG PEOPLE’S BOOK, From France, Germany, and other Parts of the Continent of Europe. From these publications, and from the choicest parts of foreign educational literature in its various departments, translations will be made of such articles as will serve to promote the main design of the work …. The preservation, however, of A TRULY NATIONAL SPIRIT; The inculcation of the duties which every American scholar owes to his country, and the exhibition of the capabilities of our EARLY HISTORY, OUR TRADITIONS, OUR CUSTOMS AND SCENERY, For supplying all the materials of a copious and brilliant literature, will be constant objects of attention, and will form frequent topics of discussion, example, and illustration.” [1 (Sept 1841): back cover (cover page 4)]

• Introduction: “Many of you, our young readers, are now receiving instruction scholastically, as our authority has it—in the schools; many others of you, have left your instructors, and are just entering upon the active duties and cares of life. To all of you, SELF-INSTRUCTION is vitally important, as the great means of mental development and of happiness. One of our greatest and most important objects in the Young People’s Book, is to point out to you or to supply you with the methods and instruments of SELF-INSTRUCTION. These are many and various—as numerous as the paths and pursuits of science, art, and literature. … In order to induce you to pursue with us the pleasant ways of intellectual improvement, it is our fixed intention to render every article which we shall present to you as entertaining and interesting as we possibly can. … We shall not deem it necessary to speak to you as mere children, to address you in exceedingly simple phraseology; … but we shall endeavour to adhere to the style which we may safely commend by our example, to your adoption in your own compositions. … We hope to travel with you, pleasantly and lovingly, over many wide fields—the fields, namely, of literature, science, and art ….” [1 (Sept 1841); p. 9-10]

• By Aug 1842, the magazine was promoting itself as “THE CHEAPEST MAGAZINE IN THE WORLD. PRICE REDUCED.” [1 (Aug 1842): back cover (cover page 4)]

source of information: Sept-Dec 1841, Aug 1842 issues; Sept 1841-Aug 1842 volume

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• notice. Godey’s Lady’s Book, and Ladies’ American Magazine 23 (Aug 1841); p. 95-96.

• review. The Iris, or Literary Messenger 1 (Sept 1841); p. 529. online

• “Literary Record.” The Knickerbocker 18 (Sept 18421); p. 273.

• notice. The New-Yorker 11 (4 Sept 1841); p. 397.

• notice. The New World 3 (11 Sept 1841); p. 173. online

• review. Godey’s Lady’s Book, and Ladies’ American Magazine 23 (Oct 1841); p. 189.

• notice. The North American Review 53 (Oct 1841); p. 543.

• notice. Southern Literary Messenger 7 (Nov 1841); p. 808.

• notice. The New World 3 (20 Nov 1841);p. 334.

• review. The New-York Mirror 19 (27 Nov 1841); p. 383.

• “Editors’ Book Table.” Godey’s Lady’s Book, and Ladies’ American magazine 23 (Dec 1841); p. 296.

• notice of 6th issue. Brother Jonathan 1 (12 Feb 1842); p. 28.

• “The Young People’s Book.” Weekly Messenger 7 (9 March 1842); p. 1346.

• notice. Ladies’ Pearl 2 (April 1842); p. 262b.

• notice. The Albion 1 (2 April 1842); p. 159.

• notice. Brother Jonathan 1 (April 9, 1842); p. 409. online

• notice. Ladies’ Pearl 2 (May 1842); p. 462. online

• notice. Godey’s Lady’s Book, and Ladies’s American Magazine 24 (June 1842); p. 344.

• review. Brother Jonathan 2 (June 4, 1842); p. 157. online

• notice. Weekly Messenger 7 (6 July 1842); p. 1413.

• review. The New-York Mirror 20 (Aug 13, 1842); p. 263. online

• notice. Godey’s Lady’s Book, and Ladies’ American Magazine 25 (Sept 1842); p. 156.

• J. Thomas Scharf and Thompson Westcott. History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: L. H. Everts & Co., 1884; vol 3, p. 2014. [google books]

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 137.

Sunday School Advocate (also, Sabbath School Advocate ) ; 5 Oct 1841-31 Dec 1921

cover/masthead: 1843-1845 | 1847-1848 | 1849 | 1854-1855 | 1857 | 1859-1861 | 1864-July 1865 | Oct 1865-1869 | 1870-early 1871 | late 1871 | early 1872 | late 1872

edited by: Daniel P. Kidder, 1845, 1847-1849, 1855

• Daniel Wise, 1857-1867

• John H. Vincent, 1868

published: New York, New York: Lane & Tippett, 1845-1847; 1845, publisher at 200 Mulberry St. New York, New York: Lane & Scott, 1848-1852. New York, New York: Carlton & Phillips, 1852-1856; publisher at 200 Mulberry St., 1855. New York, New York: Carlton & Porter, 1856-1867. New York, New York: Carlton & Lanahan, 1868-1872. New York, New York: Nelson & Phillips, 1872-1874. All for the Sunday School Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

• Cincinnati, Ohio: Swormstedt & Mitchell, 1845-1849; publisher at Main & 8th St. Cincinnati, Ohio: Swormstedt & Poe, 1854. Cincinnati, Ohio: Poe & Hitchcock, 1861. All for the Sunday School Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church.

• Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: J. L. Read, for the Sunday School Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1861.

• Chicago, Illinois: W. M. Doughty, for the Sunday School Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1861.

• Boston, Massachusetts: J. P. Magee, for the Sunday School Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1861.

• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Higgins & Perkinpink, for the Sunday School Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1861.

frequency: 5 Oct 1841-3 Sept 1850, semimonthly; 1845: Tuesday

• Oct 1850-Sept 1852, monthly

• 16 Oct 1852-24 June 1854, biweekly

• 8 July 1854-23 May 1874, semimonthly: 2nd & 4th Saturday

• 1872-after 1883, weekly & semimonthly

description: 1843-1845, 1847-1849, 1855: 8 pp.; quarto; page size untrimmed, 13″ h x 10″ w; sent folded & untrimmed. Prices: 1 copy, 50¢/ year; 5 copies, $2/ year; 10 copies, $3/ year

• 1857-1861: 4 pp.; page size untrimmed, 14″ h x 10.5″ w; prices: 1-10 copies, 25¢/ year; 10 + copies, 10¢/ year; “All subscriptions to commence either with the first of October or the first of April.” [16 (9 May 1857); p. 60]

• Oct 1864: 4 pp.; page size untrimmed, 14″ h x 10.5″ w; price, 40¢/ year

• 1865-1867: 4 pp.; page size untrimmed, 14″ h x 10.5″ w; price, 30¢/ year

• Circulation: 1842, 11,000. 1844-1845, 48,000, “increasing at the average rate of one hundred per day.” Subscribers’ copies printed by 1 July 1845: 55,000. “Since the year 1845 commenced our average increase of new subscribers, daily, has exceeded ONE HUNDRED.” Feb 1846, 50,000, “perhaps unparalleled in the history of such publications.” 1850: New York City, 63,000; Cincinnati, 18,000. 1851: New York City, 70,000; Cincinnati, 25,000. 1860, 208,000, “showing an increase of nearly one hundred thousand during the past four years.”

• Religious focus: Methodist

relevant quotes:

• On the founding: The paper “was authorized by the General Conference of 1840. The General Conference of 1872 instructed the book agents to publish a weekly edition as well as a semi-monthly edition. It has been one of the most successful Sunday-school publications of the church.” [“Sunday-School Advocate”]

• Frances E. Willard, prominent in the temperance and women’s rights movements, remembered reading “the little Sunday-school Advocate, so well known to Methodist Sunday-school children,” as a child; she was born in 1839. [Willard, p. 7]

• Until 1856, the Advocate included pieces for adults; in 1856, its focus was changed, along with its format, resulting in a lowered price: “The committee on the book concern recommended that the Sunday School Advocate be reduced to half its present size, and furnished for 25 cents per annum, (the price is now 30 cents,) and made exclusively a child’s paper. This was adopted.” [“General Conference.” Baltimore Sun]

• In the eyes of at least one observer, problems in a particular church were connected with the views of the Advocate’s editor about slavery: “It is perhaps due to a considerable number of your readers that a more exact statement than you have yet published be given of the origin and progress of the difficulties at McKendree Church. From the best information we have been able to obtain, it appears that they run back to some extent to 1860. In that year ‘The Sunday School Advocate,’ the regular child’s paper of the M. E. Church, published at her ‘Book Concern’ in New York, was dropped or excluded from the McKendree Sunday School. This was done after the action of the General conference of that year on the subject of slavery, and upon the assumed grounds that the Editor of the Advocate held ultra views on that question which he would be bound to disseminate, and that he had in fact published some articles in accordance with these views, in which invidious distinctions were drawn between children in free and slaveholding States.” [“The McKendree Church Difficulties”]

absorbed: Sabbath School Messenger ; July 1837-16 April 1846 • Good News ; 1856-April 1875

continued by: Portal ; Target

source of information: 1843-1845, 1847-1849, 1855-1868, 1871, scattered issues; AAS catalog; OCLC; Livingston; notices, etc., below

available: AASHistPer, series 3, 4, 5

bibliography:

• “Sunday School Advocate.” Western Christian Advocate 9 (15 July 1842); p. 51.

• notice. Sabbath School Messenger 5 (6 May 1842); p. 90. online

• notice. Western Christian Advocate 9 (28 Oct 1842); p. 110.

• “The Sunday School Advocate.” Christian Advocate and Journal 18 (27 Sept 1843); p. 26.

• “Sunday School Advocate.” Christian Advocate and Journal 18 (18 Oct 1843); p. 39.

• Thomas R. Allen. Letter. Christian Advocate and Journal 18 (6 Dec 1843); p. 67.

• John F. Glover. “Sunday School Advocate.” Christian Advocate and Journal 18 (6 Dec 1843); p. 67.

• Samuel Gregg. “To Superintendents of Sabbath Schools in the Erie Annual Conference.” Christian Advocate and Journal 18 (6 Dec 1843); p. 68.

• “Sunday School Advocate.” Christian Advocate and Journal 18 (20 March 1844); p. 127.

• “Prospectus for the Fourth Volume of the Sunday School Advocate.” Christian Advocate and Journal 18 (21 Aug 1844); p. 7.

• “Sunday School Advocate.” Christian Advocate and Journal 19 (25 Sept 1844); p. 26.

• R. B. Westbrook. “The Sunday School Advocate.” Christian Advocate and Journal 19 (30 Oct 1844); p. 47.

• Elbert Osborn. “Try.” Christian Advocate and Journal 19 (30 Oct 1844); p. 47.

• “Prices of the Sunday School Advocate.” Christian Advocate and Journal 19 (4 Dec 1844); p. 66.

• notice. Sabbath School Messenger 9 (1 May 1845); p. 2.

• “Statistics of the Methodist Sabbath School Union, 1844-1845.” Sabbath School Messenger 9 (5 June 1845); p. 11.

Doggett’s New-York City Directory for 1845 & 1846, 4th ed. New York: John Doggett, Jr., 1845; p. 429. [google books]

• “The Messenger.” Sabbath School Messenger 9 (19 Feb 1846); p. 79-80.

• George Adams. The Boston Directory … 1848. Boston, Massachusetts: James French, 1848; p. 36. [google books]

The Boston Directory … 1849. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1849; p. 41. [archive.org]

The Boston Directory, for the Year 1851. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1851; appendix, p. 32. [google books]

• “Sunday School Advocate. 100,000 Copies.” Vermont Christian Messenger [Montpelier, Vermont] 23 July 1851; p. 2.

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; catalog of newspapers, pp. 31, 36. [archive.org]

The Boston Directory for the Year 1852. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1852; p. 36. [google books]

• “General Conference of the M. E. Church. The Baltimore Sun [Baltimore, Maryland] 25 May 1856; p. 1.

• “General Conference of the M. E. Church. The Racine Daily Journal [Racine, Wisconsin] 21 May 1860; p. 2.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; pp. 31, 48, 56. [google books]

• Aliquis. “The McKendree Church Difficulties.” Evening Star [Washington, District of Columbia] 25 April 1864; p. 3.

• Franklin B. Hough. “Newspapers and Other Periodicals,” in Census of the State of New York, for 1865. Albany, New York: Charles Van Benthuysen & Sons, 1867; pp. 590-591.

Geo. P. Rowell & Co’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1869; p. 75. [archive.org]

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 704. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 125. [archive.org]

• “Editors.” (p. 327) “Daniel Parish Kidder.” (pp. 513-514) “Sunday-School Advocate.” (p. 839) In Matthew Simpson. Cyclopaedia of Methodism, 5th rev. ed. Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1883. [google books]

• Frances E. Willard. Glimpses of Fifty Years. Chicago, Illinois: H. J. Smith & Co., 1889. Reproduced New York, New York: Source Book Press, 1970.

The Bouquet ; Dec 1841-23 Dec 1843

edited by: Edwin Heriot

published: Charleston, South Carolina: Benjamin B. Hussey; publisher at 48 Broad St.

frequency: weekly; Saturday

description: 4 pp.

• price: Hoole says $1.50/ year; a notice in 1842 says $2/ year

• Vol 2 #2 is 7 Jan 1843; vol 2 #52 is 23 Dec 1843

relevant information:

• Heriot had an academy in 1843 teaching “the usual branches of English and the Classics …. He has also made arrangements with a competent instructor, who will give lessons in the French and German languages, Drawing and Architecture.” [advertisement, 25 Oct 1843]

• The Bouquet ended in Dec 1843; Hussey filed for bankruptcy Dec 1843 or Jan 1844.

relevant quotes:

• From the description, the Bouquet was fairly generic: “The publisher states that he has secured the aid of popular writers, and hopes to confer beauty and fragrance on his literary Bouquet.” [notice, 6 Jan 1842]

• The prospectus for The Floral Wreath makes it sound more a successor to the Bouquet than a new periodical, as noted in a notice: “[A] new comer, we may not exactly style [the Wreath], since it is nothing more or less than that pleasant little Journal the ‘Bouquet,’ newly baptized and apparalled. Formerly a weekly newspaper sheet—it is now a handsome monthly, of some 16 pp., double columns …. ‘Its high moral tone and character,’ says the prospectus, ‘will be strictly preserved, and while still presenting the attractions which the “Bouquet” offered to its former juvenile patrons, will be made acceptable and interesting to all classes of readers.’ ” [Orion]

apparently continued by: The Floral Wreath and Ladies’ Monthly Magazine

source of information: Courier ; Orion ; Worldcat; Hoole

bibliography:

• notice. Charleston Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 40 (6 Jan 1842); p. 2.

• advertisement for Edwin Heriot’s academy. Charleston Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 41 (25 Oct 1843); p. 3.

• Benjamin B. Hussey bankruptcy notice. The Southern Patriot [Charleston, South Carolina] 51 (22 Jan 1844); p. 4.

• notice of The Floral Wreath. The Orion 4 (June 1844); p. 197.

• Gertrude C. Gilmer. Checklist of Southern Periodicals to 1861. Boston, Massachusetts: F. W. Faxon Company, 1934; p. 23.

• William Stanley Hoole. A Check-list and Finding-list of Charleston Periodicals, 1732-1864. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1936; p. 43.

Young Catholic’s Magazine ; Dec 1841-1842?

cover/masthead: 1841

edited by: Felix Varela

published: New York, New York: C. H. Gottsberger

frequency: monthly; first of the month

description: 24 pp.; price, $1/ year; page size, 7.5″ h

relevant information: The magazine was to appear “after the 1st of April” 1840, but apparently wasn’t published until Dec 1841. [notice. The New-Yorker 28 Dec 1839]

relevant quote: The magazine was intended to fill a sectarian gap: “We could recount the long array of papers and magazines, under the most specious titles, of all characters, and every dimension, which sectarians so profusely scatter over the country; using every exertion, and leaving untried, no deceitful project to disseminate among the youth of our land, sentiments and doctrines which every Catholic must abhor and reject; and which, in the present condition of the young, must exert a pernicious influence upon their morals, as it is almost impossible that they should not imbibe some portion of the noxiousness. Or, we might speak of the manifest and perceptible scarcity, among young Catholics, of reading exempt from every tinge of falsehood and scurrility, which will improve while cultivating the mind, and which will not leave upon the soul a stain, that will endanger the temporal as well as the eternal welfare of the reader. And, also direct attention to the want of a publication of this description, to act as a ‘faithful monitor or advocate’ in warning the youthful reader against the errours [sic] he will encounter when perusing books composed by persons who always endeavor to prejudice by misrepresentation, and mislead by sophistry; as well as ‘to point out the mistakes that prevail in the common language of the world, and to lay before them certain rules whereby they may discern them,’—and fill several pages with matter of this nature.” [“Introductory.” 1 (Dec 1841); pp. 1-3]

continues: Children’s Catholic Magazine ; March 1838-Feb 1840

source of information: AASHistPer; AAS catalog; notice; Catholic Telegraph

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• notice. The New-Yorker 8 (28 Dec 1839); p. 239.

• “The Young Catholics’ Magazine.” The Catholic Telegraph 9 (28 Nov 1840); p. 381.

• “New Publications.” Arcturus 1 (Feb 1841); p. 196.

• “The Young Catholic’s Magazine.” The Catholic Telegraph 10 (29 May 1841); p. 174.

• Joseph and Helen McCadden. Father Varela: Torch Bearer from Cuba. United States Catholic Historical Society Monograph Series #27. New York: United States Catholic Historical Society, 1969; pp. 102, 106, 113.

Youth’s Sunday Casket ; 1842

published: Richmond, Virginia: A. T. Maddox

frequency: semimonthly

description: price, 50¢/ year

• Religious focus

source of information: Stroupe

bibliography:

Christian Index [Penfield, Georgia] 29 July 1842.

• Henry Smith Stroupe. The Religious Press in the South Atlantic States, 1802-1865. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1956; p. 137.

Youth’s Temperance Enterprise ; 1842-1847

edited by: M. E. Viele, 1843 ‘ Philip Phelps, 1845-1846 • J. Stanley Smith, 1847

published: Albany, New York: Executive Committee of the New York State Youth’s Temperance Society, 1842-1844.

• Albany, New York: J. Stanley Smith, 1847; publisher at 24 Commercial Buildings

frequency: monthly

description: Page size, 9.75″ h

• 1844-1847: price, 25¢/ year

• Circulation: 1847, 2000

• Vol. 3 #12 is Dec 1844

relevant information: French says that the first issue was 13 Nov 1842 and that the Enterprise was published for three years.

• Philip Phelps was about 19 years old when he edited the Enterprise, which he did for two years, after graduating Union College in 1844. [obituary]

relevant quote: Being distributed to sunday schools meant that the Enterprise wasn’t exactly profitable: “Being circulated so extensively in Sabbath Schools many obtain the paper without its costing them any thing. Now the low rate at which it is furnished to societies, and schools, barely pays for the paper as it comes from the hands of the printer, consequently we must rely upon single subscriptions to pay the incidental expenses.” [Albany Evening Journal]

source of information: Mechanic’s Advocate ; OCLC

bibliography:

• “Editorial Gleanings.” Christian Reflector 5 (2 Feb 1842); p. 3.

• “Youth’s Temperance Enterprise.” Samaritan and Total Abstinence Advocate 1 (9 Feb 1842); p. 2.

• O. L. Holley, ed. The New-York State Register, for 1843. Albany, New York: J. Disturnell, 1843; p. 143.

• “Youth’s Temperance Enterprise.” Albany Evening Journal [Albany, New York] 14 (11 Dec 1843); p. 3.

• “Youth’s Temperance Enterprise.” Albany Argus 16 Feb 1844; p. 1.

• O. L. Holley, ed. The New-York State Register, for 1845. New York: J. Disturnell, 1845; p. 181.

• “New-York State Temperance Society.” New York Evangelist 16 (6 March 1845); p. 38.

• “Resolutions.” Journal of the American Temperance Union 9 (April 1845); p. 60.

• notice. The Monthly Rose and Literary Cabinet 1 (Feb 1846); p. 26.

• “Literary Notices.” Mechanic’s Advocate 1 (21 Jan 1847); p. 62.

• J. H. French. Gazetteer of the State of New York. Syracuse, New York: R. Pearsall Smith, 1860; p. 158. [google books]

• obituary of the Rev. Dr. Philip Phelps. The New York Times [New York, New York] 7 Sept 1896; p. 5.

School Reader ; 1842

edited by: R. W. Haskins

published: Buffalo, New York: A. W. Wilgus

frequency: weekly

description: Issue 1 available before 18 May 1842; issue 2 available 5 July 1842, after which time the periodical was pubished weekly

relevant information: Used in most of the public schools in Buffalo, New York, in 1842

• Follett says it “lived for one quarter, and expired for want of patronage.”

relevant quote: The Reader was “designed for the daily reading of classes in Public and Private Schools.” [“The School Reader”]

source of information: notices, etc., below

bibliography:

• “Corporation Proceedings: Reports of Committees.” Commercial Advertiser and Journal [Buffalo, New York] 18 May 1842; p. 2.

• “The School Reader.” Commercial Advertiser and Journal [Buffalo, New York] 5 July 1842; p. 2.

• Frederick Follett. History of the Press of Western New-York. Rochester, New York: Jerome & Brother, 1847; p. 55. [google books]

The Dayspring ; Jan 1842-Dec 1849 • Youth’s Dayspring ; Jan 1850-Dec 1855

cover/masthead: Jan-Feb 1850 | March 1850-1853 | 1854

edited by: Selah Burr Treat, 1843-? • H. G. O. Dwight, 1850-? • Mr. Stoddard, 1850-1851

• Nathan Dole, 1851-June 1855

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Crocker and Brewster for the American Board of Commissioners for Foregin Missions, 1842-1848. • Boston, Massachusetts: American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, 1850-1855; publisher at 33 Pemberton Square, 1850-1854.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 1842-1848: newspaper format? 1849-1855: 16 pp.; page size, 6.25″ h x 4″ w. Prices: 10 copies, $1/ year; 20 copies, $2/ year; 40 copies, $4/ year

• The cover image for March 1850-1853 also appears on a copy of the Feb 1850 issue; this copy is blank on the interior cover pages (cover pages 2 and 3).

• Circulation: 1850, 50,000. Aug 1853-July 1854, 28,375. Aug-Dec 1855, approximately 18,600

• Religious focus

relevant quote: Introduction: “You are all fond of reading stories; and we are going to take a great deal of pains to tell you stories that will please and instruct you, and do you good; and especially lead you to try to do good to others. … [The stories] are all true. We shall not manufacture any stories for you, out of our own imagination, neither shall we copy any from other papers, or books, that do not come well attested for truth. … Each number will have one or more wood engravings, to enable you to understand better the condition of the people who are described in these pages; and thus … we shall endeavor to carry you around through the world, … and show you the missionaries laboring in the different countries, and the kinds of people for which they labor, and the appearance, manners, and customs of the countries in which they are living. And what is all this for? It is to make you more interested in the missionary work …. If each one of the children of America were to give only a single cent a year to the missionary cause, a sufficient sum would be raised to send out a great many missionaries to the heathen. Our object will be to try to induce every child and youth not only to do his own duty, but to labor in all proper ways to lead all his companions to do the same.” [1 (Jan 1850); pp. 1-3]

relevant information: When the publications office of the American Board of Commissioners for foreign Missions was burned in 1854, the subscription books were destroyed; the office requested subscribers to send their names, the number of copies to be sent, and the date to which they had paid. [“Notice”]

continues: Journal of Missions ; 1849 (for adults)

continued by: Journal of Missions and Youth’s Dayspring ; 1856 (for adults): “The Journal is a monthly of eight pages, two of which are appropriated to children and youth.” [“Journal of Missions and Youth’s Dayspring”]

source of information: Jan 1850-Nov 1853, scattered issues & bound volumes; New York Evangelist ; Kelly; AAS; OCLC; notices, etc., below

available: AASHistPer, series 3, 4, 5

bibliography:

• “Journal of Missions.” New York Evangelist 20 (13 Dec 1849); p. 198.

• “Postage.” The Missionary Herald 46 (April 1850); p. 140.

• “How Can the Board Realize $500,000 a Year.” New York Evangelist 21 (19 Sept 1850); p. 1.

• “Notice.” Christian Observer 33 (12 Aug 1854); p. 127.

• “American Board of Missions.” New York Observer and Chronicle 32 (21 Sept 1854); p. 298.

• “Publications.” The Missionary Herald 31 Dec 1854; pp. 48-49.

• “Death of Rev. Nathan Dole.” The Missionary Herald 51 (Aug 1855); p. 253.

• “47th Annual Meeting of the American Board.” New York Observer and Chronicle 34 (30 Oct 1856); p. 346.

• “Journal of Missions and Youth’s Dayspring.” Christian Observer 36 (26 Nov 1857); p. 191.

• “Good News for the Children.” The Missionary Herald 65 (Jan 1869); p. 17-18.

• Obituary of Rev. Selah Burr Treat. The Missionary Herald 73 (May 1877); p. 129-137.

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Every Youth’s Gazette (also Youth’s Gazette ; Peter Parley’s Youth’s Gazette) ; 22 Jan-31 Dec 1842

cover/masthead: 1842

edited by: “Grandfather Felix”

published: New York, New York: J. Winchester; publisher at 30 Ann St.

frequency: 22 & 29 Jan, weekly • 26 Feb-17 Dec, biweekly • 24-31 Dec, weekly

description: 22 Jan-5 Feb, 8 pp.; quarto; page size, 12″ h x 9″ w

• 26 Feb-31 Dec, 16 pp.; quarto

• Price, 1 copy, $2/ year; 2 copies, $3/ year, “in notes of all solvent and specie-paying Banks in the United States and Canada, payable always in advance ”

• A few advertisements declared at the top that the Gazette was “ONLY ONE DOLLAR,” though the price was listed as $2 in the advertisement itself. [1 (26 Feb 1842): 50]

• An advertisement for 1843 announced that the price would be lowered: 1 copy, $1.50/ year; 5 copies, $5. [1 (24 Dec 1842); p. 402]

• 22 Jan 1842 begins with page 3 • 28 issues total

relevant information: In its first prospectus, the periodical was called Peter Parley’s Youth’s Gazette ; in fact, the masthead shows an old man looking very much like Peter Parley (though without Parley’s trademark small clothes), chatting with children. Protest was swift, with the editors of Parley’s Magazine assuring readers that they owned the rights to the name “Peter Parley”; and an advertiser of Robert Merry’s Museum asking “Who is the Real Peter Parley?” and answering, “He is NOT the Editor nor Publisher of Peter Parley’s Youth’s Gazette.” [“Who is the Real Peter Parley?”] The publishers of the Gazette were forced to change the name, though not without some sour-grapes commentary in the introduction to the Gazette charging “Parley” with conduct unbecoming a literary gentleman: “I am told by respectable persons that he did not write many of the works that bear his name. … I do not much regret Peter’s withdrawal from the Gazette; because I should have had all the labor, and he would have won all the credit.” [“Grandfather Felix to His Young Readers.” 1 (22 Jan 1842): 7] The editorial tone is less surprising when coupled with the fact that the publisher—J. Winchester—also published The New World (“The largest and cheapest family newspaper in America”), edited by Park Benjamin, who was a harsh critic of Parley’s creator, Samuel Griswold Goodrich.

relevant quotes:

• Auspicious beginnings: “On Saturday, the eight [sic] day of January, PETER PARLEY, the old and well-known friend of children, will commence editing and publishing a new weekly paper, which will be called “Peter Parley’s Youth’s Gazette.” … Not only will the exclusive services of Peter Parley himself be given to the work, but the talents of many popular writers will be enlisted in its support.” The long list of writers to contribute includes “PETER PARLEY HIMSELF—who, from his long absence from that field of usefulness in which he was so successful, has been thought by many to have altogether relinquished his labors of love and duty—will resume his pen, and, with fresh vigor, engage in the new enterprise, to which he has been called by the entreaties of both parents and children. Since his young readers last heard from him, he has travelled the world over, and brought home a budget of adventures, facts and incidents, and the Yo[u]th’s Gazette will be the medium through which they will be communicated. The name of “Peter Parley” will be a guaranty for the pure moral which will prevade evry [all sic] sentence of the new periodical. Every thing like sectional sectarian or political bias will be sedulously avoided.” [advertisement. Rutherfordton Intelligencer]

• Introduction: “I do not now, for the first time, discharge the pleasant duty of writing for the young. I am the author of many small volumes, that were great favorites in their time—yes, as great as those of my respected old friend, Peter Parley. Peter has frequently asked and obtained my assistance in the composition of his various stories. I am told by respectable persons that he did not write many of the works that bear his name. … I asked Peter, for the sake of our early friendship, to let me call the Youth’s Gazette after him, and to be one of its editors; at first he consented, but afterward changed his mind, because, as he had said, he had already taken his farewell of his youthful readers, and did not mean to write any more …. I do not much regret Peter’s withdrawal from the Gazette; because I should have had all the labor, and he would have won all the credit. It will now be quite as good, as if it were supposed to be his—and, I rather think, better; for I shall strive to win for myself … ‘golden opinions from all sorts of people.’ ” [“Grandfather Felix to His Young Readers.” 1 (22 Jan 1842); p. 7] Samuel Griswold Goodrich, creator of “Peter Parley,” beset by plagiarists, in fact “killed off” the character in 1839, in Peter Parley’s Farewell.

• In the first issue, the editorial tone was a combination of boast and diffidence: “Some time must elapse before a new journal like this can be generally known. So many unworthy publications of the kind have appeared, that the public have reason to be doubtful of any new enterprise. No doubt, however, need be entertained with regard to the firm establishment of the Youth’s Gazette. Arrangements have been made to continue it for a year at least, and such has been the encouragement, with which it has already been received, that our friends need not fear that it will be always published. Efforts will be made to engage the best writers for the young, both in this country and abroad. Orders were sent to England in December last, to a bookseller there, to forward all the new books for the young that were good, and from these the very best will be selected for publication. … I respectfully request all good people, who are interested in the welfare of the young, to do all in their power to promote the circulation of ‘Every Youth’s Gazette.’ I ask all who hold the pen of ready writers, to send us articles of a kind suitable for youth. I want teachers of youth to take it under their patronage and favor me with their suggestions concerning the manner in which it ought to be conducted. I solicit the clergy to lend their aid in making it a medium for the inculcation of religious and moral duties. I entreat fathers and mother to place it in the hands of their children, and thus inspire them, at a tender age, with a desire for knowledge and a love of literature.” [1 (22 Jan 1842); p. 7]

• That Every Youth’s Gazette was the publication described in its prospectus remained the subject of puzzlement for a handful of issues: “There are some persons who do not seem to understand that ‘Every Youth’s Gazette’ is precisely the same paper that ‘Peter Parley’s Youth’s Gazette’ would have been, had not the design of publishing it under that title been given up. It was considered that the matter was clearly enough explained in the first number; but it seems that it was not—for letters of inquiry have been received. To these, the following clear and explicit reply is now given. The present journal differs in no respect whatsoever from that which was at first proposed, except in name. It is edited precisely in the way that it would have been had the name of Peter Parley been used. Readers who are so unreasonable as to object to a mere change of name, should remember the truth couched in the lines of Shakspere: ‘That which we call a rose/ By any other name would smell as sweet.’ ” [1 (26 Feb 1842); p. 43]

• About the illustration in the masthead: “It was designed by that delightful artist, Chapman, and it was engraved by one scarcely inferior, Adams.” [“Grandfather Felix to His Young Readers.” 1 (22 Jan 1842); p. 7]

• Like most periodicals of the time, the Gazette wasn’t shy about filling its pages with pieces from other periodicals; the first issue was no different: “I am indebted to a number of the Juvenile Miscellany, published sixteen years ago, for some of the articles in this number. The Miscellany was very popular with all young folks in its day; but, as its readers have since grown up to be men and women, the present generation will find them as new as if it had now appeared for the first time.” [1 (22 Jan 1842); p. 7]

• Advertisements promised that readers would be provided with original material, but also with inexpensive reprints of works already published in England: “All the new popular works for children which appear in England will be obtained; and from these the best articles will be chosen and published entire in the columns of the Gazette, together with the engravings by which they may be illustrated. … Thus, at a price far less than that for which such works could be reprinted in the shape of books in this country, will the most excellent treatises and stories for the young be presented. Arrangements will also be made to obtain origina[l] articles by favorite American authors.” [advertisement. Christian Register and Boston Observer]

• Beginning with the issue for 26 Feb 1842, the paper’s frequency and size changed: “After the present week [12 Feb], ‘Every Youth’s Gazette’ will appear once a fortnight, instead of once a week, as heretofore. Each number will contain sixteen pages instead of eight. Instead of being printed with Brevier type, which is too small to be pleasing to children, it will be printed with a new and handsome Bourgeois, which is larger and better adapted to a juvenile publication. The lines, instead of being placed closely together, will generally be set a little apart, leaded, as the printers say …. This will give each an open, elegant aspect, more like a book, and less like a newspaper. These changes, with regard to frequency of publication and the size of type, were determined upon in accordance with the advice of my respected friend, Mrs. L. H. Sigourney. … As ‘Every Youth’s Gazette’ is not a journal in which the latest news is published, it will be quite as agreeable to receive it once a fortnight as once a week.” [“To Subscribers.” 1 (12 Feb 1842); p. 31]

• Distribution could be a problem: “What has become of the New World, and Every Youth’s Gazette; we have not receive any for the last four weeks, and even then very irregularly. Several of the subscribers of the New World have called on us to ascertain if we received ours regularly and of course had to answer in the negative;—they regret very much that such is the case, for they value the paper very highly, and wish to keep a regular file for the purpose of being bound. It is our intention to do the same, for we think it will be a valuable work for a library. We have been requested to make these remarks by the subscribers of the New World.” [What has become of the New World]

• The editor of the Gazette apparently was unable to keep from poking at Goodrich. Eight months after the first issue, an advertisement sneered at three rival periodicals, including two founded by Goodrich (and one soon to be absorbed by one of the other two): “The slightest comparison of the Gazette with any other periodical devoted to the instruction and entertainment of youth, will be sufficient to convince any one of the infinite superiority of the former. Compare it for instance with Merry’s Museum or Parley’s Magazine—works that profess to be edited by the original Peter Parley—or with The Youth’s Medallion—publications of only half the size of the Gazette—containing now and then, by way of embellishment, a muddy impression of some old worn out wood cut, having in many cases no reference whatever to the subject in question[.]” [The New World 5 (27 Aug 1842)]

• The second volume was advertised with great confidence: “We enter upon the second volume of Every Youth’s Gazette on the first of January, 1843, in the full confidence of exceeding, in an eminent degree, our previous efforts in making one of the most instructive, useful and entertaining periodicals, for the young of both sexes, ever before established in this country. One great feature in the ‘Youth’s Gazette,’ in the ensuing vol., will be the reprinting of all the popular works for children, by the most eminent English authors, such as Mrs. Sherwood, Mary Howitt, Emily Taylor, Maria Hack, Miss Strickland, Miss Wakefield and many others, all which will be embellished with BEAUTIFUL ENGRAVINGS ON WOOD, many of them executed in London, and are not only exceedingly valuable as illustrations of the various subjects, but interesting as works of art. In fact, in pictorial attractions, no periodical of the kind can compare with this—no expense being spared to make the Youth’s Gazette for the young what the New World is for adults, the most interesting and comprehensive paper in the country. In all respects, its contents—embracing Natural History, Geology, Botany, Voyages, Travels, Adventures, Tales, Sermons, &c—will be adapted to the understandings of Youth from five to fiteen years of age; and no article is published which is not pervaded with a pure moral tone. Parents and Guardians of Youth can in no way so powerfully aid in the improvement in useful knowledge and morality of their children and wards, as to subscribe for this journal. Its great object is to make learning attractive rather than a task, and inspire a love for reading which shall tendd to the formation of habits of virtue, industry and usefulness. Every father of a family should take the Gazette for his children, as the cheapest choolmaster which can be employed for their mental and moral culture—and the great favour with which the work has been received during its first volume, justifies the publisher in the most liberal outlays to enrich its pages for the second—which will render it worthy of a more extensive circulation than it has hitherto enjoyed, large as it has already been.” [“Prospectus”]

• Bound volumes of the Gazette were available for considerably less than the price of the original subscription: “The Subscribers have on hand, several copies of the first volume of EVERY YOUTH’S GAZETTE, containing 414 large quarto pages, filled with the choicest articles for the amusement, instruction, and moral culture of the Young. Price, only 50 cents.” [advertisement for G. B. Zieber & Co.]

source of information: 22 Jan 1842 issue; APS II reel 606; Dechert; Lyon; AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 3

• APS II (1800-1850), reel 606

bibliography:

• advertisement. The New World 3 (18 Dec 1841); p. 400. online

• “Who is the Real Peter Parley?” Brooklyn Evening Star [Brooklyn, New York] 30 Dec 1841; p. 2.

• “Unaccountable Announcement.” The Daily Atlas [Boston, Massachusetts] 30 Dec 1841; p. 2. online

• “Peter Parley᾿s Youth’s Gazette.” The Daily Atlas [Boston, Massachusetts] 3 Jan 1842; p. 2. online

• “Every Youth’s Gazette.” The New World 4 (8 Jan 1842); p. 30. online

• “The Mysterious Visiter; or, The Plot Exploded.” The New World 4 (8 Jan 1842); p. 30. online

• “For Good Boys and Girls—Interesting to Parents.” The Mississippi Free Trader [Natchez, Mississippi] 11 Jan 1842; p. 2.

• Juvenis. “ ‘Peter Parley’s Youth’s Gazette.’ ” The Weekly Ohio State Journal [Columbus, Ohio] 12 Jan 1842; p. 2. online

• “Every Youth’s Gazette.” The Pennsylvania Inquirer [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 22 Jan 1842; p. 2.

• notice. The New World 4 (29 Jan 1842); p. 79. online

• contents of Jan 29 issue. The New World 4 (29 Jan 1842); p. 82.

• “10 copies a Year for 10!” The Weekly Standard [Raleigh, North Carolina] 9 Feb 1842; p. 3.

• advertisement. Christian Register and Boston Observer 21 (5 Feb 1842); p. 23.

• notice. The New World 4 (26 Feb 1842); p. 153.

• notice. The New World 4 (26 Feb 1842); p. 146.

• advertiseement. Rutherfordton Intelligencer [Rutherfordton, North Carolina] 17 March 1842; p. 4.

• contents of March 26 issue. The New World 4 (26 March 1842); p. 210.

• notice. The New World 4 (2 April 1842); p. 223.

• notice. The New World 4 (9 April 1842); p. 240. online

• notice. The New World 4 (9 April 1842); p. 242. online

• notice. The New World 4 (23 April 1842); p. 272.

• notice. The New World 4 (7 May 1842); p. 304. online

• notice. The New World 4 (11 June 1842); p. 383.

• What has become of the New World, and Every Youth’s Gazette. Green Bay Republican [Green Bay, Wisconsin] 18 June 1842; p. 2.

• notice. The New World 5 (27 Aug 1842); p. 143. online

• advertisement. The Yazoo City Whig and Political Register [Yazoo City, Mississippi] 30 Dec 1842; p. 3.

• “Prospectus of Every Youth’s Gazette. Second Vol.” The Yazoo City Whig and Political Register [Yazoo City, Mississippi] 27 Jan 1843; p. 3.

• advertisement for G. B. Zieber & Co. Public Ledger [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 27 June 1843; p. 3.

• Dorothy Dechert. “The Merry Family: A Study of Merry’s Museum, 1841-1872, and of the Various Periodicals that Merged with It.” Master’s thesis. Columbia University, 1942.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 137, 151, 168-172.

• John B. Crume. “Children’s Magazines, 1826-1857.” Journal of Popular Culture 7 (1973); p. 698-706.

The Youth’s Emancipator ; May 1842, Aug 1842-Mar 1843

cover/masthead: 1842

edited by: May-Nov 1842, J. H. Livingston; John Giles Jennings

• Dec 1842-Jan 1843, J. H. Livingston

• Feb-March 1843, John Giles Jennings

published: Oberlin, Ohio: Executive Committee of the Oberlin Youth’s Anti-Slavery Society, May 1842-Jan 1843.

• Oberlin, Ohio: n.p., Feb-March 1843.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 4 pp.; octavo; price, 25¢/ year

relevant information: The May 1842 issue was a specimen.

relevant quote: One notice describes the periodical as being “conducted exclusively by youth.” [“A New Paper”]

• The prospectus reinforced the focus on youth: “Feeling the importance of the youth of our country becoming early enlisted in the great cause of immediate emancipation, and considering how easily the mind may be swayed in youth, when every tender feeling is alive and every chord of sympathy vibrates at the touch of suffering—considering that the mind of any one may be more easily swayed by those of the same age and circumstances, the Executive Committee of the ‘Oberlin Youth’s Anti-Slavery Society’ propose to publish an anti-slavery periodical, (of which this sheet is a specimen,) to be conducted and sustained entirely by youth, the object of which will be disseminate anti-slavery truth among the youth of our country.” [“Prospectus.” 1 (May 1842); p. 1]

source of information: AASHistPer, series 3; OCLC; Kelly

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• “A New Paper.” Philanthropist 6 (1 June 1842); p. 3.

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

The Cold Water Boy ; 1842-1843

cover/masthead: 1842 | 1843, issue 1 | 1843, issue 3

edited by: Asa Fitz

published:

• Providence, Rhode Island: Asa Fitz, 1842

• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Executive Committee of the Columbia Cold Water Army, 1842

• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Nathan Moore, April 1843; publisher at 3 North Eighth St. • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Asa Fitz, 1843; publisher at #3 Carpenter’s Buildings, North Eighth St.

frequency: monthly: 1st of month

description: 4 pp.

• Prices: 2¢/ issue; 1 copy, 25¢/ year; 5 copies, $1/ year

• April 1843 issue is vol 1 #1, “new series”

relevant information:

• Evidently a companion to The Cold Water Girl

• Nathan Moore and Asa Fitz—also the publishing firm of Moore & Fitz—seem to have attempted to consolidate the publishing of temperance periodicals. Advertisements in what appears to be a broadside advertising The Cold Water Girl refer to the publishing office in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as the “Temperance Publishing and Periodical Office” and lists The Cold Water Magazine and various song books and temperance certificates. In 1842 the Magazine was edited by Moore and Fitz and published by—among others—Drew & Scammell in Philadelphia, and Thomas Tew in Providence, Rhode Island. [cover for June 1843] In 1843, Moore and Fitz edited and published the Magazine, purchasing it from Drew & Scammell. The Cold Water Magazine is probably most famous for reprinting The Doom of the Drinkers; or, Revel and Retribution, Thomas Dunn English’s fictionalized condemnation of Edgar Allan Poe. (The … novel takes up the issues for Oct, Nov, and Dec; see July-Dec 1843 volume at google books.)

• Thomas Tew, Providence, Rhode Island, publisher of the Cold Water Magazine in 1843, also acted as agent for The Cold Water Boy and The Cold Water Girl.

relevant quote: “This sheet is about the size of the ‘Cold Water Army.’ The matter with which it is filled, is both interesting and instructive. It is designed for children. In our opinion, very few children would have the patience to plod through the long article on the ‘License Law.’ ” [“Publications”]

source of information: AASHistPer; notices, below

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• “Publications.” Samaritan, and Total Abstinence Advocate 1 (13 July 1842); p. 2.

• “Cold Water Magazine.” Journal of the American Temperance Union 7 (1 Feb 1843); p. 27. [hathitrust.org]

• cover of The Cold Water Magazine for June 1843. Providence, Rhode Island: Thomas Tew, 1843.

• “Preface.” The Cold Water Magazine 3 (July-Dec 1843); pp. iii-iv. [google books]

The Cold Water Girl ; 1842-1843

cover/masthead: 1843

edited by: Asa Fitz

published: Providence, Rhode Island?, 1842

• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1843; publisher at #3, Carpenter’s Buildings, North Eighth St.

frequency: monthly: 1st day of month

description: Prices: 1 copy, 25¢/ year; 5 copies, $1/ year

• April 1843 issue apparently marked vol 1 #1, “new series”

relevant information:

• Evidently a companion to The Cold Water Boy

• Discussion of The Cold Water Girl is hampered by the fact that no issues appear to have survived, and neither it nor The Cold Water Boy seem to have been advertised, reviewed, or otherwise noticed at all. The “issue” in AASHistPer seems to be a two-page broadside reproducing the first and last pages of the first Philadelphia issue: the “second page” isn’t numbered, and advertisements for temperance items from Moore & Fitz appear where they likely would in a real issue of the paper. (A similar item for The Cold Water Boy has numbering on page two and no advertisements; it appears to be an issue lacking its last two pages.) The Cold Water Boy was published in 1842 in Providence, Rhode Island; Philadelphia issues are marked “new series.” Thus, because the first page of the broadside for the Girl is also marked “new series,” it’s probable that the Girl originated in 1842, probably from the same press as the Boy.

source of information: AASHistPer; “The Cold Water Boy and Cold Water Girl”

available: broadside at AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• “The Cold Water Boy and Cold Water Girl.” The Cold Water Boy 1 (April 1843); p. 1.

Boys’ and Girls’ Literary Bouquet ; Nov 1842-1844 • Boys’ and Girls’ Monthly Bouquet ; Jan 1845 • Boys’ and Girls’ Bouquet ; Feb-Dec 1845

edited by: March 1844, Philip Pleasant

published: New York, New York: Aaron F. Cox, Jan 1843-1844.

• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: A. F. Cox, 1844; publisher at 88 N. 6th St., 1844; printed by Barrett & Jones, 1844; printer at 33 Carter’s Alley, 1844. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Cox & Catlin, Jan-June 1845; publisher at 34 Carter’s Alley. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: James C. Catlin, July-Dec? 1845.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: Page size, 7″ h; price, 50¢/ year.

relevant quote: James C. Catlin bought out his partner, A. F. Cox, but found that he couldn’t make the Bouquet profitable; he announced in The Satchel—published by Cox—that the magazine was discontinued: “At the commencement of the last volume of the BOYS’ and GIRLS’ BOUQUET, I purchased that publication of Mr. A. F. Cox. Although I reduced the number of pages in the work, I found Fifty cents per year too low to warrant me in commencing a new volume; I therefore, at the close of the year, determined to discontinue its publication. [signed] JAMES C. CATLIN, Late Publisher of the Boys’ and Girls’ Bouquet. If any of the Subscribers to the Bouquet have not received all their numbers, they will be supplied by making it know to Mr. Catlin, 212 Chesnut street, or at the Office of the Satchel.” [“To the Subscribers of the Boys’ and Girls’ Bouquet”]

source of information: Lyon; AAS catalog; OCLC; Maxwell; NUC

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• review. Arthur’s Ladies’ Magazine July 1845; p. 51.

• “To the Subscribers of the Boys’ and Girls’ Bouquet.” The Satchel 1 #2 (March 1846); p. 16.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 138, 175-177.

Checklist of Children’s Books, 1837-1876, comp. Barbara Maxwell. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Special Collections, Central Children’s Department, Free Library of Philadelphia, 1975.

The Wreath ; 1 Nov 1842-1 June 1843

edited by: W. T. O. Dalton

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Dalton, Brown & Campbell

frequency: semimonthly

description: Page size, 6.5″ h • Amateur periodical

source of information: AAS catalog

“Child’s Gazette” ; 1843

edited by: Frances Sargent Osgood (Fanny Osgood)

published: New York, New York

description: newspaper format

relevant information: The newspaper appears never to have been published; perhaps a phantom title

relevant quotes:

• The earliest hint appeared on Jan 6, in the Alexandria Gazette: “Mrs. Osgood, the poetess, is about establishing a child’s newspaper in New York, a task for which she is admirably fitted.”

Brother Jonathan announced the project on Jan 7, hinting at its editor: “We have heard a project named for which we think there is a marked opening in New York—that of establishing a CHILD’S NEWSPAPER. There is one in Boston, the Youth’s Companion, which has attained a very wide circulation, and is very profitable to the proprietor. But we have in New York, the best calculated mind, for the editorship of such a periodical, of which we know in the country. We refer to Mrs. Osgood. This lady’s success, in literature adapted to children, is beyond that of any one American writer, (“Peter Parley” being some twenty or thirty people employed by S. G. Goodrich [Transcriber’s note: This is incorrect]) and her delicacy, narrative talent, sound education, facility of versification, and above all her purity and elevation of character, fit her eminently for the undertaking. We wish it God speed with all our heart.”

• A week later, Brother Jonathan announced the paper’s eminent appearance: “Mrs. Osgood’s newspaper for children will soon ‘make its curtsy and begin,’ we are told.”

• The New-York Visitor referred to the paper as a “child’s gazette”: “It is confidently said that Mrs. Osgood, our distinguished poetess, is about to establish a child’s newspaper in this city. Under HER supervision it must prosper in all its object.”

source of information: notices, etc., below

bibliography:

• “Letter from New York.” Alexandria Gazette (Alexandria, Virginia) 6 Jan 1843; p. 2.

• notice. Brother Jonathan 4 (7 Jan 1843); p. 15.

• notice. Brother Jonathan 4 (14 Jan 1843); p. 45.

• “Child’s Gazette.” The New-York Visitor and Lady’s Album 1 (Feb 1843); p. 47.

Youth’s Companion ; 1843

edited by: Thomas M. Slaughter

published: Columbus, Georgia: Thomas M. Slaughter. Stroupe says that the Companion was published in Whiteville, Georgia.

frequency: monthly

description: 16 pp.; quarto

• Religious focus: Baptist

relevant quote: The Companion’s demise was noted in the Christian Index, which explained that “though highly commended by the press, [it] was discontinued for want of adequate patronage.” [in Stroupe]

source of information: Flanders; Stroupe

bibliography:

• notice. Southern Miscellany (Madison, Georgia). 2 (1 April 1843); p. 1.

• notice. Christian Index [Penfield, Georgia]. 9 Feb 1844.

• Bertram Holland Flanders. Early Georgia Magazines: Literary Periodicals to 1865. N.p.: The University of Georgia Press, 1944; p. 26.

• Henry Smith Stroupe. The Religious Press in the South Atlantic States, 1802-1865. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1956; p. 137.

Jugend-Zeitung (Young people’s newspaper); 1843-1845

edited by: Carl Weitershausen

published: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Carl Weitershausen. Printed by J. G. Backofen

frequency: biweekly

description: 4 pp.; quarto • German-language periodical

• Religious focus

source of information: Arndt; Fraser

bibliography:

• Karl J. R. Arndt & May E. Olson. German-American Newspapers and Periodicals: 1732-1955. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer Publishers, 1961.

• Sybille Fraser. “German Language Children’s and Youth Periodicals in North America: A Checklist.” Phaedrus 6 (Spring 1979); pp. 27-31.

The Juvenile Wesleyan ; 1843-1852?

cover/masthead: 1843 | 1852

edited by: 1843-1846, O. Scott

• 1843-1844, L. C. Matlack

• 1845-1850, Luther Lee

published: Boston, Massachusetts: John B. Hall, 1843.

• New York, New York: O. Scott, 1846. New York, New York: Lucius Matlack, 1849-1852; 1850, publisher at 5 Spruce.

• All for the Wesleyan Methodist Connection

frequency: semimonthly. 1852: first and third Saturday of each month

description: 1843: 4 pp.; price, 50¢/ year

• 1845-1846: price, 25¢/ year

• 1852: 4 pp.; price, 25¢/ year

• Circulation, 1850, 1,300

• 16 Sept 1843 is vol 1 #2

• Religious focus: Wesleyan Methodist

relevant information: The group featured on the 1852 masthead already had appeared at the head of the short-lived Every Youth’s Gazette in 1842.

source of information: AASHistPer; AAS catalog; OCLC; Livingston; Mercantile

available: AASHistPer, series 3

• “Bear Story that Bears Telling” was reprinted in the Green-Mountain Freeman [Montpelier, Vermont; 11 Dec 1851; p. 4]

bibliography:

• notice. Sabbath School Messenger 8 (20 June 1844); p. 15. online

• notice. Sabbath School Messenger 9 (1 May 1845); p. 2. online

• notice. Emancipator and Weekly Chronicle [Boston, Massachusetts] 18 June 1845; p. 31.

• “Our Table.” Anti-Slavery Bugle [Lisbon, Ohio] 10 April 1846; p. 3.

The New York Mercantile Union Business Directory … 1850. New York: S. French, L. C. & H. L. Pratt, 1850; p. 289. [google books]

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; catalog of newspapers, p. 31. [archive.org]

The Youth’s Gazette ; 1843-26 July 1843

published: Chicago, Illinois: K. K. Jones

frequency: weekly

description: Page size, 11.25″ h • 3 June 1843 is vol 1 #2

relevant quote: Fleming describes the last issue: “A tattered copy of its last number … contains, besides the pioneer projector’s farewell words to the effect that he had done his best at ‘editor, compositor, pressman, and devil’s duty,’ the original prospectus. Its significant line is this: ‘The Youth’s Gazette: devoted expressly to the interests of the youth of the West.’ ” [Fleming]

source of information: OCLC; Fleming

bibliography:

• Edmund J. James and Milo J. Loveless. A Bibliography of Newspapers Published in Illinois Prior to 1860. Publications of the Illinois State Historical Library #1. Springfield, Illinois: Hillips Bros., 1899; p. 19. [archive.org]

• Herbert E. Fleming. Magazines of a Market-Metropolis. PhD diss. University of Chicago, 1906; p. 405. [google books]

• Anna Morgan. My Chicago. Chicago: Ralph Fletcher Seymour, 1916; pp. 171, 172. [google books]

Youth’s Guide and Star ; Jan-July 1843

cover/masthead?: 1843

edited by: Edward N. Harris

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Edward N. Harris, 1843; Harris at 14 Devonshire St. Printed by “Dow & Jackson’s Power Press,” 14 Devonshire St. (20 May 1843)

description: 16 pp.; page size untrimmed, 10″ h x 6″ w. Price, 1 copy, $1/ year; 10 copies, $6/ year; 20 copies, 62½¢/ copy; 40 copies, 50¢/ copy; “No subscription taken for less than one year. When the pay is not in advance, we must add 20 per cent, because it will make that difference to us in issuing the work.” [20 May 1843; p. 48]

• 20 May 1843 is vol 1 #3

relevant information: The Reverend Harris may have been a Universalist minister: “To those who wish for a good juvenile paper for their children, we would recommend the ‘Youth’s Guide,’ just commenced in Boston by Rev. E. N. Harris, a gentleman favorably known to the Universalist denomination ….” [“Close of the Volume”] The editor of the Trumpet and Universalist Magazine was less sure, describing Harris as someone “who once professed to be a Universalist.” [“Do Partialists pay for Papers?”]

relevant quote: Though requiring subscribers to pay for a year in advance, Harris discovered that the tactic didn’t necessarily result in success: “Am I asked, why did I not continue its publication? I readily answer; because the greater part of the subscribers failed to furnish the means by which to go on with it. Hoping, however, that they would redeem their pledge, I continued the work, until I had paid out in money $394 over and above receipts. The labor I devoted to the ‘Guide’ for the six months in which it was in operation, I have never received a mill for. A support, I felt, that as a father, and as a christian, I must stop the work, although there was more than enough due me on it to make me whole, in dollars and cents.” [“Do Partialists pay for Papers?”]

source of information: 20 May 1843 issue; Eastern Rose-Bud; notices, etc., below

bibliography:

• “Close of the Volume.” Eastern Rose-Bud and Sabbath School Companion 4 (22 April 1843; p. 189.

• “Do Partialists pay for Papers?” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 17 (26 Oct 1844); p. 74.

Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine ; Jan-Dec 1843 • Boys’ & Girls’ Monthly Library ; Jan 1844-after March 1844

cover/masthead: 1843

edited by: 1843, Mrs. Samuel Colman

published:

• Boston, Massachusetts: T. Harrington Carter & Co., 1843-1844; publisher at 118½ Washington St., 1843

• New York, New York: A. M. Wilder, 1843-1844; publisher at 51 Fulton St.

frequency: monthly; 3 vol/ year

description: 1843: 36 pp.; page size, 6.5″ h x 5″ w

• Prices: 1843, 1 copy, 12¢/ issue; $1.25/ year; 10 copies, $10/ year. 1843, 10¢/ issue; 1 copy, $1/ year

relevant information:

relevant quote: Plans for 1844: “[W]e propose, for the new year to commence with January, 1844, to reduce the price of the work to one dollar, trusting thereby to meet the wishes of a much larger number throughout the whole country.” [3 (Dec 1843)]

relevant information:

• Issue 2 published 20 Feb 1843

• Published works by Catherine Sedgwick and James T. Fields; also published “Little Daffydowndilly,” by Nathaniel Hawthorne (Aug 1843; pp. 264-269).

• The Magazine was one of only a handful of periodicals that William A. Alcott felt comfortable recommending to young readers in 1844. [p. 116] Unfortunately, by the time Alcott’s book was published, the Magazine was no longer being published.

source of information: May-Dec 1843 bound vols; Lyon; AAS

available: AASHistPer, series 3

• The Brooklyn Evening Star reprinted “The Fallen Leaves,” by A. A. Gray [12 Jan 1844; p. 2]

bibliography:

• notice of issue 1. Boston Post [Boston, Massachusetts] 28 Jan 1843; p. 2.

• notice of issue 1. New-York Tribune [New York, New York] 4 Feb 1843; p. 2.

• “Periodicals.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 15 (4 Feb 1843); p. 131.

• “The Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” The Evening Post [New York, New York] 7 Feb 1843; p. 2. Also, Commercial Advertiser [New York, New York] 8 Feb 1843; p. 2.

• “Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” New York Evangelist 14 (16 Feb 1843); p. 28.

• advertisement. The Baltimore Sun [Baltimore, Maryland] 22 Feb 1843; p. 2.

• notice. The Baltimore Sun [Baltimore, Maryland] 24 Feb 1843; p. 2.

• advertisement for the Lady’s Musical Library. The Evening Post [New York, New York] 27 Feb 1843; p. 3.

• notice of issue 2. Boston Post [Boston, Massachusetts] 7 March 1843; p. 2.

• notice. Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 15 (11 March 1843); p. 151.

• notice. Hartford Courant [Hartford, Connecticut] 13 March 1843; p. 2.

• “The Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” Windham County Democrat [Brattleboro, Vermont] 16 March 1843; p. 2.

• “Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” The Brooklyn Daily Eagle [Brooklyn, New York] 5 April 1843; p. 2.

• “Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” Boston Post [Boston, Massachusetts] 6 April 1843; p. 1.

• notice of April issue. Vermont Watchman and State Journal [Montpelier, Vermont] 14 April 1843; p. 3.

• advertisement. Vermont Religious Observer [Middlebury, Vermont] 18 April 1843; p. 4.

• notice of May issue. Boston Post [Boston, Massachusetts] 28 April 1843; p. 2.

• advertisement. Christian Secretary 22 (28 April 1843); p. 3.

• “The Boys and Girls Magazine.” Vermont Phoenix [Brattleboro, Vermont] 16 June 1843; p. 2.

• review. Godey’s Lady’s Book 27 (Aug 1843); p. 96.

• “Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” The Brooklyn Daily Eagle [Brooklyn, New York] 29 Sept 1843; p. 2.

• notice of Nov issue. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle [Brooklyn, New York] 25 Oct 1843; p. 2.

• “Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” The Brookln Daily Eagle [Brooklyn, New York] 21 Nov 1843; p. 2.

• “Literary Notices.” Brother Jonathan 6 (25 Nov 1843); p. 360.

• William A. Alcott. The Boy’s Guide to Usefulness. Boston, Massachusetts: Waite, Peirce, and Company, 1844: note p. 116. [google books]

• “The Boys’ and Girls’ Library.” Brooklyn Evening Star [Brooklyn, New York] 12 Jan 1844; p. 2.

• “Literary Register.” Vermont Watchman and State Journal [Montpelier, Vermont] 8 March 1844; p. 3.

• “Boys and Girls Monthly Library.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 16 (9 March 1844); p. 151.

• “Boy’s and Girls’ Monthly Library.” The Brooklyn Daily Eagle 26 March 1844; p. 2.

• “Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” The Brooklyn Daily Eagle [Brooklyn, New York] 27 April 1844; p. 2.

• “Boys’ and Girls’ Monthly Magazine.” The Brooklyn Daily Eagle [Brooklyn, New York] 28 June 1844; p. 2.

• “New Books.” The Whig Standard [Washington, District of Columbia] 3 Oct 1844; p. 3.

• advertisement for Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine in 3 vols. Buffalo Courier [Buffalo, New York] 13 May 1845; p. 3.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 137-138, 173-174.

New Church Magazine for Children ; Jan 1843-June 1844, Jan 1846-June 1862 • The Children’s New-Church Magazine ; July 1862-June 1867, Jan 1868-1891?

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Otis Clapp, 1843-1859.

• Boston, Massachusetts: T. H. Carter & Co., 1862-1867.

• Boston, Massachusetts: T. H. Carter & Sons, 1868.

• New York, New York: General Convention of the New Church, 1868-1870.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 1847-1859: 32 pp.; page size, 6.5″ h x 4″ w

• No issues for July 1844-Dec 1845, July-Dec 1867

• 1869: price, $1.75/ year

• 1871: “Illustrated cover; tinted paper”; price, $1.50/ year

• Religious focus: General Church of the New Jerusalem

source of information: 1847-1859, scattered issues in bound vol; advertisement, etc., below ; AAS catalog; OCLC; NUC

available: AASHistPer, series 3 & 4

• excerpt in Lessons of War: The Civil War in Children’s Magazines, ed. James Marten. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1998.

bibliography:

• advertisement. The Little Messenger. 2 (15 Nov 1869); p. 28.

• notice. Chicago Tribune [Chicago, Illinois] 11 Dec 1869; p. 2.

• “Historical Sketch of the New Jerusalem Church in Lancaster.” Intelligencer Journal [Lcanster, Pennsylvania] 1 Feb 1870; p. 2.

• “New Church Periodicals.” Urbana Union [Urbana, Ohio] 25 Jan 1871; p. 2.

Lessons of War: The Civil War in Children’s Magazines, ed. James Marten. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources, 1998.

The Pierian ; Jan-Sept 1843

cover/masthead: 1843

edited by: Anna L. Snelling

published: New York: Lott & Chapin; publisher at 156 Fulton St. • New York: H. H. Snelling; publisher at 74 Lispenard St.

frequency: monthly; 2 vol/ year

description: 64 pp.; price, 10¢/ issue; $1/ year

• March 1843 is vol 1 #3; June 1843 is vol 2 #2; Aug 1843 is vol 2 #4

relevant information:

• The first issue was supposed to appear in Nov 1842; it was available in Dec and apparently was dated Jan 1843. [“The Pierian.”]

• Though the proposal indicates that each volume would consist of six issues, volume two began with May: the June 1843 issue mentions that page 22 appears in the May 1843 issue and explains that bound copies of a “second edition of our first volume” are available for sale, which indicates that each volume actually contained four issues, not six.

• Engravings were a part of many issues: “The Rose and the Morning Glory, beautiful colored Flowers; also, They Come! They Come! an excellent Steel Engraving, are in the February number of the Pierian, or Youth’s Magazine.” [notice of Feb issue]

• The Feb issue also included “Tales of a Grandmother, by Mrs. Snelling; The Forsaken Boy, by H. R. Schoolcraft; Travels at Home; The Misspent Holyday; Anecdotes, Poetry, &c. &c. Three fine Engravings and a beautifully colored Flower Plate.“ [advertisement]

• The March issue contained “the Baltimore Orial [sic] and the China Pink, each beautifully colored. Also, Timothy Busy, Esq. in his study, The Grandmother, Birmah Idol, Music, &c.” [notice of March issue]

• The July issue published pieces by Lydia Sigourney, Anna Snelling, and T. S. Arthur, and included “A full length portrait of GENERAL TOM THUMB, Jr., with a Biography.” [“What’s That You Say?”]

• The agent in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, notes that the Sept issue of the magazine is available and that it contains “in addition to six engravings, (two splendidly colored,) articles from Mrs. Sigourney, Snelling, Mary Howitt, &c.” [notice of Sept issue]

• A notice in Nov 1843 mentions two bound volumes. [“Literary Notices.”]

relevant quote:

• Though the editor of Godey’s admired the magazine, its editor was taken to task for copying work from other periodicals without attribution (or payment to the author): “We do not exactly understand the propriety of the editor’s copying from the ‘Young People’s Book’ a piece entitled ‘The Use of Learning, by T. S. Arthur,’ without acknowledging the source from whence it is derived. If Mr. Arthur is made to appear as an original contributor for the ‘Pierian,’ his pieces should be furnished by himself originally, and paid for. If his pieces, paid for by the publishers of the Young People’s Book, are copied into the Pierian, the source should be acknowledged. Magazines intended for the young should not teach dishonesty by example.” [“Editor’s Book Table”]

source of information: March & June 1843 issues; notices, etc., below

bibliography:

• notice. The Orion 2 (Nov 1842); p. 64.

• “The Pierian, or Youth’s Fountain of Knowledge.” Boston Post [Boston, Massachusetts] 26 Dec 1842; p. 1.

• notice of Feb issue. Public Ledger [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 11 Feb 1843; p. 3.

• advertisement. New York Tribune [New York, New York] 17 Feb 1843; p. 3.

• “Notices of Periodicals.” The Orion 2 (Feb 1843); p. 250.

• notice. Sargent’s New Monthly Magazine 1 (March 1843); p. 143.

• notice. Brother Jonathan 4 (25 March 1843); p. 345.

• notice of March issue. Public Ledger [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 25 March 1843; p. 3.

• “The Pierian for April.” Commercial Advertiser 46 (8 April 1843); p. 1.

• “What’s That You Say?” New York Tribune 8 June 1843; p. 1.

• notice. Norfolk Democrat [Dedham, Massachusetts] 5 (16 June 1843); p. 2.

• “Juvenile Papers.” New York Evangelist 14 (22 June 1843); p. 100.

• notice of July issue. Commercial Advertiser 46 (14 July 1843); p. 2.

• “Editor’s Book Table.” Godey’s Lady’s Book, and Ladies’s American Magazine 27 (Aug 1843); p. 94.

• “New Publications.” Daily Evening Transcript [Boston, Massachusetts] 14 (12 Aug 1843); p. 2.

• notice of Aug issue. New-York Tribune [New York, New York] 12 Aug 1843; p. 2.

• “Literary.” Brother Jonathan 5 (19 Aug 1843); p. 471.

• notice of Sept issue. Public Ledger [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 23 Sept 1843; p. 3.

• “Literary Notices.” Brother Jonathan 6 (18 Nov 1843); p. 335.

Youth’s Penny Gazette ; 11 Jan 1843-Jan 1859 • The Youth’s Sunday-School Gazette (also The Youth’s Sunday School Gazette) ; 1859-1861

cover/masthead: 1845 | 1846-1847 | 1848 | 1849-24 Nov 1852 | 5 Jan 1853-17 Dec 1856 | 7 Jan 1857-22 Dec 1858

edited by: Frederick A. Packard, 1840s

• John S. Hart, 1859-1861

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Sunday School Union, 11 Jan 1843-1861; at 146 Chestnut St., 7 Jan 1852-23 Nov 1853; at 316 Chestnut St., 7 Dec 1853-13 May 1857; at 1122 Chestnut St., 27 May 1857-1861.

• New York, New York: American Sunday-School Union, 7 Jan 1852-22 Dec 1858; at 147 Nassau St., 7 Jan 1852-4 June 1856; at 59 Chambers St., 18 June 1856-18 March 1857; at 375 Broadway, 1 April 1857-22 Dec 1858.

• Boston, Massachusetts: American Sunday-School Union, 7 Jan 1852-9 June 1858; at 9 Cornhill.

frequency: 1843-Jan 1859, biweekly • 1859-1861, monthly

description: 1 Jan 1845-22 Dec 1847, 7 Jan 1852-22 Dec 1858: 4 pp.; page size, 12.5″ h x 9.5″ w

• Prices: 1 Jan 1845-22 Dec 1847, 7 Jan 1852-7 Dec 1853: 1 copy, 25¢/ year; 40 copies, $5/ year. 1849: 1 copy, 25¢/ year; 40 copies, $5/ year: “As this paper is usually taken by schools or companies, the price is put at $5 for FORTY copies to one address, or half a cent a paper. Single subscriptions 25 cts. per year.” [“Periodicals”] 18 Jan 1854-2 Dec 1858: 20 copies, $3/50/ year; 40 copies, $5/ year; 100 copies, $10/ year. 1859-1861: copy collected at the Sunday-School Union Depository: 1 copy, 20¢/ year; 10 copies, $1/ year; 25 copies, $2.40/ year; 50 copies, $4.50/ year; 75 copies, $6.40/ year; 100 copies, $8/ year. Copy mailed to subscriber: 15 copies, $2/ year; 50 copies, $6/ year; 100 copies, $11/ year

• Circulation: 1850, 1853, 100,000

relevant information:

• The Gazette was one of only a handful of periodicals that William A. Alcott felt comfortable recommending to young readers in 1844. [p. 115]

• On the list of periodicals subscribed to by the Massachusetts State Reform School in 1867. [Twenty-First Annual Report]

relevant quotes:

• 1846’s new illustration at the top of the paper’s first page was the occasion of some ferocious punning: “People sometimes say of a very shrewd, wise man that he has ‘an old head.’ They say of a youth, who is not properly corrected by his parents or guardians, ‘he has his own head,’ that is, he does as he likes. To say that a man’s ‘head is turned,’ is to say that he has gone crazy. And if three or more ‘lay their heads together’ for some unlawful end, they are called conspirators. We may add that there is a head to a pin, to a nail, to a class, to a company, and to a nation, as well as to the Youth’s Penny Gazette. Now, though we have put a ‘new head’ to our paper, we have ‘old heads’ to see that each number is properly filled up. There is a committee to look to it, that the Editor does not ‘have his own head,’ except so far as he goes right. Nothing is likely to appear, therefore, which will turn ‘any boy’s head,’ by its error or folly. And we are all pledged ‘to lay our heads together’ for the pleasure and profit of our readers, and not for any evil end. In pursuing this course we need not care ‘a pin’s head;’ for opposition or competition. Our aim must be ‘to hit the nail on the head,’ by saying just the right thing at just the right time. Such care will give us the head of this class of newspapers. It will place us, as we trust, at the head of a great company of children and youth, who may safely follow where we lead, and thus we may be able to show to the head of the nation a great multitude of orderly, industrious, intelligent and virtuous citizens, who shall fear God and keep his commandments.” [“Our New Head.” 4 (7 Jan 1846); p. 2.]

• The new head for 1846 was intended as allegory: “In [the Jan 7] number we called the attention of our readers to our new and beautiful head or title. We now wish them to notice particularly the lesson which the ornamental devices are intended to teach. It presents human life in four stages. At first we see the mother and her two little children, one in the cradle and the other learning from an alphabet card. Soon the two nurslings become school-children, with a globe and other implements of study. By and by parents come forward training their children up in the ways of truth and wisdom, and soon the scene closes, and old age seeks its resting place in the grave. Our life is but a vapour, that appeareth for a little time and then vanisheth away!” [“Our New Head.” 2 (21 Jan 1846); p. 6.]

• The Union described the paper in advertisements for 1859: “The Sunday-School Gazette, a MONTHLY paper for children, printed on fine paper, and highly embellished.” [Sunday-School Banner. 1 (April 1859); p. 4]

• The Gazette was a slightly more expensive version of The Sunday-School Banner, which had the same editor: “The Sunday-School Banner, … printed on less expensive paper than the Gazette, but containing a portion of the cuts and matter of the Gazette, with other matter of its own.” [Sunday-School Banner 1 (April 1859); p. 4]

relevant information: Probably the work cataloged as Youth’s Sunday School Gazette ; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Sunday School Union, 1843-?; listed in OCLC

merged with The Sunday-School Banner (Jan 1859-Dec 1861) and continued by: Child’s WorldYouth’s World (1862-after 1884) • Baptist Teacher for Sunday-School Workers (for adults). Descriptions of the Child’s World include the information that that periodical was established in 1843, the year of the Gazette’s founding.

source of information: 1845-1847, 1852-1858 vol; AAS catalog; OCLC; “Periodicals”; Livingston; Scharf

available: AASHistPer, series 3 & 4

bibliography:

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 14 (19 Jan 1843); p. 11.

• William A. Alcott. The Boy’s Guide to Usefulness. Boston, Massachusetts: Waite, Peirce, and Company, 1844; p. 115. [google books]

• advertisement. Boston Recorder 30 (9 Jan 1845); p. 8.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 16 (24 July 1845); p. 120.

Doggett’s New-York City Directory for 1845 & 1846, 4th ed. New York: John Doggett, Jr., 1845; p. 430. [google books]

The Twenty-Third Annual Report of the American Sunday-School Union. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Sunday-School Union, 1847; pp. 27-28.

• George Adams. The Boston Directory … 1848. Boston, Massachusetts: James French, 1848; p. 36. [google books]

• “Periodicals published by the American Sunday-School Union.” Episcopal Recorder 27 (28 April 1849); p. 28.

The Boston Directory … 1849. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1849; p. 41. [archive.org]

The New York Mercantile Union Business Directory … 1850. New York: S. French, L. C. & H. L. Pratt, 1850; p. 289. [google books]

The Boston Directory, for the Year 1851. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1851; appendix, p. 32. [google books]

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; p. 44. [archive.org]

The Boston directory for the Year 1852. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1852; p. 36. [google books]

• “Newspapers of the American Tract Society and the American Sunday School Union.” The Louisville Daily Courier [Louisville, Kentucky] 25 Jan 1853; p. 2.

• advertisement. Independent [New York, New York] 7 July 1853; p. 108.

• Franklin B. Hough. “Newspapers and Other Periodicals Published in New-York in 1855,” in Census of the State of New-York, for 1855. Albany, New York: Charles Van Benthuysen, 1857; pp. 488-489.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 29 (16 Dec 1858); p. 7.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 30 (13 Jan 1859); p. 7.

• advertisement. The Advocate [Buffalo, New York] 10 Feb 1859; p. 3.

• “Sunday-Schools and the American Sunday-School Union.” The American Journal of Education 41 (Dec 1865); p. 715.

Twenty-First Annual Report of the Trustees of the State Reform School. Boston, Massachusetts: Wright & Potter, 1868; p. 18. [google books]

• J. Thomas Scharf and Thompson Westcott. History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: L. H. Everts & Co., 1884; vol 3, p. 2014. [google books]

The Child’s Friend ; Oct 1843-1850 • The Child’s Friend and Youth’s Magazine ; 1851-1855 • The Child’s Friend and Family Magazine ; 1856-Oct 1858

cover/masthead: 1853 | 1858

edited by: 1843-1850, Eliza L. Follen • 1851-1858, Anne Wales Abbot

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Leonard C. Bowles, Oct 1843-1857?; Bowles at 118 Washington St., 1843; at 111 Washington St., 1848 & 1853

• Cambridge, Massachusetts: Anne Wales Abbot, July-Nov 1857. • Cambridge, Massachusetts: John Bartlett, Dec 1857-Oct 1858; publisher at University Bookstore, 1858

frequency: monthly; 2 vol/ year

description: 36 pp.; octavo • 1858: 48 pp; page size, 7.5″ h x 5″ w

• Price: 1853, $1.50/ year; 1856, $2/ year; 1858, 1 copy, $2/ year; 3 copies, $5/ year; 10 copies, $15/ year

• Subscribers: 1850, 2000; from magazine: Oct 1857: 400

relevant information:

• The contents of the first issue were reprinted in The Liberator [29 Sept 1843]

• Printed “A Good Man’s Miracle,” a story by Nathaniel Hawthorne [1 (Feb 1844); p. 151-156].

relevant quotes:

• Proposal: “The plan of the ‘Child’ Friend’ is similar to that of the ‘Christian Teacher’s Manual,’ published in 1828. This work is intended to aid teachers and to be at the same time interesting and instructive to children. It aspires to become truly the Child’s Friend, helping him to learn from all that is within and around him the wisdom and goodness of the Creator, that wrong doing produces discord and misery, that life is a continued school time, and that wisdom and virtue and th peace they bring are the true holydays of life. It would lead him to study the character and enter into the heart of Jesus till he grows into his likeness and blesses him as the Savior of his soul.” [“Proposals”]

• Introduction: “We call ourselves the Child’s Friend; how shall we prove ourselves worthy of the name?—Jesus was a friend of children; how did he show his love for them? He desired his disciples to allow little children to come to him, he took them in his arms and blessed them. … We say then to children, come to us, you shall find love, you shall find instruction in our pages; come with that simplicity and innocency of heart with which your Creator sent you into his beautiful world.” [“To Children.” 1 (Oct 1843); p. 1-2]

• Follen’s anti-slavery stance apparently caused one editor to warn readers against the Friend; Follen was defended in a lengthy piece originally printed in the Boston Courier: “A respectable daily paper … has cautioned the public against this innocent pamphlet, as a dangerous thing. The critic is afraid that it will corrupt either the morals of the children, or their religion,—I forget which, for I have not the paper before me. Mrs. Follen, it seems, does not like slavery—indeed, she thinks it very wrong for man to make a property of man,—and she has actually admitted into this, her first number, what purports to be a letter from a child about a certain Pic-Nic at Dedham, on the First of August, in which this disapprobation clearly appears. The writer of the notice condemns the work on account of its tendency to give our children an early bias against slavery.” [Stetson]

• Abbot was publisher from July to Dec 1857: “[The editor] is assured by urgent messages from different quarters that its readers, some of them at least, are its warm friends, and would be sorry that it should be sacrificed on account of a temporary derangement of its finances. Help from able pens has been promised, and the Editor has determined to carry on the work to the end of the present year at her own risk, in the hope of saving it. She has therefore purchased the subscription list, or, as it is technically termed, the good-will, and is now the Editor, Publisher, and Proprietor of the concern, the latter term signifying, at present, only the responsibility of paying its bills and the privilege of directing its affairs. A principal reason why it seems to her worth while to make this effort, is that the subscribers, with less than forty exceptions, had paid in advance, and most of them to the end of the year 1857. That each could receive back his dollar, by taking the trouble to apply for it, would not console the children for their disappointment. That some other publication, not of their own choice, and perhaps not to their liking, would be sent to close the year, would not be much more satisfactory to old subscribers. … Although, from its not being kept in the public view by advertising, or other means, its continued existence has been known only to a few, those are mostly its old, substantial friends. They are numerous enough, even now, to sustain it under careful management; therefore, if it survives its present embarrassment, it will go on next year with a surplus, instead of a deficit. The Editor will require nothing for her services but the pleasure of continuing her pleasant relations with the young readers, and keeping their old Friend alive and useful. The profits are to be devoted to the aid of indigent and friendless children.” [29 (July 1857); p. 47-48]

• Abbot as editor: “To supply a young family with reading of a healthful quality requires more judicious care than formerly, when there were fewer books. The Child’s Friend has an established character, which the present Editor will humbly endeavor to maintain, so that a parent may always put it into his child’s hand with confidence, before he has read it himself. It will aim to instil religious ideas, not of a doctrinal or sectarian cast, to cultivate a pure and high moral taste, to convey information, and to develop social and benevolent affections. The subscriber [Anne W. Abbot] has purchased the subscription list, in order to carry on the Magazine, which was about to be discontinued. Her own services will be gratuitous, and those of the publisher and contributors also; and the profits will be devoted to the relief of indigent and neglected children. She solicits subscribers and literary contributions for this object, and trusts that she shall find so much favor with the public as to give permanent success to her effort.” [31 (Aug 1858): inside front cover (cover page 2)]

• In late 1857, Abbot planned to give the profits of the magazine to the Children’s Mission to the Children of the Destitute: “This is a society supported by the contributions of children, and its object is not merely to rescue exposed children from vice, ignorance, and degradation, but to foster the spirit of Christian benevolence in the minds of the young who are growing up in more fortunate circumstances. … ‘The Children’s Friend’ may with peculiar propriety be devoted to such an object as this, and the editor has sought an interview with Mr. Fearing, the President, with the intention of making it the property of the Mission, on condition that the publishing work, as well as the editing, should be done without charge, leaving the whole surplus over the bills for printing and paper for the charity. There are now four hundred subscribers, and the surplus cannot be far from a hundred and fifty dollars, making no allowance for loss, by some falling off or failing to pay. The state of the times making the continuance or increase of subscribers unusually uncertain, it is thought best that the transfer shall not take place until January, when the bills for 1858 will be sent out, and the prospect will be rendered more definite. … [E]very new subscriber will be a subscriber of two dollars a year to the Children’s Mission.” [29 (Oct 1857); pp. 238-240]

• The economic panic of 1857 made publishing precarious, and as publisher, Abbot made a better editor; her relief when John Bartlett took over was palpable: “Through the disinterested kindness of a friend, the Editor is enabled to withdraw from the troublesome office of Publisher. She will retain the ownership of The Child’s Friend for the year to come, as the times render all calculations of profit uncertain, and a possible loss ought not to fall upon the funds of the Children’s Mission. … [John Bartlett’s] services as publisher are gratuitous. The subscribers and the Editor have reason for mutual gratulation that the management of the business affairs have passed into abler hands than hers. Those subscribers who, through her ignorance of post-office regulations, received duplicates of the last number, are requested to lend, or give them, with a view to making the work known, and if any person failed to receive a copy, he can obtain one on application to Mr. Bartlett.” [29 (Dec 1857); p. 288]

• Abbot kept the magazine’s economic difficulties before her readers, describing a fictional reader who grew up reading it: “See him at his study-table, with one hand buried in his hair, which no longer flows abroad in bushy curls. He knows that the Friend of his boyhood is about to expire, in the midst of its days, from neglect. He is not too busy to give it a thought, and he has not become so learned as to despise it. He remembers the day of small things; he feels that he owes it a debt of gratitude for some good seeds sown, and for some quiet and pleasant hours in those days, when every hour had its share in his mental and moral growth. He shuts his lexicon, or perhaps makes it his desk, and the next mail carries to the disheartened Editor a contribution from his graceful pen, and an encouraging letter, with a promise of future aid.” [30 (Jan 1858); p. 2-3]

• By July 1858, it was evident that the magazine would fail: “We entered on this year with a list which seemed to promise security from loss, and a small overplus for the Children’s Mission. But in a time of panic like last winter, the first measure of economy, with many, is to cut off papers and periodicals. They fell like dead leaves, and the Child’s Friend suffered in common with those who could better afford it. By the publisher’s account for the half-year, it appears that our resources, when all called in, will not last beyond October, with the most careful management. So it was necessary for the Editor to decide whether to go on, and pay for November and December, or to sell the list of subscribers to some other Magazine. Far be it from us, this customary resort in such cases, (sending to those who have paid punctually something which they did not bargain for, or prefer,) though it is often a means of making money, instead of losing it. Our best subscribers, who have sustained the Magazine to a good old age, shall not have occasion to consider themselves sold. The respectable old Juvenile shall die honorably with the year, deserving the regret of its friends.” [31 (July 1858): 48]

• The Aug 1858 issue included no advertising (paid or otherwise) at all.

• The last issue did not include the remaining chapters of a story being serialized in 1858; though Abbot deleted a scene, the segment ended on what had to be a frustrating cliff-hanger: “As some of our readers are much interested in ‘Uneika,’ we carry on the story as far as we can in our closing number, by omitting a portion containing a conversation between Uneika and the missionary ….” [31 (Oct 1858); p. 254]

relevant information:

• A list of contents for the Jan 1848 issue was published in the Christian Register (27 [1 Jan 1848]: 3).

• The change in editor was noted in the Christian Register (29 [28 Dec 1850]: 206).

source of information: April 1853 issue; Aug 1858 issue; Oct 1843-Sept 1847, 1849, 1857 bound volumes; APS II reels 509-512; Christian Register ; Livingston; Lyon; Kelly

available: AASHistPer, series 3 & 4

• APS II (1800-1850), reel 509-512

• “The Cranberry Pasture,” by Eliza Follen, was reprinted in the Fall River Monitor [Fall River, Massachusetts; 5 Sept 1846; p. 1]

bibliography:

• “Proposals.” Christian Register and Boston Observer 22 (15 July 1843); p. 111.

• M. W. C. “The Child’s Friend.” The Liberator 29 Sept 1843; p. 3.

• “The Child’s Friend.” Christian Register and Boston Observer 22 (30 Sept 1843); p. 155.

• “Recent Publication.” Christian Register and Boston Observer 22 (30 Sept 1843); p. 155.

• C. Stetson. “The Child’s Friend.” Christian Register 22 (28 Oct 1843); p. 170. Also, The Liberator 27 Oct 1843; p. 1.

• notice. New-York Tribune [New York, New York] 6 Jan 1846; p. 2.

• “The Child’s Friend.” Anti-Slavery Bugle [Lisbon, Ohio] 13 Nov 1846; p. 2.

• George Adams. The Boston Directory … 1848. Boston, Massachusetts: James French, 1848; p. 35. [google books]

• advertisement. Christian Register 27 (1 Jan 1848); p. 3.

• “New Publications.” Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] 18 Oct 1848; p. 2.

The Boston Directory … 1849. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1849; p. 40. [archive.org]

• “The Child’s Friend, for Jan. 1, 1851.” Christian Register 29 (28 Dec 1850); p. 206.

The Boston Directory, for the Year 1851. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1851; appendix, p. 31. [google books]

• “Publications Received.” Gloucester Telegraph [Gloucester, Massachusetts] 4 Jan 1851; p. 2.

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; catalog of newspapers, p. 19. [archive.org]

The Boston directory for the Year 1852. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1852; p. 35. [google books]

• “New Publications.” Salem Register [Salem, Massachusetts] 1 Jan 1852; p. 2.

• “New Publications.” Salem Register [Salem, Massachusetts] 1 March 1852; p. 2.

• review. The North American Review 85 (July 1857); p. 277.

• “To Subscribers.” Child’s Friend. 29 (July 1857); p. 47-48.

• “The Children’s Mission to the Children of the Destitute.” Child’s Friend. 29 (Oct 1857); p. 238-240.

• “A New Year’s Greeting.” Child’s Friend. 30 (Jan 1858); p. 1-3.

• advertisement. Christian Inquirer 12 (4 Sept 1858); p. 4.

• Mabel F. Altstetter. “Early American Magazines for Children.” Peabody Journal of Education 19 (Nov 1941); p. 132.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 138, 159, 178-182.

• Jill Delano Sweiger. “Conceptions of Children in American Juvenile Periodicals: 1830-1870.” PhD diss. Rutgers University, 1977.

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Juvenile Instructor ; 1844-1867

edited by:

• 1844-1858, Lucius C. Matlack; also as “Uncle Lucius”

• 1859-1867, Cyrus Prindle

published: Syracuse, New York: Lucius C. Matlack; 1853-1854, publisher at 60 South Salina St.

• Syracuse, New York: Adam Crooks, 1865.

• Syracuse, New York: Cyrus Prindle, 1866-1867; publisher at 43 & 45 E. Jefferson St.

frequency: biweekly; 1 vol/ year; 1844-1850s, Thursday; 1866-1867, first & third Wednesday

description:

• 1853-1855: prices, 25¢/ year; 5 copies to one address, $1/ year; 100 copies, $12/ year

• 1854: 4 pp.; page size, 11.25″ h

• 1855: page size, 19″ h x 12″ w

• 1865: 4 pp.; page size, 18.5″ h x 12″ w; price, 30¢/ year

• 19 Jan 1854 is vol 10, #212; 5 March 1856 is vol 12, #267

• Vol 11 began 4 Jan 1855

• Circulation: 1856, 12,000

• Religious focus: Wesleyan Methodist

relevant information: The Instructor is not listed in directories for Syracuse, New York, after 1867.

relevant quotes: It had an anti-slavery focus: “Its object has been for eight years past to infuse into the young mind appropriate sentiments of respect for parents, sympathy for human suffering, and an abiding hatred of oppression in all its forms. The want of a juvenile paper that shall give a proper direction to the youthful mind, in these times of strife for the supremacy of slavery, is felt by thousands who know not of the existence of this periodical; and yet, within the last eight years, it has moulded the minds of thousands of children, who have grown up to manhood and womanhood thoroughly imbued with the love of freedom for all men.” [advertisement. National Era 27 Jan 1853]

• Advertisements in the 1850s emphasized that the Instructor was a “reformatory paper for children”: “The want of a paper for children, of a reformatory character, has long been felt. The juvenile papers of our land do not meet the demands of the community. They please the eye and interest the reader, but do not instruct and enlighten the mind with reference to the great sins of the day. Reformers! The Juvenile Instructor is intended to meet this demand. It is the paper for children—for Sabbath schools and Day schools.” [Daily National Era 9 Jan 1854]

• Matlack proudly eulogized both the Instructor and a former reader—Louisiana state senator Stephen Shelby Fish, shot in New Orleans, Louisiana, when supporters of African-American equality were attacked on 30 July 1866: “He was an early, unselfish and constant friend of the slave. Excuse a personal allusion. Thirty years ago this winter I became editor of the first anti-slavery paper for children published in this country. For twenty-five years I was known to thousands of the little ones of the North and West as ‘Uncle Lucius.’ An entire generation of them grew to manhood and womanhood, under my training while readers of the Juvenile Instructor. And they were abolitionists of the most radical type. Stories and pictures about slavery were freely interspersed with other matter suited to the minds of children in a land which had been consecrated to freedom, although peopled with slaves. As one of my first and constant readers, his sympathies were spontaneous and enduring.” [“Memorial Address”]

source of information: AASHistPer; notices, etc., below

available: AASHistPer, series 4

• Several newsapers reprinted pieces from the Instructor: the Holmes County Farmer [Millersburg, Ohio] reprinted “Paid in Your Own Coin” [23 Feb 1865; p. 1.]; the Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] reprinted “To Tommy Truant” [22 July 1865; p. 3].

bibliography:

• advertisement. National Era 7 (27 Jan 1853); p. 15.

• “The Juvenile Instructor—Vol. IX.” The National Era [Washington, District of Columbia] 28 April 1853; p. 6.

• “The Juvenile Instructor.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 24 June 1853; p. 3.

• advertisement. Liberator 23 (1 July 1853); p. 103.

• advertisement. National Era 7 (14 July 1853); p. 112.

• advertisement. New York Evangelist 24 (14 July 1853); p. 112. Also, Independent [New York, New York] 7 July 1843; p. 108.

• The Sabbath School. The Ohio Star [Ravenna, Ohio] 23 Nov 1853; p. 3.

• “A Reformatory Paper for Children.” Daily National Era [Washington, District of Columbia] 9 Jan 1854; p. 3.

• One of the neatest juvenile papers. The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 3 March 1854; p. 3.

• “Uncle Lucius’ Juvenile Instructor.” Anti-Slavery Bugle [Lisbon, Ohio] 30 Dec 1854; p. 3. Also, Aurora of the Valley [Newbury, Vermont] 4 Jan 1855; p. 3.

• Franklin B. Hough. “Newspapers and Other Periodicals Published in New-York in 1855,” in Census of the State of New-York, for 1855. Albany, New York: Charles Van Benthuysen, 1857; pp. 490-491.

• “Literary Notices.” Vermont Christian Messenger [Montpelier, Vermont] 10 Jan 1855; p. 2.

• “The Juvenile Instructor.” Kansas Free State [Lawrence, Kansas] 3 March 1856; p. 3.

• “The Juvenile Instructor.” Kansas Free State [Lawrence, Kansas] 15 Aug 1857; p. 4.

• “The Juvenile Instructor.” The Brandon Gazette [Brandon, Vermont] 17 Feb 1859; p. 2.

• “Wesleyan General Conference.” The Brandon Gazette [Brandon, Vermont] 1 Nov 1860; p. 2.

• Thomas Hutchinson. Central New York Business Directory. New York, New York: Thomas Hutchinson, 1861; p. 158.

• Franklin B. Hough. “Newspapers and Other Periodicals,” in Census of the State of New York, for 1865. Albany, New York: Charles Van Benthuysen & Sons, 1867; pp. 594-595.

Daily Journal Directory of the City of Syracuse, for 1866-7. Syracuse, New York: Truair, Smith & Miles, 1866; p. 57.

• Andrew Boyd, comp. Boyd’s Daily Journal Syracuse Directory, and Onondaga County Business Directory, 1867-8. Syracuse, New York: Truair & Smith, 1867; p. 67.

• [Lucius C. Matlack.] “Memorial Address.” New Orleans Republican [New Orleans, Louisiana] 8 Aug 1871; p. 1.

The Young Reaper • Young Reaper ; Jan 1844-1908?

cover/masthead: 1844 | 1857 | 1859, 1861-1864 | 1865-1868 | 1869-1871

edited by: 1844-1851, H. S. Washburn • 1854-1855, Alfred Colburn • B. Griffith • B. Griffith & A. E. Dickinson, Jan 1871-?

published: Boston, Massachusetts: New England Sunday School Union, 1844-1853; publisher at 79 Cornhill, 1844-1846. • Boston, Massachusetts: Heath & Graves, 1854-1855. • Boston, Massachusetts: American Baptist Publication Society, 1857; publisher at 79 Cornhill.

• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Baptist Publication Society, Jan 1857-1908?; publisher at 118 Arch St., 1857; publisher at 530 Arch St., 1869-1871

• New York, New York: American Baptist Publication Society, 1869-1871; publisher at 76 E. Ninth St.

• Chicago, Illinois: American Baptist Publication Society, 1869-1871; publisher at 38 Lombard Block, July-Aug 1869; publisher at 7 Custom House, Place Sept 1869-March 1871

• St. Louis, Missouri: American Baptist Publication Society, 1869-1871; publisher at 209 N. Ninth St.

frequency: 1844-1856: monthly; first of the month

• 1857, monthly • later, monthly & semimonthly • 1 vol/ year

description: 1844: 4 pp.; price, 15¢/ year; page size, 11.75″ h

• 1846: prices, 10 copies, 12½¢/ copy; 40+ copies, 10¢/ copy

• 1857: 4 pp.; page size, 15″ h x 10.5″ w. Prices: 1-19 copies, 13¢ each/ year; 20-49 copies, 10¢ each/ year; 50-99 copies, 9¢ each/ year; 100+ copies, 8¢ each/ year

• 1859: 4 pp.; page size, 13.75″ h x 10″ w. Prices: semimonthly: 1 copy, 25¢/ year; 10-49 copies, 10¢ each/ year; 10-99 copies, 9¢ each/ year; 100+ copies, 8¢ each/ year. monthly: 10 copies, $1/ year; 15 copies, $1.50/ year; 20 copies, $2/ year

• 1860-1861: price, 25¢

• 1869-1872: 4 pp.; page size untrimmed, 14″ h x 10″ w. Prices: monthly: 1 copy, 50¢/ year; 10+ copies, 12¢/ year. semimonthly: 1 copy, 75¢/ year; 10+ copies, 24¢/ year

• Circulation: 1845, 6000 copies. 1846, 7000 copies/ month. 1847, 9000 subscribers. 1856, 20,000/ month. 1857, 50,000/ month. 1859, 100,000/ month. 1859-1860, average of 96,000/ month. 1869, 256,328/ month. 1870, 300,000. 1871-1872, 299,210/ month

• Religious focus: Baptist

relevant information:

• An example of what people could do to encourage religion in their neighborhoods was a family who distributed copies of the Reaper to their neighbors. [“What Can I Do?”]

relevant quotes:

• The Reaper was in 1854 advertised as “the only Baptist sabbath school paper in the United States.” [advertisement. Christian Watchman and Reflector]

• In 1856, a change was advertised: “The Young Reaper, [a] beautiful Sabbath School Paper for youth, will be issued on the first of January next in a new and greatly improved style, by the American Bapsist [sic] Publication Society.” [advertisement. Christian Secretary 26 Dec 1856]

• The change in the Reaper occurred as a result of consolidation: “From this date the paper will be issued monthly from the Rooms of the American Baptist Publication Society, 118 Arch Street, Philadelphia, and from the N. E. S. S. Depository, 79 Cornhill, Boston. The recent merging of the New England Sabbath School Union with the Publication Society, in additon to other very desirable results, has removed this Youth’s Paper to a central position, from which it is confidently expected it will go out to all parts of our land.” [“Young Reaper.” Biblical Recorder 11 Dec 1856]

• Some Southern readers, however, were outraged by changes in content: “The Baptist Church in Knoxville, last year subscribed for forty or fifty copies for their Sabbath School; but after receiving a few numbers, found it to be an abolition sheet, and expelled it from the school, and at once discontinued it. In reply to a letter from the American Baptist Publication Society, asking a favorable notice of the Reaper, we addressed a letter to the Society stating the above facts, and asking whether in future it would be free from such sentiments. To this we have received no reply, and suppose that we shall wait, as we have already waited some four or five weeks. if the Publication Society, for fear of offending their abolition readers, cannot afford to answer to reasonable an inquiry as we have made, we cannot afford to recommend the Young Reaper, having been deceived by it once, we shall not blindly risk it again ourself, nor lead others to do it.” [in “Extremes Meet” 2 July 1859]

• Like most religious publications, the Reaper wasn’t intended to make a profit: “[T]he Society publishes this paper at cost. After much gratuitous labor, if it can be made to pay for itself, we ask no more. But it will not do this without a large increase in its circulation. Our estimate of its expenses is based upon the issue of 100,000 copies. … As this is the only Baptist Sabbath-school paper in the country, we desire to make it all that our schools can ask, and we solicit in return their patronage.” [“A Word to Our Friends.” May 1857: 18.]

• The Reaper was “designed to meet the wants of Baptist Sabbath Schools in all parts of the country;”; and one notice published in a Southern paper pointed out that the American Baptist Publication Society “so far as we have observed, sedulously guard their works against interfering with the civil institutions of our country”—a veiled claim that the paper didn’t argue against slavery. [The American Baptist Publication Society] It wasn’t long, however, before a Southern Baptist paper—Children’s Friend—was founded and the Tennessee Baptist took umbrage against Southerners who praised the Reaper at the expense of the Friend. (See pieces at “Southern Baptist take aim,” below)

interesting information: “Glad and Free,” a poem from the point of view of freed slaves published in 1 April 1866, drew the disgust of a southern pastor, as a later historian explains: “[Charles] Manley wrote to the editor of the Young Reaper, ‘if he thought proper to publish any more such articles in the paper, I would prefer that he would not send them to us; as I should not distribute them and did not care to pay postage on what would be waste paper.’ The editor replied that he thought Manley was too sensitive about the freedpeople. Manley declared that while the editor could publish what he wanted, ‘even those things which he knew would be offensive to Christians at the South, we would also reserve to ourselves the right of not circulating papers which contained objectionable statements—especially when the objection to them was that they were false and irritating.’ The poem deeply troubled Manley because it attributed the end of slavery to the work of Christ, an idea utterly opposed to his understanding of the South’s recent history.” [Stowell 120-121]

source of information: notices, etc., below; 1857, 1859, 1869-1871 scattered issues; OCLC; Rowell

available: AASHistPer, series 3, 4 & 5

• The Hartford Courant [Hartford, Connecticut] reprinted “A Thrilling Incident,” by Henry Ward Beecher [1 Feb 1845; p. 2]

bibliography:

• advertisement. Christian Reflector 7 (15 Feb 1844); p. 28.

• notice. Sabbath School Messenger 8 (20 June 1844); p. 15.

• “The N. E. Sabbath School Union.” Christian Reflector 8 (29 May 1845); p. 87.

• “N. E. Baptist S. S. Union.” Hartford Courant [Hartford, Connecticut] 6 June 1845; p. 2.

• “Periodicals of the N. England Sab. School Union.” Vermont Religious Observer [Middlebury, Vermont] 28 Jan 1846; p. 3.

• advertisement. Christian Secretary 24 (30 Jan 1846); p. 3.

• “New England (Baptist) Sabbath School Union.” Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] 2 June 1847; p. 2.

• “What Can I Do?” The Biblical Recorder [Raleigh, North Carolina] 31 May 1855; p. 1.

• advertisement. Christian Reflector 10 (16 Dec 1847); p. 199.

• advertisement. Christian Watchman and Reflector 35 (5 Jan 1854); p. 3.

• advertisement. Christian Secretary 35 (26 Dec 1856); p. 3.

• “Young Reaper.” The Biblical Recorder [Raleigh, North Carolina] 11 Dec 1856; p. 2.

• advertisement. Christian Secretary 35 (26 Dec 1856); p. 3.

• advertisement. Tennessee Baptist [Nashville, Tennessee] 10 Jan 1857; p. 3.

• The American Baptist Publication Society. South Western Baptist [Marion, Alabama] 2 April 1857; p. 2.

• “American Baptist Publication Society.” The Missionary Magazine 37 (Sept 1857); p. 346.

• advertisement. The Western Watchman [St. Louis, Missouri] 9 Dec 1858; p. 3.

• “The Young Reaper.” The Biblical Recorder [Raleigh, North Carolina] 7 April 1858; p. 3.

• notice of the May issue. South Western Baptist [Marion, Alabama] 12 May 1859; p. 3.

• “The Baptist Anniversaries: American Baptist Publication Society, Interesting Debate on Consolidation.” New York Herald [New York, New York] 22 May 1859; p. 8.

• “Hillsdale Co. Sabbath School Convention.” The Standard [Hillsdale, Michigan] 21 June 1859; p. 2.

• Southern Baptists take aim: “Extremes Meet.” Tennessee Baptist [Nashville, Tennessee] 28 May 1859; p. 2. “Extremes Meet.” Tennessee Baptist [Nashville, Tennessee] 2 July 1859; p. 2. “Is It Forgery?—Who Can Explain?” Tennessee Baptist [Nashville, Tennessee] 23 July 1859; p. 2. “Sabbath School Paper.” Tennessee Baptist [Nashville, Tennessee] 20 Aug 1859; p. 2.

• “Philadelphia Baptist Association—Second Day.” Public Ledger [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 6 Oct 1859; p. 1.

• “The Young Reaper.” The Biblical Recorder [Raleigh, North Carolina] 24 Nov 1859; p. 2.

• advertisement. The Biblical Recorder [Raleigh, North Carolina] 24 Nov 1859; p. 3. Also, Tennessee Baptist [Nashville, Tennessee] 26 Nov 1859; p. 3.

• J. Holmes. “Sabbath School Statistics.” Tennessee Baptist [Nashville, Tennessee] 10 Dec 1859; p. 2.

• “Baptist Anniversaries.” Detroit Free Press [Detroit, Michigan] 27 May 1860; p. 2.

• “You Can Have Sunday School Papers for Nothing.” South Western Baptist [Marion, Alabama] 31 May 1860; p. 2.

• “The American Baptist Publication Society.” South Western Baptist [Marion, Alabama] 7 June 1860; p. 1.

• advertisement. South Western Baptist [Marion, Alabama] 28 Feb 1860; p. 3.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; pp. 31, 65. [google books]

• “Atchison County Sabbath School Association.—Quarterly Session.” The Atchison Daily Free Press [Atchison, Kansas] 7 Nov 1867; p. 2.

• “Quarterly Meeting of the Atchison Co. Sabbath School Association.” The Atchison Daily Free Press [Atchison, Kansas] 4 May 1868; p. 1.

• advertisement. The Biblical Recorder [Raleigh, North Carolina] 5 May 1869; p. 3.

• “Northern Baptist Anniversaries.” Biblical Recorder [Raleigh, North Carolina] 2 June 1869; p. 2.

• “Semi-Centennial Sabbath School Celebration.” The Berkshire County Eagle [Pittsfield, Massachusetts] 23 Sept 1869; p. 3.

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 735. [google books]

• “Young Reaper.” Richmond Dispatch [Richmond, Virginia] 19 March 1870; p. 1.

• advertisement. The Biblical Recorder [Raleigh, North Carolina] 23 Nov 1870; p. 3.

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 161. [archive.org]

• “Morning News”: The Baptist anniversaries. Fall River Daily Evening News [Fall River, Massachusetts] 25 May 1872; p. 2.

• J. Thomas Scharf and Thompson Westcott. History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: L. H. Everts & Co., 1884; vol 3, p. 2026. [google books]

• advertisement for the American Baptist Publication Society. Word and Way [Kansas City, Missouri] 6 Dec 1908; p. 14.

• advertisement for the American Baptist Publication Society. Baptist and Reflector [Nashville, Tennessee] 5 Dec 1907; p. 14.

• advertisement for the American Baptist Publication Society. Baptist and Reflector [Nashville, Tennessee] 11 June 1908; p. 16.

• advertisement for the American Baptist Publication Society. Baptist and Reflector [Nashville, Tennessee] 27 Aug 1908; p. 14.

• Barbara Snedeker Bates. “Denominational Periodicals: The Invisible Literature.” Phaedrus 7 (Spring/Summer 1980); pp. 13-18.

• Daniel W. Stowell. Rebuilding Zion: The Religious Reconstruction of the South, 1863-1877. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998; p. 120-121, 227.

The Well-spring (also The Wellspring for Young People) ; 5 Jan 1844-1876 • The Well-spring and Missionary Echoes ; 1877-1881 • The Wellspring ; 1928

cover/masthead: 1845 | 1852, 1854 | 1857 | 1865-1867, 1869

edited by: 1844-1869, Asa Bullard

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Sabbath School Society, 5 Jan 1844-1866; 1852-1869, publisher at 13 Cornhill.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Congregatonal Sabbath-School and Publishing Society, 1869; publisher at 13 Cornhill.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Congregational Publishing Society, 1877-1881.

• Chicago, Illinois: Congregational Publishing Society, 1928.

frequency: weekly

description: 1844-1845, 1852-1857: 4 pp.; page size, 13″ h x 9.5″ w; prices: 1 copy, 35¢/ year; 3 copies, $1/ year; 10 copies, $3/ year; 20+ copies, 25 ¢ each/ year

• 1865-1867: 4 pp.; page size, 13″ h x 9.5″ w; prices: 1 copy, 50¢/ year; 20 copies, $12/ year

• 1869: 4 pp.; page size untrimmed, 15.5″ h x 10.75″ w; prices: 1 copy, 60¢/ year; 20 copies, $12/ year

• Circulation: 1845, 11,000. 1850, 22,000. 1866, 50,000. 1867, 50,000

• Religious focus: Congregational

relevant quotes:

• The Well-spring was intended for children who had read The Sabbath School Visiter, which had been published for adults and for children: “The Managers of the Mass. S. S. Society … [b]elieving that its influence, so far as now exerted, through The Sabbath School Visiter, is greatly abridged by the attempt to adapt that periodical to the wants of both children and adults, … propose to publish … TWO periodicals, to be devoted, one to each of these classes respectively.” The publication for adults was The Congregational Visiter. [Sabbath School Visiter 11 (Oct 1843); p. 239] Dec 1848 was the last issue of the Congregational Visiter, and, “in the absence of the Society’s larger periodical,” the Well-Spring would include “hints, suggestions, &c.,” for teachers. [“Notice”]

• From the prospectus: “Inasmuch as every juvenile periodical is, and will be perused, to a greater or less extent, on the Sabbath, it is intended that The Well-Spring, like the publications of the Society in general, shall contain nothing unsuitable to be read on that Holy Day. Still, no labor will be spared to render it a paper that shall please and interest, as well as profit the young. An extensive correspondence with Missionaries at the West, and among the heathen, will help to enrich its columns.” [Sabbath School Visiter 11 (Oct 1843); p. 240]

continues: The Sabbath School Visiter (1833-1843)

source of information: 1845, 1852, 1854, 1857, 1865-1869 scattered issues; Visiter ; AASHistPer; Missionary Herald ; Sabbath School Visiter ; OCLC; Livingston

available: AASHistPer, series 3, 4, 5

bibliography:

• “Periodicals of the Massachusetts Sabbath School Society.” The Sabbath School Visiter 11 (Oct 1843); p. 239-240. Also, “Periodicals of the Massachusetts Sabbath School Society.” Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] 22 Nov 1843; p. 4.

• “The Well Spring.” Boston Musical Visitor 3 (9 Feb 1844); p. 240.

• notice. Sabbath School Messenger 8 (20 June 1844); p. 15.

• “Massachusetts Sabbath School Society.” The Missionary Herald 41 (July 1845); p. 246-247.

• “Notice.” Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] 13 Dec 1848; p. 3.

The Boston Directory, for the Year 1851. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1851; appendix, p. 32. [google books]

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; catalog of newspapers, p. 20. [archive.org]

The Boston directory for the Year 1852. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1852; p. 36. [google books]

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 31. [google books]

• advertisement. New York Observer and Chronicle 43 (14 Dec 1865); p. 399.

• advertisement. New York Observer and Chronicle 44 (27 Dec 1866); p. 411.

• advertisement. New York Observer and Chronicle 45 (26 Dec 1867); p. 412.

• advertisement. New York Observer and Chronicle 46 (3 Dec 1868); p. 387.

• “Good News for the Children.” The Missionary Herald 65 (Jan 1869); p. 17-18.

Youth’s Monthly Visitor [also, Youth’s Monthly Visiter] ; March 1844-1846

edited by: Margaret L. Bailey

published: Cincinnati, Ohio: C. C. Clark; office at “Herald” office, Main St.

frequency: monthly

description: Price, 25¢/ year

• Circulation: March 1844, 800 subscribers [The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 3 April 1844] • Dec 1844, 3,000 [The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 18 Dec 1844] • Feb 1845, 2,500 [“The Herald Publishing Office.”]

relevant information:

• Lists of the contents of several issues were printed in The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist (see below).

• The issues for July and Dec 1844 were delayed.

• Bailey had planned to end publication with the Feb 1846 issue, but an increase in subscriptions changed her mind. [The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 4 Feb 1846]

relevant quotes:

• The Vermont Union Whig noted the Visiter’s anti-slavery bent, noting that the Visiter was “devoted, as its name indicates, to the improvement of the youthful mind by training it to follow the path of virtue, and teach the rising generation to regard this ‘self-evident’ truth—‘all men are created equal.’ ” [13 March 1845]

• The publisher could be unexpectedly candid: “The last number, owing to peculiar circumstances, was not so interesting as previous numbers. The number about to be issued, will be perhaps better than all its predecessors.” [“The Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 9 April 1845]

• The editor of The Harbinger—probably George Ripley—may have been one of Bailey’s fans: “We had for some time been desirous to know more of the authoress of some beautiful little poems that have from time to time met our eye, and are happy to find her as the conductor of so excellent a work. The tone of the Monthly Visitor is pure and elevated; its original articles combine good taste and good sense; its selections are judicious and instructive, and, what is rare in a journal of a religious character, it is free from bigotry or narrowness without being monotonous and flat.” [Harbinger]

• Another editor emphasized the Visiter’s secular offerings: “It advocates, with uncommon ability and attractiveness, a pure and elevated morality, evang[e]lical piety, and whatever pertains to the mental and moral improvement of the young, and is designed particularly for the children of the west. Besides the pieces of a strictly religious and moral character, it exhibits a choice and fascinating selection of historical sketches and anecdotes, natural history anecdotes, information in matters of general literature, science and the arts, and whatever is requisite to make up a truly valuable and interesting paper for juvenile readers. The high reputation of Mrs. B. and the large circulation of her paper in Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, and elsewhere, are more substantial recommendations than any extended commendatory notice from us might furnish.” [American Freeman]

• The Visiter was published for almost three years; Bailey went on to establish another periodical in Washington, D. C.: “As this Prospectus [for The Friend of Youth] may reach many of the former friends and patrons of the “Youth’s Monthly Visiter,” a paper which we established and edited for nearly three years, at Cincinnati, we cannot forbear expressing the great pleasure it will give us to renew our former intercourse with them. The little children who then received the ‘Visiter’ as a welcome guest, are now almost grown up men and women. But they will perhaps find some little brother or sister or cousin to whom they may introduce us as an old friend.” [“Prospectus of The Friend of Youth”]

source of information: notices, etc., below

available: Stories written by Mrs. L. M. Bailey were reprinted: “The Fugitive,” in the Prisoner’s Friend [1 (21 May 1845); p. 32]; “The Contented Boy,” in Vermont Religious Observer [Middlebury, Vermont; 9 Dec 1846; p. 4]

bibliography:

• “The Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 8 (14 Feb 1844); p. 3.

• “Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 8 (21 Feb 1844); p. 3.

• “Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 8 (13 March 1844); p. 3.

• “Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 8 (3 April 1844); p. 3.

• “The Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 8 (17 April 1844); p. 3.

• “Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 8 (8 May 1844); p. 3.

• “The Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 8 (10 July 1844); p. 2.

• “Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 9 (18 Dec 1844); p. 1.

• “The Herald Publishing Office.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 9 (22 Jan 1845); p. 2.

• “Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 9 (29 Jan 1845); p. 1.

• “Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 9 (5 Feb 1845); p. 3.

• “The Herald Publishing Office.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 9 (5 Feb 1845); p. 3.

• “Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Vermont Union Whig [Rutland, Vermont] 13 Feb 1845; p. 4.

• “The Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 9 (19 Feb 1845); p. 3.

• “Youth’s Monthly Visitor.” Wisconsin Free Democrat [Milwaukee, Wisconsin] 26 Feb 1845; p. 3.

• Youth’s Monthly Visiter. The Vermont Union Whig [Rutland, Vermont] 13 March 1845; p. 3.

• “Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 9 (19 March 1845); p. 3.

• “The Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 9 (9 April 1845); p. 3.

• “Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 9 (26 March 1845); p. 2.

• “Youth’s Visiter—An Offer.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 9 (9 July 1845); p. 3.

• “Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 10 (24 Sept 1845); p. 3.

• “The Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 10 (4 Feb 1846); p. 3.

• “The Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 10 (18 March 1846); p. 3.

• “The Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 10 (1 April 1846); p. 3.

• “Our Table.” Anti-Slavery Bugle [Lisbon, Ohio] 10 April 1846; p. 3.

• notice. The Harbinger. 2 (11 April 1846); p. 283. online

• “The Youth’s Visiter.” American Freeman [Waukesha, Wisconsin] 2 (14 April 1846); p. 2.

• “Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 10 (22 April 1846); p. 3.

• “Youth’s Monthly Visiter.” The Cincinnati Weekly Herald and Philanthropist 10 (1 July 1846); p. 3.

• “Prospectus of The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 4 Oct 1849; p. 158.

The Bee ; 9 March 1844-22 April 1845

edited by: William August Munsell (b. 1835)

published: Albany, New York: William August Munsell.

frequency: irregular

description: 4 pp.; page size, 9.5″ h • Nine issues

• Amateur publication

relevant information:

• Unsurprisingly, William’s father was a printer; William became a printer before 1855. [1855 New York State census]

• Commended by Samuel Griswold Goodrich; the magazine reprints a letter from him to Munsell.

• According to Lyon, the publication ceased because the editor “came down with whooping cough.” [p. 138]

source of information: Lyon; OCLC; New York state census, 1855

bibliography:

• New York State Census, 1855. Albany, New York; ward 4; dwelling #62 [via ancestry.com]

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 138.

Uncle Ezekiel’s Youth’s Cabinet ; May 1844-15 March 1846?

cover/masthead: 1845-1846

edited by: “Ezekiel Loveyouth” [Joseph F. Witherell]

published: Concord, New Hampshire: J. F. Witherell, May 1844-Ap 1845; “published at the Balm of Gilead Office”.

• Concord, New Hampshire: Witherell & Lowell, 1845. (1 May & 15 May 1845)

frequency: May 1844-Ap 1845: monthly; “early in the month” • after 1 May 1845, 1st & 15th of each month

description: May 1844-Ap 1845: 16 pp.; page size, 5.75″ h x 3.75”

• after 1 May 1845: 8 pp.; page size untrimmed, 9″ h x 6″ w; prices: 1 copy, 25¢ 5 copies, $1; 11 copies, $2; 18 copies, $3; “The money in all cases to accompany the order.”

• The issue for 15 March 1846 is vol 2, numbers 15-16.

• Witherell used the vignette of reading children which appeared in the Cabinet’s masthead for May 1845 to illustrate the “Youth’s Department” in The Gem and Literary Gazette (Dexter, Maine) in 1857.

• Religious focus: Universalist

relevant quotes:

• Witherell already was known as “Uncle Ezekiel Loveyouth,” contributing pieces for children to the Balm of Gilead; attending a meeting, the editor of the Universalist Watchman was disappointed to miss seeing him: “We did not learn that ‘Uncle Ezekiel Loveyouth’ was up there … until we saw the last Balm. If we had known, that that venerable old gentleman, who writes so much for the little readers of the Balm, was so near us, we should have ‘run crazy,’ if we could not have got a sight at his gracious countenance.” [4 March 1843]

• From the prospectus: “I love children, and am anxious to do all I can for their improvement and happiness. And as I remember when I was a boy, I was very fond of reading and getting information, so I suppose my young friends to be. And I dare say, they will take more interest in a magazine printed on purpose for them, than they would in any of the large papers which are so plenty, and which contain much that is uninteresting and unintelligible to youth. Whether my little friends will love me as much as I love hem when we [p. 2] get better acquainted, is a matter yet to be determined; but one thing I can safely promise them, and that is, that I shall do all in my power to make the paper interesting and useful to them. I shall not be satisfied with simply affording them amusement, but shall always endeavor to publish such pieces as will make them wiser, and have a tendency to make them better. For we must always remember, that we cannot be truly happy unless we are good. I shall, of course, tell them about a great many things of which they may wish to learn, but I shall be careful to avoid every thing that is unprofitable. As some of the most interesting stories there are in the world, are to be found in the Bible, I shall often publish such in this paper. … ” [“Introduction.” 1 (May 1844); p. 1-2]

• Much was promised for the second year of the magazine, including more regular issues: “ … I am requested by Mr. Witherell, to apologise to you for the irregularity in issuing the ‘Cabinet.’ He feels very sorry that he could not get them out more punctual, though I am sure he has not been to blame. He has been obliged to do most of the printing himself; and he has had so many other things to attend to, that it was impossible for him to do better than he has. You will therefore, I trust, excuse him. We have now made arrangements with a young gentleman to print the next volume, and the numbers will be issued regularly on the first day of every month. I calculate to make the next volume much better and prettier than this. It will be printed on new type with a beautiful border around the pages; and I have ma[d]e a bargain with the picture maker, for a great variety of new and splendid pictures, much superior to any in this volume. I have been engaged for some time in writing stories, which, I know will be very interesting to my little friends. As I have a great many more subscribers for the next volume, than I had for this, I can afford to make the paper better, and I shall do so. … [signed] E. Loveyouth.” [“Concluding Address.” 1 (Ap 1845); p. 184]

relevant information:

• Publication was erratic the first year: “By the first of the month, mentioned in our prospect[u]s, as the time of issuing the Cabinet is not meant the first day of the month, but early in the month. Our numerous other engagements make it inconvenient to issue the Cabinet invariably on the first day of each month.” [“Note to Our Patrons.” 1 (Oct 1844); p. 96] Witherell apologized for the erratic publishing: “We owe an apology to our little friends, for the irregularity of the issues of the Cabinet. If they will excuse us for the past, they may depend on receiving the future numbers regularly, as early as the 10th of every month.” [1 (Nov/Dec 1844?); p. 128] It appears that the issues for Nov and Dec 1844 were published as a single 32-page issue.

• The Universalist Watchman got a little sarcastic about the gaps in publication: “Can Mr. Witherell inform us what has become of this monthly? The subscribers here are complaining on account of its non-appearance. Has it been issued the last three months? We suppose it has not, from the fact that it has not been seen. Are ‘embassadors for Christ,’ under any moral obligation to fulfill their promises? Please examine your prospectus.” [25 Jan 1845]

• Publication also was erratic the second year: “When I commenced the present volume of the ‘Cabinet,’ I expected that I should be able to issue the numbers regularly, and I so promised its patrons.—But the printer, (who, by the way, has ruined himself, pecuniarily, in the publication of another paper,) has not, owing to his pecuniary embarrassment, been able to meet his engagements in the matter. He regrets this as much as I do, [b]ut could not possibly do better than he [p. 120] has. Under existing circumstances, I do not like to make another promise, but I will assure my little friends, that the volume will be completed as speedily as possible; at the end of which, the paper will probably be discontinued.” [“Apologetical.” 2 (15 March 1846); p. 119-120.]

• Witherell moved to Dexter, Maine, around 1850, where he set up a printing business and published The Gem and Literary Gazette for adults and Youth’s Cabinet and Little Joker (April 1857-after Oct 1857) for children.

source of information: 1844-1845 bound volume; May 1845 issues; scrapbook & vertical file articles, & pieces in The Gem and Literary Gazette, all at the Dexter Historical Society, Dexter, Maine; AASHistPer; AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 3

• Pieces from the original Cabinet probably were collected and reprinted as a 92-page book titled The Youth’s Cabinet around 1857; the book was a premium sent to subscribers to Youth’s Cabinet and Little Joker.

bibliography:

• “Visit to New Hampshire.” Universalist Watchman [Montpelier, Vermont] 4 March 1843; p. 3.

• S. W. “Youth’s Cabinet.” The Universalist Watchman [Montpelier, Vermont] 25 Jan 1845; p. 7.

• Richard Eddy. Universalism in America. Boston, Massachusetts: Universalist Publishing House, 1886; vol 2, p. 596. [google books]

The Encourager ; Dec 1844-1847?

edited by: Daniel P. Kidder

published: New York, New York: Carlton & Porter. New York, New York: Lane & Tippett, for the Sunday School union of the Methodist Episcopal church, 1845-1846; publisher at 200 Mulberry St.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/year

description: 24 pp.; page size, 5.75″ h

• Vol 1 #2 is 1845

• Religious focus: Methodist

relevant information:

• “Intended to enkindle a missionary spirit.” [“Notices”] Eleanor Nolen notes that it “made a specialty of missionary stories.” [p. 57]

relevant quote: “We must not omit to mention Nos. 1, 2 and 3 of the Encourager, a very good monthly 18mo of twenty four pages, published at the Methodist Book Room and designed to take the place of the Child’s Magazine. It deserves a large sale.” [“Sunday School Books”]

continues: The Child’s Magazine (July 1827-1844)

continued by: The Sunday-Scholar’s Mirror (1847-1850): “In our serial literature for children, it is found by experience to be well to change the titles occasionally, for the sake of variety and good effect. Thus the Encourager followed the Children’s Magazine, the [Sunday-Scholar’s] Mirror the Encourager, and now the Monitor succeeds the Mirror.” [Youth’s Monitor ; p. 5]

source of information: Lyon; Nolen; Monitor ; OCLC; AAS

bibliography:

• “Sunday School Books.” Commercial Advertiser [New York, New York] 48 (22 Feb 1845); p. 2.

• “Notices.” Ladies Repository, and Gatherings of the West 6 (March 1846); p. 96.

• “Introduction.” The Youth’s Monitor 1 (Jan 1851); pp. 5-6.

Report of the Librarian of Congress for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1904. Washington, District of Columbia: Government Printing Office, 1904; p. 490. [google books]

• Eleanor Weakley Nolen. “Nineteenth Century Children’s Magazines.” The Horn Book Magazine. 15 (Jan/Feb 1939); pp. 55-60.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 139.

The Child’s Companion and Youth’s Friend (also The Child’s Companion and Truth’s Friend) ; Jan 1845-after 1870

edited by: W. B. Tappan, 1848-1849 • Henry Hoyt, 1851-1852

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Sunday School Union. New York, New York, 1850; publisher at 147 Nassau; James C. Meeks, agent

frequency: monthly: first day of month

description: 1848: 16 pp.; page size, 5.75″ h x 3.5″ w • 1849-1852: 16 pp.; price, 25¢/ year

• Religious focus

relevant information: Also sold as bound volumes of 192 pages.

• An advertisement in 1850 gives the title The Child’s Companion and Truth’s Friend. [“A Pleasant Visitor”]

source of information: 1848 bound vol; OCLC; AAS catalog; “Periodicals”; Adams; Boston Directory ; New York Mercantile

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

The Twenty-Third Annual Report of the American Sunday-School Union. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: American Sunday-School Union, 1847; p. 28.

• “New Books.” Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] 1 March 1848; p. 3.

• George Adams. The Boston Directory … 1848. Boston, Massachusetts: James French, 1848; p. 35. [google books]

The Boston Directory … 1849. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1849; p. 40. [archive.org]

• “Periodicals published by the American Sunday-School Union.” Episcopal Recorder 27 (28 April 1849); p. 28.

The New York Mercantile Union Business Directory … 1850. New York: S. French, L. C. & H. L. Pratt, 1850; p. 289. [google books]

• “New Publications.” Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] 5 Feb 1850; p. 2.

• advertisement: “A Pleasant Visitor for Every Family.” The Louisville Daily Courier [Louisville, Kentucky] 27 Feb 1850; p. 2.

The Boston Directory, for the Year 1851. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1851; appendix, p. 31. [google books]

• “The Child’s Companion and Youth’s Friend.” Green-Mountain Freeman [Montpelier, Vermont] 25 Dec 1851; p. 3.

The Boston Directory for the Year 1852. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1852; p. 35. [google books]

The Monthly Rose (also, the Albany Monthly Rose) ; Jan-Dec 1845

cover/masthead: 1845

published: Albany, New York: E. H. Pease & W. C. Little, Jan-Dec 1845.

frequency: monthly

description: 16 pp; page size, 9.75″ h. Price, $1/ year

• Published by “the present and former members of the Albany Female Academy.”

relevant quotes:

• One editor praised a poem in the second issue, mused on the usefulness of literary pursuits for women, and evoked the Rose Bud: “Among other poetic effusions, will be found in the second number, one entitled “Illola,” founded upon an Indian tradition, of which an account is given in a book called ‘A year in the Prairies.’ This little poem is choice in its diction, and has a musical flow in its metre, which is pleasing to the ear. Periodicals of a charcter like [the Rose], must produce we think, a beneficial effect upon the contributors as well as the readers. They serve to expand the mind and to bring into action, the faculties of those who are preparing to play their parts on life’s great stage. We are not among them who believe that devotion to literary pursuits, when united to good common sense, will prove injurious to woman. We think that a certain degree of attention paid to literature, will not unfit a lady for the ordinary and useful avocations of life. Letters to her, as well as to one of the sterner sex will be a delightful solace in the many cares and difficulties which she must necessarily encounter. This will sweeten the cup of bitterness which she is too often called to drink! We would be pleased to see a periodical somewhat resembling the ‘Monthly rose,’ published in our own State. We know that there is among our ladies sufficient talent for this purpose. We think that public patronage would be sufficient to sustain a periodical of this character in one of our cities. Some years since, ‘The Rose,’ under the care of Mrs. Gilman, one of our most gifted ladies in Charleston, charmed us with its sweetness and its beauty. It has ceased to bloom, and has withered away. But may we not see another flower spring up in our soil, and, diffuse its fragrance far and wide in our State.” [“The Monthly Rose.” Edgefield Advertiser]

• Exchanges seem to have been haphazard, with the Yale Literary Magazine wondering in July, “Where is the Monthly Rose? Ladies, pray don’t forget your most devoted admirers!” The Nassau Monthly was effusive in October, rejoicing that “Our fair editorial friends of the Monthly Rose have not forgotten us; we have received the last number of their periodical and perused it with pleasure. There are many beautiful pieces in it of prose and verse, and through our present number we send them many thanks for past favors, with the hope that we shall not be forgotten in future.”

• On the fact that the magazine ran for only a year: “We have ever been averse to formal speeches at leave-taking, and although we have once more asked you to our table, kind and faithful readers, it is but to break a scanty morsel with you, and to speak forth a fervent ‘God bless you!’ before we part. But what mean these words, ‘leave-taking’—‘parting?’ Simply that the time has expired for which we were pledged to conduct a monthly periodical, connected with the Albany Female Academy. ‘For good and sufficient reasons,’ we decline the renewal of that pledge. And as none of our friends seems to covet the inheritance of the editorial mantle, the ‘Monthly Rose’ will be discontinued after the present year. … Our subscription list, if not large, is one of which we may be justly proud. It embraces nearly all, if not every State in the Union, and includes more than one name as widely known. But to friend or stranger, to the honored of the North, or the Cherokee maiden of the sweet Southwest, we may speak through these pages no more.” [“Editors’ Table.” 1 (Dec 1845); p. 188] At the announcement, The Nassau Monthly went through its yearly allotment of gardening puns: “Reader. The Monthly Rose has bloomed for the last time! No more will it shed its fragrance over our table … Our consort (literary) has forsaken our board—the sweetest flower has been plucked from our garland, and we are left desolate. … In college lingo, … the Monthly Rose has caved. The black frost of winter blighted it, and the sweet thing drooped and died!” [Feb 1846]

source of information: OCLC; Youth’s Companion

available: AASHistPer, series 3

• “What is Life?”, by Mary Gardiner, was reprinted in The Pittsfield Sun [Pittsfield, Massachusetts; 20 Feb 1845; p. 1].

bibliography:

• “The Monthly Rose.” Youth’s Companion 18 (2 Jan 1845); p. 140.

• “Prospectus.” Vermont Journal [Windsor, Vermont] 22 Feb 1845; p. 3.

• “New Publications, etc.” The Knickerbocker 25 (Feb 1845); p. 188.

• “Editors’ Table.” The Nassau Monthly 4 (March 1845); p. 160.

• “The Monthly Rose.” Edgefield Advertiser [Edgefield, South Carolina] 12 March 1845; p. 2.

• review. Broadway Journal 1 (22 March 1845); p. 184.

• notice of April issue. New-York Tribune [New York, New York] 1 April 1845; p. 1.

• “Literary Notices.” The Yale Literary Magazine 10 (July 1845); p. 382.

• “Books Received.” Littell’s Living Age 6 (5 July 1845); p. 10.

• notice of Oct issue: “Literary Notices.” The Nassau Monthly 5 (Oct 1845); p. 72.

• “Literary Notices.” The Nassau Monthly 5 (Feb 1846); p. 179.

The Penny Library for School Children ; 1 April-3 June 1845

edited by: William B. Fowle

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Asa Fitz; publisher at 138 ½ Washington St. • Fowle & Capen also listed as a publisher

frequency: weekly: Monday; 4 vol/ year

description: 16 pp; page size, 6.25″ h • Sold at the bookstore of Fowle and Capen

relevant quote: Intentions: “The object of this humble periodical is to furnish useful, and, at the same time, agreeable reading for the children in our public and private Schools. That there is a scarcity of suitable reading of this description will hardly be denied by any one; and the very scarcity, when every thing is caught at by the press, implies that it is not easy to obtain a supply. The work will be composed of original and selected pieces, arranged with less formality than usual, although not without a plan. The present form has been adopted, because it is more popular with children; and, if the work should be approved by teachers and parents, the sheets may be bound, and placed in the school or family library, at the end of each volume, of which there will be four in a year. The nominal editor is no farther concerned in the Penny Library than as the adviser and friend of the actual editors, but he holds himself responsible for the literary execution of the work.” [“Prospectus.” 1 (1 April 1845); p. 2.]

source of information: AASHistPer, series 3; OCLC; AAS catalog; Christian Register

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• notice. Christian Register 24 (24 May 1845); p. 82.

The Mountain Rill ; April 1845-after May 1845

cover/masthead: 1845

edited by: “Peter Parley, jr”

published: Concord, New Hampshire: George S. Willson

frequency: monthly

description: 4 pp.?; page size, 12.5″ h; prices: 1 copy, 1 shilling/ year; 8 copies, $1/ year

• Temperance focus

relevant information: Willson also published the White Mountain Torrent, a temperance paper for adults.

relevant quote: On the founding: “The motives which led to the commencement of the Mountain Rill may be briefly stated. The children and youth comprise the greater part of our population. In the common course of nature they will soon stand in the place of ‘vigorous manhood.’ And whether that generation be an honor to humanity, depends in a fearful degree upon the present age. With these facts impressed upon our mind, we concluded to issue a sheet for the Youth—the Cold Water Army,—a paper that they may call THEIR OWN. The White Mountain Torrent devoted a part of its space to the YOUTH under its former Editor. This of course, pleased the SMALLER number of their readers and displeased the larger. Latterly this practice has been discontinued, which leaves the former of the above named class of readers unprovided for and calls loudly, we think, for such as paper as the ‘Rill.’ ” [prospectus]

source of information: AASHistPer, series 3; Torrent ; Hammond

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• “The Mountain Rill.” White Mountain Torrent 3 (4 April 1845); p. 3.

• prospectus. White Mountain Torrent 3 (4 April 1845); p. 3.

• Otis G. Hammond. “Bibliography of the Newspapers and Periodicals of Concord, N. H., 1790-1898,” in New Hampshire. General Court. Reports 1901-1902; vol 1, p. 268; on Willson only. [google books]

The Myrtle ; 17 May 1845-31 Dec 1904

cover/masthead: 1859

edited by: 1853, Joseph Fullerton

• 1859, William Burr

published: Dover, New Hampshire: Free-will Baptist Printing Establishment, 17 May 1845-31 Dec 1904

frequency: 17 May 1845-1897, biweekly; listed as weekly in 1850

• 1 Jan 1898-1904, weekly

description: 1859: 4 pp.; page size untrimmed, 13″ h x 8.25″ w. Price: 1 copy, 25¢/ year; 10 copies, 12½¢ each; 20 copies or more, 17¢ each

• Circulation: 1850, 3,000; 1862: 13,500 [“The Freewill Baptists”]

relevant information: Frances E. Willard, who became important in the temperance and women’s rights movements, remembered reading this “pretty little juvenile paper” as a child; she was born in 1839. (Willard, p. 7)

source of information: 23 April 1859 issue; AAS catalog; OCLC; christian Review ; Livingston

available: AASHistPer, series 4 & 5

bibliography:

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; catalog of newspapers, p. 25. [archive.org]

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 39. [google books]

• “The Freewill Baptists.” The Christian Review 110 (1 Oct 1862); p. 568.

• Frances E. Willard. Glimpses of Fifty Years. Chicago, Illinois: H. J. Smith & Co., 1889. Reproduced New York, New York: Source Book Press, 1970.

The Monthly Rose (also The Monthly Rose, and Literary Cabinet); July 1845 • The Monthly Rose, and Otis School Cabinet ; Aug-Nov 1845 • The Monthly Rose, and School Cabinet ; Jan 1846 • The Monthly Rose, and Literary Cabinet ; Feb-Aug 1846, Nov 1846-Oct 1847 • The Monthly Rose ; Nov 1847-

edited by: July 1845-1849, Henry C. Shepard

• 1849, T. R. Shepard, jr.

• 1849-1850, William A. Clark

• 1850, “Frank Lovelace”; W. H. Hutchinson

published: Boston, Massachusetts: H. C. Shepard, July 1845, 1846.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Shepard & Hinds, Aug-Nov 1845.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Shepard, Hinds & Woodward, Feb 1846-Oct 1847.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Benjamin P. Lane, 1846-1848.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Brown, Lane & Co., 1847.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Joseph H. Brown, 1848.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Brown, Bishop & Co., 1848.

• Boston, Massachusetts: H. C. Bishop, jr., 1848.

• Boston, Massachusetts: W. A. Clark & Co., 1849.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Clark & Hutchinson, 1850.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 4 pp.; page size, 7.5″ h; price, 25¢/year

• No issues for Sept-Oct 1846

source of information: AASHistPer; OCLC; AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• notice. The Asteroid 1 (1 Sept 1848); pp. 7-8.

Little Truth-Teller: A New-Church Magazine for Children ; Nov 1845-1852

cover/masthead: 1847

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: J. H. Jones.

• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Barrett & Jones, 1847.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 24 pp.; page size, 6.25″ h

• Jan 1847 is vol 2 #3. Nov 1847 is vol 3 #1

• Religious focus

source of information: AASHistPer; OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 3

Young Churchman’s Miscellany ; Jan 1846-Dec 1848

cover/masthead: 1848

edited by: Jesse Ames Spencer

published: New York, New York: Jesse Ames Spencer; publisher at 191 Broadway, 1847; publisher at 139 Broadway, 1848

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 32 pp.; page size, 7.75″ h; price, $1.50/ year

• Religious focus: Episcopal Church

source of information: AAS catalog; OCLC; notices, etc., below

available: AASHistPer, series 3

• A description of a duck was reprinted in the Vermont Christian Messenger [8 Oct 1847; p. 2]

bibliography:

• “Book for Youth.” Poughkeepsie Journal [Poughkeepsie, New York] 17 Jan 1846; p. 3.

• notice of Feb issue. New-York Tribune [New York, New York] 7 Feb 1846; p. 1.

• “Children’s Department.” Vermont Christian Messenger [Montpelier, Vermont] 8 Oct 1847; p. 2.

Young People’s Magazine ; Jan-Dec 1846

cover/masthead: cover

edited by: Seba Smith

published: New York, New York: J. K. Wellman; publisher at 118 Nassau St.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 24 pp; page size untrimmed, 9.5″ h x 6″ w; price, $1/ year

• Circulation (from magazine): 4,000 (June 1846)

relevant information:

• The first issue was available Oct 1845, but issues weren’t regularly published until Jan 1846.

• A portrait of Seba Smith was included in the Sept 1846 issue.

relevant quotes:

• Introduction: “The design of this work is to present a useful and interesting periodical to the youth of our country,—one that, while it shall amuse, shall also instruct and enlighten; and not merely instruct and enlighten, but elevate and purify. A work which shall do its share towards guiding the youth of our country in the path that will lead them to usefulness and respectability as citizens, and honor and happiness as men and Christians. With this general object in view, all suitable topics will be discussed, and the best material sought for, both original and selected, wherever it may be available. The world of fact and the world of fancy will both be explored, and their choicest treasure brought home and spread before our young readers. Without bias in party politics, the work will present clear and condensed views of political statistics, institutions, and men of the country; and without sectarianism, it will aim to present such matter as may be acceptable to any Christian family. Stories, Poetry, History, Biography, Science and Art, will all be made to contribute to our general design. Biographical notices of the distinguished men of our country and occasionally of other countries, both ancient and modern; American history; the history and statistics of the individual States, from Maine to Texas, and from the Europeans first landed upon these shores till the present times;—these are among the prominent sources from which our pages will be filled. And though this work is designed mainly for youth, it is intended that it shall be so conducted that the youth who takes it and preserves it, shall find it a pleasant and valuable companion in middle life or in old age.” [1 (Jan 1846): 1]

• Though there’s no indication that issues were published in 1847, an advertisement promised an expanded magazine: “With ‘Excelsior’ for our motto, and improvement for our aim, we shall hereafter increase the number of our pages to thirty-two, and give at least two beautiful engravings on steel, stone or wood, with music occasionally. It is intended that the matter in this Magazine shall be of such a nature as will be calculated to inspire a good and correct taste; that which will inform, expand, and elevate the mind, and also excite in the soul a love of holiness, virtue, and humanity. It is a mistaken idea, in our opinion, that many authors have in writing for young persons that they must come down to the most juvenile and simple style possible. Our object will be not to come down, but to elevate the mind and increase the capacity, and furnish something that every one can read with interest. Nor do we intend to have the light, ficticious reading, and dreams of fancy with which the popular magazines of the day are filled. It is designed that the Young People’s Magazine shall pursue a course between these two extremes, so as to instruct without imparting to the mind the shades that enwrap the hermit; so as to attract without leading astray; and so as to stir up and enliven the affections, without corrupting the fountain. We intend hereafter to furnish some scientific articles, suitably illustrated, upon Chemistry, Botany, Philosophy, Natural History, &c.; which will not only be an amusement but a help to the student.” [“Young People’s Magazine.” The Vermont Union Whig 18 Feb 1847]

source of information: Jan-May, July bound vol; Jan-Dec bound vol; Aug issue; AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 3

excerpts online

bibliography:

• notice. New York Evangelist 16 (30 Oct 1845); p. 176.

• “New Publications.” Baltimore Daily Commercial [Baltimore, Maryland] 20 Dec 1845; p. 2.

• We have received from Mr. J. Toy. Richmond Enquirer [Richmond, Virginia] 2 Jan 1846; p. 4.

• “New Publications.” New-York Tribune [New York, New York] 31 Jan 1846; p. 2.

• “Notices.” Alton Telegraph and Democratic Review [Alton, Illinois] 31 Jan 1846; p. 1.

• “New and Valuable Work.” The Williamsburgh Gazette and Long-Island Advertiser [Brooklyn, New York] 11 Feb 1846; p. 2.

• “The Young People’s Magazine.” The Abbeville Press and Banner [Abbeveille, South Carolina] 18 Feb 1846; p. 2.

• “Periodicals.” Alabama Beacon [Greensboro, Alabama] 21 Feb 1846; p. 2.

• “Prospectus of the Young People’s Magazine.” Alabama Beacon [Greensboro, Alabama] 21 Feb 1846; p. 3.

• “Young People’s Magazine.” Vermont Temperance Herald [Woodstock, Vermont] 25 Feb 1846; p. 2.

• “Notices.” Alton Telegraph and Democratic Review [Alton, Illinois] 28 Feb 1846; p. 1.

• notice. Scientific American 1 (5 March 1846); p. 3.

• “Prospectus of the Young People’s Magazine.” Springville Express [Springville, New York] 21 March 1846; p. 3.

• The Young People’s Magazine. Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] 8 April 1846; p. 2.

• “The Young People’s Magazine.” Vermont Temperance Herald [Woodstock, Vermont] 8 April 1846; p. 2.

• “Young People’s Magazine.” The Brooklyn Daily Eagle [Brooklyn, New York] 19 May 1846; p. 2.

• “Publications Received.” The Vermont Union Whig [Rutland, Vermont] 28 May 1846; p. 2.

• “Young People’s Magazine and the Literary Emporium.” Vermont Temperance Herald [Woodstock, Vermont] 3 June 1846; p. 2.

• The Young People’s Magazine, and Literary Emporium for June. Green-Mountain Freeman [Montpelier, Vermont] 4 June 1846; p. 2.

• “Young People’s Magazine.” The Williamsburgh Gazette and Long-Island Advertiser [Brooklyn, New York] 26 Aug 1846; p. 2.

• “Young People’s Magazine.” The Vermont Union Whig [Rutland, Vermont] 18 Feb 1847; p. 3.

The Satchel ; Feb 1846-1847

cover/masthead: 1846-1847

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Aaron F. Cox

frequency: semimonthly during school months; weekly during summer; 2 vol/ year

description: 8 pp.; 50¢/ year

• Circulation: Feb 1846 issue was reprinted twice in order to meet demand: “The unexpected demand for the SATCHEL rendered it necessary for us to run off a second edition of THREE THOUSAND COPIES of our first number.” [“Second Edition.” 1 (March 1846); p. 16.]

• March 1846, 3,000 or 3,500 copies; April 1846, another reprinting. May 1846: “About 16,800 copies of The Satchel have been disposed of although but five numbers of the work have been issued.” [in Lyon; p. 191]

source of information: AASHistPer; Lyon; AAS catalog; Report

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

Report of the Librarian of Congress for the Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1904. Washington, District of Columbia: Government Printing Office, 1904; p. 497. [google books]

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 138-139, 141, 188-192.

The Youth’s FriendYouth’s Monthly Friend (also Monthly Youth’s Friend) ; 6 March 1846-1860

cover/masthead: 1852 | 1855-1856 | 1857

edited by: 1846-July 1847: “Friend Abel” [Abel C. Thomas] • July 1847-1850: “Uncle Henry” [Henry Jewell]

• 1851-1860: “a lady”

published: Cincinnati, Ohio: Universalist Sunday School. • Cincinnati, Ohio: Longley & Brother, 1852-1860.

frequency: weekly; 1 vol/ year

description: 1846-before 1858: 4 pp.; page size, 10.25″ h. 1853, price: 50¢/ year

• 1858: 16 pp.; price, 50¢/ year

• Circulation: 1850, 1,000. 1856, 4,000

• Religious focus: Universalist, 1846-1853

relevant information:

• Originally published by C. Thomas ‘gratuitously for the benefit of his Sunday School, at Cincinnati, Ohio.” [“The ‘Youth’s Friend.’ ” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine]

• Henry Jewell took over as editor of the Friend and as pastor of the Universalist society in July 1847. [notice. Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Advocate]

• Published by the Longley Brothers, the Friend was more secular.

• The image on the masthead for 1852 already had appeared at the top of Youth’s Literary Gazette in 1832.

absorbed: Little Forester ; Jan 1854-1855

source of information: AASHistPer; Lyon; Eddy; Gem ; Trumpet ; Evangelical Magazine ; “To the ‘Little Forester’ Subscribers”; advertisements; AAS catalog; OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 3 & 4

bibliography:

• “Youth’s Friend.” The Universalist Watchman [Montpelier, Vermont] 28 March 1846; p. 7.

• “The ‘Youth’s Friend.’ ” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 18 (11 April 1846); p. 171.

• “Youth’s Friend.” Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Advocate 18 (23 April 1847); p. 134.

• notice. Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 19 (12 June 1847); p. 206.

• notice. Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 20 (31 July 1847); p. 26.

• notice. Evangelical Magazine and Gospel Advocate 18 (6 Aug 1847); p. 255.

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; catalog of newspapers, p. 36. [archive.org]

• notice. The Western Gem 6 (June 1853); p. 22. online

• “To the ‘Little Forester’ Subscribers.” The Youth’s Friend 10 (Jan 1856); p. 60.

• advertisement. Life Illustrated 5 (27 Feb 1858); p. 143.

• advertisement. The Sibyl 2 (15 March 1858); p. 336.

• notice. Emery’s Journal of Agriculture 2 (26 Aug 1858); p. 132.

• notice. Emery’s Journal of Agriculture 2 (7 Oct 1858); p. 232.

• Richard Eddy. Universalism in America. Boston, Massachusetts: Universalist Publishing House, 1886: vol 2, p. 596. [google books]

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 139-140, 146-147.

Children’s Advent Herald ; May 1846-1852 • Youth’s Guide ; May 1852-1860?

cover/masthead: 1846 | 1850 | 1852, 1854, 1857

edited by: Joshua V. Himes

published: Boston, Massachusetts: J. V. Himes. Publisher at 8 Chardon, 1853-1855; publisher at 46½ Kneeland, 1856-1859

frequency: monthly, first week of the month; 1 vol/ year (each volume began with May issue)

description: 4 pp.; price, 25¢/ year

• Circulation: 1850, 1,500

• Religious focus: Seventh-Day Adventist

relevant information:

• Apparently named for The Advent Herald, a paper for adults which Himes also edited.

• The first issue was sent out late in May 1846.

• Not listed in Daniel J. Kenny’s American Newspaper Directory for 1861.

relevant quote: On the change in name in 1852: “During the five years of the existence of this paper, we have found so little matter, in keeping with its former title, adapted to its columns, as to render the Children’s Advent Herald almost a misnomer. Therefore, rather than longer retain a title, which appeared to restrict our labors to a single field,—a field, too, in which we found it difficult to fine [sic] ourselves,—we concluded to relinquish it, and adopt one that should be entirely in harmony with its contents.” [“ ‘Youth’s Guide.’ ” Youth’s Guide 6 (May 1852); p. 2.]

• With the change in name came a change in subscription terms: the Guide would be sent only to subscribers who paid in advance, and would be stopped once the period subscribed for was over. The need for these draconian (for the time) measures was explained with a little math: “Unless we carry out this plan, it will be impossible to continue the paper without embarrassment. The subscription price being so small, many seem unable to understand (or, if they do, they pay no attention to it,) how the temporary withholding of their twenty-five cents, can cause any embarrassment! … If one thousand subscribers owe one year’s subscription, the whole amount makes two hundred and fifty dollars! Although each individual sum due is small, when united to many others, it assumes formidbale appearence. Thus it is with many of our subscribers. We have jogged their memories time and again, … and while some have responded, many others have appeared, and still do appear, oblivious of the fact, that it is the last straw that breaks the camel’s back.” [“New Arrangement.” Youth’s Guide 6 (May 1852); p. 2.]

source of information: AASHistPer series 3 & 4; Livingston; Massachusetts Register ; American

available: AASHistPer, series 3 & 4

bibliography:

• “ ‘Children’s Advent Herald.’ ” The Advent Herald 11 (29 April 1846); p. 96.

• “ ‘Children’s Advent Herald.’ ” Voice of Truth and Glad Tidings 10 (27 May 1846); p. 68.

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; catalog of newspapers, p. 19. [archive.org]

Massachusetts Register for the Year 1854. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1854; p. 176. [archive.org]

Massachusetts Register for the Year 1855. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1855; p. 174. [archive.org]

Massachusetts Register for the Year 1856. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1856; p. 189. [archive.org]

Massachusetts Register for the Year 1857. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1857; p. 159. [archive.org]

Massachusetts Register for the Year 1858. Boston, Massachusetts: Adams, Sampson & Co., 1858; p. 149. [archive.org]

Massachusetts Register for the Year 1859 . Boston, Massachusetts: Adams, Sampson & Co., 1859; p. 151. [archive.org]

The American Christian Record. New York: W. R. C. Clark & Meeker, 1860; p. 696. [archive.org]

• Beulah May Bowden. “History of the Advent Christian Church.” Master’s thesis. University of Wisconsin, 1920; pp. 163. [google books]

The Golden Rule ; May 1846-

cover/masthead: 1846

edited by: Henry L. & George P. Brown

published: Groton, Massachusetts: Henry L. & George P. Brown.

frequency: monthly

description: 4 pp.; page size, 12.5″ h; price, 50¢/ year

relevant quote: Introductory: “Come boys, and—(we may as well out with it,) GIRLS, give us a good hearty shake, in this our first appearance before you, as editors and printers. leave your fly cages, pop-guns, gimecracks [sic] and what nots for a while, and seat yourselves with us, to hear what we have to say. Don’t be bashful, but hold up your heads in our presence, like men. We have printed our modest sheet for YOU to read—we have come to see YOU, and not the ‘old folks;’ so don’t go to work and disappoint us, by cutting our acquaintance thus early. We have been at some expense in printing this little sheet, and have spent many anxious hours of labour in selecting and preparing the articles herein contained; and it is clear, that, unless you extend your aid and encouragement, the attempt to sustain a monthly sheet in Groton, must fall through.” [“Our First Bow to the Public.” 1 (May 1846); p. 4.]

source of information: AAS catalog; AASHistPer; Lyon

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 139.

Sabbath School Visiter ; May 1846-

edited by: Aaron Angier

published: East Poultney, Vermont: Aaron Angier

frequency: monthly

description: Prices: 1 copy, 25¢/ year; 10 copies, $2/ year

• Religious focus

relevant information:

• Besides publishing the Vermont Religious Observer, a Baptist paper, Angier also published the Troy Conference Academy Casket, a literary paper edited by students at the Academy.

relevant quotes:

• The Visiter was later than planned: “Our Sabbath School paper is delayed longer than we designed, in consequence of unexpected delays of some materials from N. Y. It will be out the last of next week, or fore part of week after.” [Vermont Religious Observer 6 May 1846]

• From a notice of the first issue: “Bro. Ainger, [sic] of the Observer, (E. Poultney,) has commenced the publication of a neat little monthly, … designed for the use of Sabbath School children. The first no. is decorated with cuts, after the city fashion, and is equally interesting with any one we have ever seen of the kind.”

source of information: notice, etc., below

bibliography:

• notice. Vermont Religious Observer [East Poultney, Vermont] 6 May 1846; p. 3.

• “Sabbath School Visiter.” Green-Mountain Freeman [Montpelier, Vermont] 4 June 1846; p. 2.

Uncle Peter’s Juvenile Cabinet ; May 1846?-April 1847 • The Youth’s Cabinet ; May 1847-

cover/masthead: 1847

published:

• Boston, Massachusetts: B. F. Skinner, 1846?

• Lewiston Falls, Maine, 1846-1847

frequency: monthly

description: Page size, 8.25″ h

• 1846: price, 50¢/ year

• May 1847: 16 pp.; prices: city subscribers, 75¢/ year; rural subscribers, 50¢/ year. Rural subscribers additionally paid postage of 28¢/ year

• May 1847 is vol 2 #1

relevant information: “The Dangerous Frolic,” by Ann S. Stephens, appeared in the May 1847 issue.

relevant quotes:

• “A small Monthly work is published in this city, edited by H. B. Skinner. It is designed as a medium of instruction and amusement to the American Youth. It contains Narratives, Biography, History, Sketches, Amusements, Science, Fables, enigmas, &c. It is also illustrated by numerous Cuts. The price is fifty cents a year.” [Olive Branch]

• With the second volume came changes and a surprising openness: “We commence the Second Volume of the Cabinet with (as you perceive,[)] a very little different title, and in another place. The reasons for so doing, are simply these. The Uncle Peter’s Juvenile Cabinet, Edited by H. B. Skinner, and published for Maine by myself at Lewiston Falls, has been printed in Boston, as probably the most of my old subscribers know—two editions being printed at a time, and Mr. Skinner retaining one for himself, and forwarding the other to me, with my impress, Lewiston Falls, Me. But for some time past, for reasons unknown to me, he has not forwarded them to me, nor answered my letters, enquiring the reason of their discontinuance. Therefore, I have determined to commence their republication, beginning with the second volume; and all who subscribed to me for the Juvenile Cabinet and did not receive their full number, will be supplied with the Youth’s Cabinet until they do.” [“Young Friends.” 2 (May 1847); p. 1]

• The editor planned for better than what appeared in the May 1847 issue: “Although I am not much in favour of making apologies, yet I deem it necessary in this instance, [sic] Owing to a lack of time occasioned by moving my family into the city, I have not been able to devote so much time to this number, as I shall be able for succeeding ones; yet this is a very fair specien of what it will be in future—with perhaps this exception—I have obtained a promise from many excellent writers, who are well known to the reading community—that I shall receive contributions from them monthly for the Cabinet—and take this opportunity to invite all my friends, young, and old, who have anything appropriate—to sent it along, and they will receive my grateful thanks.” [“Editor’s Note Table.” 2 (May 1847); p. 16]

source of information: AAS catalog; Olive Branch

available: AASHistPer, series 3, as Youth’s Cabinet

bibliography:

• notice. The Boston Olive Branch 10 (9 May 1846); p. 3.

Boys’ and Girls’ Weekly Catholic Magazine (also Boys’ and Girls’ Catholic Magazine) ; 6 June 1846-1848 • Catholic Weekly Instructor (also Weekly Catholic Instructor); 6 Jan 1849-1851

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: William J. Cunningham, 1847-1851; publisher at 104 S. Third St., 1848.

frequency: weekly; Saturday, 1848

description: 8 pp.; page size, 10″ h • Newspaper format • price: $1/ year; 2¢/ each

• Religious focus: Catholic

relevant quotes: In the typo-laden prospectus for volume two, the editor sound positively petulant: “The Boys’s and Girl[s’] Wekeley [sic] Cath[o]lic Magazine has now been before the Catholic community for one year to those who have given it their patronage during the first year of its existence, it is unnecessary, we hope, to say anything respecting its merits. The maney [sic] tokens of approbation which they have been pleased to bestow on it inspires us with the confident exp[ec]tation that they will continue to favor it with thier countenance and patronage. But there are many, very many Catholic families to which our little paper is entir[e]ly unknown, and into which we are anxious to introduce it. Its circulation at present is exceedingly limited compare[d] with what it might and should be, and especially compared with the expense and trouble of publishing it. Small though it be in size, every number that is issued requires a considerable outlay of money, besides the time and trouble which its managemen[t] demands. When it is considered that even in Philadelphia alone there are thousands of Catholic families, it is plain that ther[e] is ample room for a great extention [sic] of its circulation even at its very doors, and wh[en] it is considered, m[o]reover, that it is the only periodical of the kind published among Catholics in the United States, it is still more evident that it mig[h]t and should be most liberally supported. The price of it is within the means [of every] family in the country, being only One Dollar per annum, or two cents per coppy. [sic]” [“Prospectus”]

• The Weekly Instructor was intended for a wider audience than was the Boys’ and Girls’ Catholic Magazine: “Yielding to the suggestion of numerous friends, among whom are many of the Reverend Clergy, we have concluded to to change the name of our paper, and on the 6th of January, 1849, to substitute [The Catholic Weekly Instructor] for the ‘Boys’ and girls’ Catholic Magazine.’ Under our new name, we shall make renewed efforts to render our paper worthy the patronage of the Catholic community, of all ages and all conditions. The old, the young, the serious-minded and the gay, will find matter suited to their various tastes and likings. OUR JUVENILE READERS must not imagine themselves overlooked in the new arrangement. We have no such intention. On the contrary, we shall study to please them as much, if not more, than we did previously to the change. A choice department will be devoted to their exclusive benefit; and that department shall be made the medium of their edification, instruction, and entertainment. In our paper shall appear devout meditations from the Saints and Fathers of the Church, Biographies of pious persons of both sexes, good moral Tales, gems of Poetry, well digested articles upon useful and interesting subjects, Instructions for Youth, Reviews, Anecdotes, Foreign and Domestic Catholic Intelligence, and Items of local and general interest.” [“Prospectus of The Catholic Weekly Instructor”]

continued by: Catholic Instructor (for adults)

source of information: AAS catalog; OCLC; NUC; “Prospectus of the second volume”

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• “Prospectus of the second volume.” The Huntress 11 (26 June 1847); p. 2.

• “Boys’ and Girls’ Weekly Catholic magazine, Vol. 2nd.” The Baltimore Sun [Baltimore, Maryland] 30 July 1847; p. 3.

• “New Publications.” The Baltimore Sun [Baltimore, Maryland] 3 Aug 1847; p. 2.

• “Prospectus of The Catholic Weekly Instructor.” The Baltimore Sun [Baltimore, Maryland] 19 Dec 1848; p. 2. Also, 20 Dec 1848; p. 3.

• “Our Exchanges.” The Huntress 12 (27 Jan 1849); p. 6.

• Thomas C. Middleton. “Catholic Periodicals Published in the United States.” Records of the American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia. N.p.: American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia, 1908; vol 19, p. 25. [google books]

The Youth’s Temperance Banner ; Aug 1846-1846

published: Rochester, New York: Executive Committee of the Youth’s Temperance Association (also, Executive Committee of the Youth’s Temperance Society of Rochester)

frequency: monthly

description: Price, 25¢/ year • Temperance focus

relevant information: Given the comment in Follett, the Banner probably ceased before 1847.

relevant quote: In 1847, the Banner is listed among papers “published in Rochester during the last nine years, for a period varying from three to eighteen months, but none of which have now an existence there.” [Follett; p. 48]

source of information: notices, etc., below

bibliography:

• “New Papers.” New-York Tribune [New York, New York] 18 Aug 1846; p. 2.

• “On Our Desk.” The Columbian Fountain [Washington, District of Columbia] 24 Aug 1846; p. 2.

• Frederick Follett. History of the Press of Western New-York. Rochester, New York: Jerome & Brother, 1847; p. 48. [google books]

The Souvenir, and Youth’s Literary Messenger ; Nov 1846-

edited by: P. A. Binkley • James Taylor

published: Roseville, Ohio

frequency: monthly

description: “folded in octavo form”; price, 50¢/ year

relevant quote: Its motto: “No creed but truth—no religion but virtue—no party but mankind.” [“Literary Notices”]

source of information: notices, below

bibliography:

• notice. The Tri-Weekly Ohio Statesman [Columbus, Ohio] 23 Nov 1846; p. 2.

• “Literary Notices.” The Boston Olive Branch 11 (28 Nov 1846); p. 3.

The Student and Young Tutor ; Nov 1846-Oct 1848

cover/masthead: 1848

edited by: J. S. Denman, Nov 1846-1847 (vol 1-4) • J. S. Denman & N. A. Calkins

published: New York, New York: J. S. Denman; publisher at 107 Fulton St., 1848.

frequency: monthly; 2 vol/ year (Nov & May)

description: Page size, 9.75″ h. Price: 1848, 50¢/ year

• Included works “in coarse print” for young readers, as well as works for older readers. [notice. Dwights American Magazine and Family Newspaper]

relevant information: In 1848, Denman advertised for “one hundred persons, who will travel as agents for [the Student], in different parts of the United States. He will pay competent persons liberal wages by the month.” [“Notice.” Vermont Union Whig]

relevant quote: On the change to The Student : “Our present number closes the Second Year of The Student and Young Tutor, and is the last number of the work in its present form. It will hereafter be issued under the title of The Student, and will embrace the same general plan which it has contained from the time of its first publication; having four grades of reading, intended to furnish a variety of interesting and instructive articles for persons of different ages and capacities.” [“To our Patrons.” 4 (Oct 1848); p. 128.]

continued by: The Student ; Nov 1848-April 1854

source of information: AASHistPer, series 3; OCLC; Dwights ; Massachusetts Teacher ; Connecticut

available: AASHistPer, series 3

• Pieces from the Student and Young Tutor were reprinted in The District School Journal of the State of New York and in Dwights American Magazine.

bibliography:

• notice. Dwights American Magazine and Family Newspaper 3 (13 March 1847); p. 167.

• “Notice.” The Vermont Union Whig [Rutland, Vermont] 24 Feb 1848; p. 3.

• “Educational Library.” The Massachusetts Teacher 1 (15 June 1848); p. 186.

• “Educational Periodicals.” The Connecticut Common School Journal and Annals of Education 1 (May 1854); p. 153.

The Sunday-Scholar’s Mirror ; 1847-1850

cover/masthead: Vol 1

edited by: Daniel P. Kidder

published: New York, New York: Lane & Tippett, 1850?; printed by Joseph Longking

• New York, New York: Lane & Scott, for the Sunday-School Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1852.

• Carlton & Phillips.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: Vol 1: 24 pp.; page size untrimmed, 6″ h x 4″ w; issue 7 is undated

• 4 volumes total

• Religious focus: Methodist Episcopal

relevant information: Like its earlier incarnations, the Mirror was reprinted several times. In 1852, the four volumes of the Mirror are listed as “gift books” available at the Methodist publishing house. Advertising at the back of Ancient Egypt, revised by Daniel P. Kidder in 1854, includes the Mirror.

continues: The Encourager (Dec 1844-1847?)

continued by: Youth’s Monitor (1851-after 1854): “This Magazine [The Youth’s Monitor] takes the place of the Sunday-Scholar’s Mirror. In our serial literature for children, it is found by experience to be well to change the titles occasionally, for the sake of variety and good effect. Thus the Encourager followed the Children’s Magazine, the Mirror the Encourager, and now the Monitor succeeds the Mirror.” [Youth’s Monitor ; p. 5]

source of information: vol 1 #7 issue; Monitor ; Methodist Quarterly Review ; AAS catalog; OCLC

bibliography:

• notice. Ladies Repository, and Gathering of the West 8 (1 Feb 1848); p. 63.

• “Sunday-School Literature.” The Methodist Quarterly Review 2 (April 1850); pp. 281-292; mention on p. 290

• notice. The Methodist Quarterly Review 2 (July 1850); p. 490.

• notice of The Youth’s Monitor. Christian Advocate and Journal 26 (23 Jan 1851); p. 14.

• “Introduction.” The Youth’s Monitor 1 (Jan 1851); p. 5-6.

A Brief Exposition of the Character, Operations, and Claims, of the Sunday-School Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church. New York: Lane & Scott, 1852; pp. 31, 45, 46. [google books]

• notice #22. Methodist Quarterly Review 5 (Jan 1853); p. 142. [google books]

The Child’s Gospel Guide ; 1847-1849

cover/masthead: 1849

edited by: John G. Adams

published: Boston, Massachusetts: J. M. Usher, for the Massachusetts Sabbath School Association; publisher at 41 Cornhill.

• Also published in New York

frequency: weekly: Saturday

description: 4 pp.; page size, 9.25″ h. Prices: 50¢/ year; 20 copies, each 25¢/ year

• Vol 2 #45 is 12 May 1849

• Religious focus

relevant information: Probably the paper mentioned in the Baltimore Sun as “to be devoted to the instruction and rational amusement of children.” [“Paper for Children”]

relevant quote: On the founding: “The ‘Gospel Teacher,’ it was thought by the friends of the Sabbath School cause, … was thought to be too old—too doctrinal. In view of this fact, the Sab. School Association voted, that it was desirable to have a more juvenile paper; and hence, the ‘Gospel Guide’ was started, and published three years, two of which the Association appointed Editors to conduct the paper. When three years had passed, it was thought desirable to have a change, and the Sabbath School Association requested that the ‘Youth’s Monthly Magazine’ be started, and this was done.” [Usher]

continues: The Gospel Teacher and Sabbath School Contributor (also, Gospel Teacher, and Universalist Miscellany); 6 July 1843-after March 1845 (for adults), which continues Sabbath School Contributor • Light of Zion, and Sabbath School Contributor (6 June 1839-22 June 1843)

continued by: Youth’s Monthly Magazine (July 1850-June 1851?)

source of information: AASHistPer; Ryder; Usher; Trumpet ; Boston Directory ; Eddy; AAS catalog

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• “Paper for Children.” The Baltimore Sun [Baltimore, Maryland] 7 Jan 1847; p. 1.

• W. H. Ryder. “Sabbath School Cause in New Hampshire.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 20 (11 Sept 1847); p. 51.

• advertisement. Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 20 (8 Jan 1848); p. 119.

The Boston Directory. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1849; p. 40.

• J. M. Usher. “Sabbath School Paper.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 23 (24 Aug 1850); p. 43.

• Richard Eddy. Universalism in America. Boston, Massachusetts: Universalist Publishing House, 1886; vol 2, p. 596. [google books]

The Mt. Vernon Enterprise ; 1847-?

edited by: first issue, Joseph Elder; Thomas Egleston; John Cass. after first issue, Joseph Elder; Thomas Egleston; J. B. Williams.

published: New York, New York: Joseph Elder, Thomas Egleston, & John Cass. After first issue: New York, New York: Joseph Elder, Thomas Egleston, & J. B. Williams.

frequency: monthly

description: 1¢/ copy. • Amateur publication; editors were students at the Mount Vernon School

source of information: Lyon; OCLC

bibliography:

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 140.

Young American’s Magazine of Self-Improvement ; Jan-Dec 1847

cover/masthead: 1847

edited by: George W. Light

published: Boston, Massachusetts: C. H. Peirce. • Boston, Massachusetts: George W. Light; publisher at 3 Cornhill, Jan-April 1847; publisher at 25 Cornhill, May 1847

frequency: bimonthly: Jan, March, May, July, Oct, Dec

description: Jan, 66 pp.; March-Oct, 60 pp.; Dec, 48 pp. • Page size, 7.50″ h x 4.50″ w • Price: 20¢/ issue; $1.20/ year

relevant information: Apparently intended for an audience of teenagers and older, especially young men. The six issues include poetry and general essays on speaking, moving through society, the importance of manual labor, abolition, the importance of education, and how to know oneself. Paragraphs in “Miscellaneous Notes” comment on major events and give advice; “The Book World” is a regular column reviewing poetry and nonfiction. While the pieces seem intended for a general audience, several works have subjects more in keeping with works for children than works for adults.

• James Russell Lowell apparently published several poems in the magazine. [First Editions]

relevant quotes:

• Light founded the magazine because of his own attempt to improve himself: “The editor, who has long aimed to improve himself, submits the Magazine to his young countrymen in the hope that it may aid them in the pursuit of the same noble object. Of course he will not fill its pages with trash, or sentimentalism; but with matters that, in his view, may be turned to good account by young men who would be something and do something in the world.” [Vermont Chronicle 20 Jan 1847]

• Prospectus: “The leading purpose of this Magazine is, to awaken a more general interest in SELF-IMPROVEMENT—Physical, Moral, Intellectual, Industrial and Prudential; and to meet the wants of those who are more or less engaged in that noble work. But while it will aim to embody in its pages … a good share of the best self-educational spirit and talent of the age, no effort will be wanting to make an entertaining and useful Miscellany of Prose and Poetry for the general reader.”

• Light made specific demands of contributors: “The matter of the Magazine … must be Practical; and in this view we wish to comprise criticisms and strictures upon the living manners, fashions, literature, prevalent opinions and general tone of the age. Some parts of the Spectator … occur to us as coming near enough to a model of what we wish for in this department. … As to Fictitious composition, we have no great respect for the common run of love-tales, we frankly confess. Nor do we intend to admit, or expect to receive any, which are not made subservient to some higher end than caricaturing human life and human nature under the everlasting mottoes of heroes and heroines, bright eyes and poison, love, murder and witchcraft. … We shall be glad to receive well-written Biographical notices, and shall make it a point to prepare or provide them frequently. … Occasional essays upon Composition, with an especial reference to the benefit of young writers; notices of all new works in which we believe that our readers are or should be interest; in a word, any matter which is brief, decorous, practical and spirited, will come within our professed plan.” [“The Contributions Wanted.” 1 (Jan 1847); p. 67-68]

• One editor hinted that the periodical could redefine masculinity: “We have long known friend Light as a zealous advocate for reforms in the various departments and fashions of mankind which tend to enfeeble and render effeminate the present and rising generation both in mind and body.” [notice. Maine Farmer]

• Light planned for another year: “Although the expenses of the work will be increased, we have concluded to reduce the price to One Dollar a volume, in the hope of a wide circulation; and we look to the friends of a sound popular literature for continued encouragement in the enterprize.” [advertisement in bound volume]

• The Examiner was admiring: “We should like to receive the ‘Young American’s Magazine of Self-Improvement.’ We like all efforts of this character. The more men strive to do for themselves, the more will they accomplish. The faint heart is coward all over. The restless, discontented one, untrue. Give us the man who can work cheerly [sic] amid the darkest storm-hour, confident of a God above, and strength within. In this spirit should self-improvement be urged”. [“Cold Shoulder Philosophy”]

continues: The Essayist (14 Nov 1829-Sept 1833): “The work is little more than the resurrection … of another Periodical, of which we were the soul some thirteen years ago. We allude to “The Essayist,” a work of humble pretensions, … devoted to the moral and intellectual interests of Young Men, Associations for Mental Improvement, &c. We were not exactly killed off at that time.” [“Some Editorial Words.” 1 (Jan 1847): 65]

source of information: bound vol; AASHistPer, series 3; AAS catalog; OCLC; Lyon; NUC

available: AASHistPer, series 3

• The Vermont Watchman and State Journal reprinted several pieces: “Keeping Up Appearances” [15 April 1847; p. 1]; “Keep Cool” [12 Aug 1847; p. 2]; “The Romance of Rascality” [27 Jan 1848; p. 1] A poem was reprinted in The Examiner [Louisville, Kentucky; 26 Feb 1848; p. 2.]

bibliography:

• notice. Vermont Watchman and State Journal [Montpelier, Vermont] 14 Jan 1847; p. 2.

• “Young American’s Magazine of Self-Improvement.” Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] 20 Jan 1847; p. 2.

• “The Young American’s Magazine of Self-Improvement.” The Liberator [Boston, Massachusetts] 23 April 1847; p. 4.

• notice of issue 3. Vermont Watchman and State Journal [Montpelier, Vermont] 20 May 1847; p. 3.

• notice of issue 3 (May). The Brooklyn Daily Eagle [Brooklyn, New York] 31 May 1857; p. 2.

• notice. New York Evangelist 18 (12 Aug 1847); p. 128.

• notice. Maine Farmer 15 (26 Aug 1847); p. 2.

• “Cold Shoulder Philosophy.” The Examiner [Louisville, Kentucky] 26 Feb 1848; p. 2.

First Editions of Ten American Authors Collected By J. Chester Chamberlain of New York. Auction held 16 and 17 Feb 1909. NY: Anderson Auction Company, 1909; part 1, p. 109, lot #593 and part 2, p. 54, lot #435.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 140-141.

• Lorinda B. Cohoon. “Working-Class Boys and Self-Improved Citizenship: George Light’s Editorials in the Young American’s Magazine of Self-Improvement,” in Serialized Citizenships: Periodicals, Books, and American Boys, 1840-1911. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, 2006; pp. 31-55.

Der Jugend-Freund aller Christlichen Benennungen (Youth companion); 16 June 1847-Dec? 1851 • Christen-Bote und Jugend-Freund ; Jan 1-Dec 1852 • Jugend-Freund und Christen-Bote ; 8 Jan 1853-Nov 1857? • Der Jugend-Freund ; Dec 1857-1917? • Der Jugend-Freund und Illustrierte JugendBlätter ; 1917?-? • magazine ended May 1919

edited by: 16 June 1847-1872, S. K. Brobst • Arndt lists later editors

published: Allentown, Pennsylvania; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Published by S. K. Brobst, 16 June 1847-1872 • Arndt lists later publishers

frequency: 16 June 1847-?, biweekly; then, monthly

description: 1870-1872: 4 pp.; price, 30¢

• First German-language Sunday-school magazine

• Circulation: 1850, 4,800. 1870, 21,500

• Religious focus: Lutheran

absorbed: Illustrierte Jugendblätter ; 1885-1917?

source of information: Arndt; Fraser

bibliography:

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; p. 43. [archive.org]

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 726. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 150. [archive.org]

• Karl J. R. Arndt & May E. Olson. German-American Newspapers and Periodicals: 1732-1955. Heidelberg: Quelle & Meyer Publishers, 1961.

• Sybille Fraser. “German Language Children’s and Youth Periodicals in North America: A Checklist.” Phaedrus 6 (Spring 1979); pp. 27-31.

The Playmate ; Sept 1847-May 1848

cover/masthead: 1847

edited: 1847, Joseph Cundall

published: Boston, Massachusetts: William Crosby & Henry P. Nichols, 1847-1848; publisher at 111 Washington.

frequency: monthly

description: 32-40 pp.; price, 1848: $1/ year.

• Published simultaneously for a year with English magazine the Illustrated Juvenile Miscellany (also The Playmate)

relevant information: May be the source mentioned in a notice of Little Lizzie and the Fairies, “a youthful holiday publication, with good pictures, made up from Cundall’s attractive miscellany, the ‘Playmate.’ ” [“Books of the Week”]

merged with: Robert Merry’s Museum ; Feb 1841-Nov 1872

relevant quote: About the merger: “We … have formed a project for presenting to the public the most amusing, pleasing, pictorial, instructive magazine that was ever thought of! This number will serve as a specimen. … [W]e intend to keep up and preserve every thing that is good in the plan and spirit of Merry’s Museum; we intend to get all the good hints we can from the original design of Parley’s Magazine; and finally, we shall endeavor to combine in our work all the excellencies of the English periodical, entitled the Playmate. This latter has ceased, and the late publishers in Boston, Messrs. Crosby & Nichols, have engaged us to fulfill their promises to its numerous subscribers.” [“Merry’s Museum and Parley’s Playmate United!” Robert Merry’s Museum (July 1848); p. 3-4) From Crosby & Nichols: “We have published twelve numbers of a Child’s Periodical, entitled THE PLAYMATE: A PLEASANT COMPANION FOR SPARE HOURS. This has now ceased in London, but will be continued here under the following arrangement: The publisher of Merry’s Museum will add the title of Playmate to his magazine, and furnish this to the patrons of the Playmate. Accordingly, our subscribers will receive in future the numbers of MERRY’S MUSEUM AND PARLEY’S PLAYMATE; and as whatever was good in the English periodical was imitated from Parley, we cannot doubt that this arrangement will be gratifying to all concerned.” [Robert Merry’s Museum ; Oct 1848, inside front cover (cover page 2)] Dechert quotes a version of this announcement printed in Sept 1848. “[W]hatever was good in the English periodical was imitated from Parley” is an odd statement, given that, as Dechert explains, the London Playmate was established as a reaction against Parley and didacticism. (See for example, comments on attacks on Parley.)

source of information: Robert Merry’s Museum, Oct 1848 & 1848 bound vol; AASHistPer, series 3; Dechert; AAS catalog; OCLC; Adams

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• “Merry’s Museum and Parley’s Playmate United!” Robert Merry’s Museum. 16 (July 1848); pp. 3-4.

• George Adams. The Boston Directory … 1848. Boston, Massachusetts: James French, 1848; p. 36. [google books]

• “Books of the Week.” The Literary World 11 (20 Nov 1852); p. 329.

• Dorothy B. Dechert. “The Merry Family: A Study of Merry’s Museum, 1841-1872, and of the Various Periodicals that Merged with It.” Master’s thesis. Columbia University, 1942.

The Boys’ and Girls’ Journal ; Jan 1848 • The Boys’ and Girls’ Weekly Penny Journal ; Feb-July 1848 • The Boys’ and Girls’ Penny Journal ; Aug 1848-1849 • Fithian’s Magazine for Girls and Boys ; 1850-1852 • Fithian’s Miniature Magazine: A Student Manual and Fireside Miscellany Devoted to the Useful and Beautiful ; 1853-at least 1854

cover/masthead: 1848 | 1849

edited by: Jan-Aug 1848, Aaron F. Cox

• Sept 1848-1853, Charles Fithian

• 1852-at least 1854, Lydia Jane Pierson, assistant ed.

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Aaron F. Cox, Jan-July 1848; publisher at 116 Chesnut St. (“third story front room”), March 1848.

• Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Charles Fithian, Aug 1848-1853; publisher at 21 S. Third St. (3rd story), 1849; publisher at 1 Lodge St., 1850; publisher at 3 Ranstead Place, 1853. Also, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: C. Fithian & Co., 1849; publisher at north-west corner of Fourth and Arch Streets

frequency: 1848-1849: weekly (Saturday); 1 vol/ year. • 1850-1851: biweekly. • 1852-1853: monthly.

description: 1848-1849: 4 pp.; quarto. 1849: page size, 11″ h x 9″ w. Price, 1¢/ issue for those living in Philadelphia; 50¢/ year, paid in advance, for those whose issues needed to go by mail.

• 1850-1851: 16 pp.; large octavo; price, 50¢/ year; 3¢/ issue.

• 1852-at least 1854: 32 pp.; price, 50¢/ year.

relevant quotes:

• A notice in the Huntress gives the magazine a wide audience: “This is a valuable publication from which old and young may gain both amusement and instruction. It has been much improved of late, and contains twenty-six pages, with many beautiful illustrations. It is published in Philadelphia at Fifty Cents per year—Edited by Mrs. Lydia Jane Peirson and Charles Fithian.” [“Fithian’s Magazine for Girls and Boys”]

• Circumstances aligned to make one issue arrive late to some subscribers: “The sudden illness of the Principal Carrier, during the absence of the Publisher, will account for its non reception on the part of subscribers. He is again at his post.” [“Boys’ and Girls’ Journal”]

• For some time, Fithian apparently set the type for the paper himself: “The duty of setting the type for our paper, which we have heretofore performed, we are now compelled, from ill health, to relinquish, and shall in future give our time and attention to its compilation and general improvement.” [“Enlargement of the Journal.” 2 (1 Dec 1849); p. 196]

• 1850 saw the number of pages expand to 16 and the publishing office move to the bookstore of C. A. Brown & Co., corner of Arch and Fourth St. The expansion allowed for a wide variety of articles and another recurring column: “The mental, moral, and intellectual improvement of youth—and the necessity of a high standard of individual excellence and moral worth—is inculcated by pleasing (but true) incidents from History and sketches of every day life, written by the first authors of Europe and America. It will also contain, [sic] Anecdotes and sketches of Natural History, Incidents of Travel, Wonders of Nature and Art, Essays on Science and Manufacture, School Items, Poetry, and an original and select miscellanes of entertaining and instructive facts and fancies. Besides these, a source of pleasure and profit to the juveniles will be found in the Sports and Pastimes for Boys and Girls. This department will comprise Sports of the Playground; Amusing Needle Work for Girls; Parlor Magic; Riddles, Charades, Enigmas, &c.” [“Enlarged and Improved!” 2 (1 Dec 1849); p. 196] The list of promised contributors to the 1850 Journal includes every major writer for children in 1849, many of whom may have been surprised to find that they were contributing to the paper.

• An advertisement at the time of the the final name change emphasized that paper was up-to-date: “FITHIAN’S MINIATURE MAGAZINE is a continuation and an improvement of the Boys’s and Girls’ Journal, so long known to the School Children of Philadelphia. The last named periodical has had its day and served its purpose, and the Miniature Magazine will be a publication for youth that the signs of the times evidently demands—something candid, piquant, lively and inspiriting, but at the same time decorous and useful. … The Miniature Magazine is designed for ‘men and women in miniature,’ (that is to say, boys and girls,) and in its pages will they see reflected portraits of Eminent Men and Women (principally Americans;) Views of Remarkable Places and Objects, and numerous miscellaneous engravings of all kinds. Stories, Sketches, Essays, Travels, Narratives; Fun and Frolic; Anecdotes; History; Biography; Enigmas, Riddles, Charades, and Conundrums—constitute, in part, its contents.” [advertisement. 6 (Dec 1853); p. 384]

source of information: 1849 issue; Lyon; Maxwell; NUC; notices, etc., below

available: AASHistPer, series 3 & 4

The Huntress reprinted “A Night Scene in a Poor Man’s House” [12 (Oct 27 1849); p. 1] and “Benevolence & Gratitude” [15 (3 July 1852); p. 1].

• “Generosity” was reprinted in The Semi-Weekly Eagle [Brattleboro, Vermont; 3 July 1851; p. 1.].

bibliography:

• “Boys’ and Girls’ Journal.” Public Ledger [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 30 March 1848; p. 2.

• notice. Philadelphia Inquirer [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 25 Dec 1849; p. 2.

• “Boys’ and Girls’ Journal.” Public Ledger [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 8 Jan 1850; p. 2.

• “Fithian’s Magazine for Girls and Boys.” The Huntress 15 (8 May 1852); p. 2.

• obituary of Charles Fithian. Public Ledger [Philadelphia, Pennsylvania] 44 (2 March 1858); p. 2.

• Eleanor Weakley Nolen. “Nineteenth Century Children’s Magazines.” The Horn Book Magazine. 15 (Jan/Feb 1939); p. 55-60.

• Mabel F. Altstetter. “Early American Magazines for Children.” Peabody Journal of Education 19 (Nov 1941); p. 132.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 141-142, 152, 153, 156, 158, 191-192, 193-199, 316.

Checklist of Children’s Books, 1837-1876, comp. Barbara Maxwell. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Special Collections, Central Children’s Department, Free Library of Philadelphia, 1975.

The Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine, and Fireside Companion ; Jan 1848-Dec 1850 • Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine, and Fireside Companion ; Jan 1851-Dec 1857

cover/masthead: 1848-1850 | 1851-1855 | 1852 | 1856-1857

edited by: Jan 1848-Dec 1852, Dexter S. King (“Mark Forrester”) • Jan 1853-Dec 1856, “Francis Forrester”; “Francis Forrester, Jr.” • Jan-Dec 1857, “Father Forrester”

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Bradbury and Guild, Jan 1848-Dec 1849; publisher at 12 School St., Jan 1848-Dec? 1850. Boston, Massachusetts: Degen, 1852. Boston, Massachusetts: William Guild, Jan 1851-Dec 1852; publisher at 120 Washington St., 1851.

• New York, New York: W. C. Locke & Co., Jan 1851-1852; publisher at 24 Beekman St., Jan 1852.

• Boston, Massachusetts: F. & G. C. Rand, Jan 1853-Dec 1856; publisher at 7 Cornhill. Boston, Massachusetts: Binney & Rand, Jan-Dec 1857; publisher at 36 Washington St.

frequency: monthly: 1853, 1st of month; 2 vol/ year

description: 32 pp.

• 1848, page size untrimmed, 8″ h x 5.5″ w; price: 1 copy, $1/ year in advance; 4 copies, $3/ year (75¢/ issue); 7 copies, $5/ year (71¢/ issue); 15 copies, $10/ year (67¢/ issue); 24 copies, $15/ year (62.5¢/ issue); 40 copies, $24/ year (60¢/ issue)

• July 1850-1857, page size untrimmed, 9″ h x 6″ w; price: 1 copy, $1.25/ year, $1/ year in advance; 4 copies, $3/ year; 7 copies, $5/ year; 10 copies, $7/ year; 15 copies, $10/ year

• Circulation: 1850, 5,000; (from magazine): Jan 1851, 10,000

relevant quotes:

• Introduction: “I am about issuing a new Monthly Magazine, intended expressly for boys and girls …. I am aware that this field of literature is already occupied by those who can, perhaps, write you more interesting stories than I can, with my plain ways and trembling hands. In fact, I feel that I can realize all the difficulties and perplexities of an editor’s life; and yet I cannot but believe that the relation of some incidents of my life, chequered as it has been with sunshine and storms, will serve to cheer me in my old age, and teach you to shun the dangers that will beset you on every side, as long as you live.” [“Introduction.” 1 (Jan 1848); pp. 1-2]

• Degen as publisher: “ … I want you to help Mr. Degen. He paid Messrs. Bradbury & Guild a large sum of money for the subscription list of this magazine. You see how he has improved it. … So just take it to school, and get your schoolmates to take it. Come now, right off, and let me know how you succeed.” [11 (Feb 1852); p. 64]

• The Feb 1852 issue was late and the March 1852 issue was early: “I am sorry this number is published so late in the month. But it could not be helped. Mr. Degen is not to be blamed. The shaft of the paper-mill broke, and the paper-maker had to keep us waiting for paper. The March number will be out early.” [11 (Feb 1852); p. 64]

• About the change in editors, 1853: “Your old friend, and my much esteemed acquaintance, Mark Forrester, has seen fit to leave his editorial chair, and to bequeath me his old pens, his curious stories, and the care of your favorite magazine. So I, Francis Forrester, Esquire, editor, author, &c., &c., beg leave to make you a bow as graceful as that of a Frenchman, and to greet you with a heart as sincere as the love of a father.” [11 (Jan 1853); p. 1] The original editor had his own version, as he explained in his next editorial endeavor: “The fact was, coming to my office one bitter cold, blustering morning, I found a stranger in my chair. He said he was my brother, that he had come to relieve me from any further care about the magazine. My readers will see at once that the only course for me to pursue, under the circumstances was to tie my tippet about my neck, turn up my collar, and go back to my home. It seemed desolate to me for a time, I admit. However, I made the best of my disappointment, and heartily wished my successor would make my magazine far more worthy of your confidence than it had ever been before.” [“Chat with Readers and Correspondents.” Monthly Instructor 1 (July 1854); p. 35]

• The Vermont Christian Messenger gave a backhanded insult to other periodicals of the time, stating that Forrester’s “pages furnish just that kind of reading with which [children] are always pleased, and at the same time is free from the dissipating influence attendant on very many popular magazines of the day.” [16 March 1853]

• The Buffalo Morning Express had ulterior motives: “We have said before that we regarded [the magazine] as a capital little affair, and advise all the boys and girls of Buffalo to subscribe for it, after they have secured our ‘Casket.’ ” [24 March 1853]

• Advertisements for 1854 promised much variety: “To its matter the editor will impart increasing variety, interest, and value. It will embrace historical sketches, anecdotes of natural history, brief spicy outlines of the various sciences, biographies of the childhood and youth of remarkable men and women, moral stories, anecdotes, choice sayings, puzzles, &c., &c. Also, a series of papers on the Art of Pencil Drawing, illustrated with engravings.” [Washington Sentinel 17 Jan 1854]

• An 1854 advertisement tried a variety of advertising techniques: describing the glories of the magazine, asserting that the magazine was good for young readers, encouraging children to harass their parents for the magazine, and hinting that parents not subscribing to the magazine didn’t love their children: “Every child ought to have this magazine. The engravings will cultivate a refined taste in works of that class; the reading matter will deeply interest and instruct, and the result will be, happier and better boys and girls—wiser and better men and women. My young readers know that teasing is not a pretty habit, but it will not be a very bad thing for you to tease, just once, for so good and useful a thing as this magazine; and we are sure that the parents who truly love their children, and are willing to sacrifice for their best good, will be easily persuaded to open, at so cheap a rate, such a rich fountain of blessing, both to themselves and their offspring.” [“Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine”]

• “Francis Forrester, jr” becomes assistant editor: “Francis Forrester, Esq. is not in a writing mood this month. The old gentleman has been sick. [So, when his young friend offers his services as an editor, “the old gentleman” accepts and christens him.] ‘If you will help me edit my magazine, I will adopt you as my literary child, and allow you to call yourself Francis Forrester, Jr.[’] ” [“Francis Forrester Jr.’s Chit-chat with His Readers.” 8 (July 1856); p. 31-2]

relevant information:

• The magazine was intended for a younger audience than The Schoolmate. [advertisement for Gray & Ballantyne]

• Jan-Feb 1856: Forrester’s allied with Woodworth’s Youth’s Cabinet, with each magazine a duplicate of the other. The attempt to apparently extend the lives of both proved unworkable.

absorbed by: The Student and Schoolmate ; Nov 1855-1872

source of information: 1848-1857 scattered issues & bound volumes; APS II reels 606-607; Livingston; Lyon; Kelly

available: AASHistPer, series 3 & 4

• APS II (1800-1850), reels 606-607

bibliography:

• “Magazines for January.” Vermont Mercury [Woodstock, Vermont] 24 Dec 1847; p. 3.

• George Adams. The Boston Directory … 1848. Boston, Massachusetts: James French, 1848; p. 35. [google books]

• “Editor’s Table.” Vermont Watchman and State Journal [Montpelier, Vermont] 10 Feb 1848; p. 2.

• notice of May issue. Vermont Watchman and State Journal [Montpelier, Vermont] 18 May 1848; p. 2.

• notice. Windham County Democrat [Brattleboro, Vermont] 13 Dec 1848; p. 2.

The Boston Directory … 1849. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1849; p. 40. [archive.org]

• notice of Jan issue. Vermont Watchman and State Journal [Montpelier, Vermont] 25 Jan 1849; p. 2.

• “The Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine, and Fireside Companion.” Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] 13 Aug 1850; p. 130.

• “Popular Periodical for the Young.” Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] 20 Aug 1850; p. 3.

The Boston Directory, for the Year 1851. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1851; appendix, p. 31. [google books]

• “New Year! New Volume!” New England Farmer [Boston, Massachusetts] 11 Jan 1851; p. 3.

• “Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine for 1851—Seventh Volume.” The Hillsborough Recorder [Hillsborough, North Carolina] 12 March 1851; p. 3.

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; catalog of newspapers, p. 19. [archive.org]

The Boston directory for the Year 1852. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1852; p. 35. [google books]

• notice. Buffalo Morning Express and Illustrated Buffalo Express [Buffalo, New York] 4 Jan 1853; p. 3.

• “Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls Magazine.” Vermont Christian Messenger [Montpelier, Vermont] 12 Jan 1853; p. 2.

• Forrester’s Boys & Girls Magazine. The St. Albans Democrat [St. Albans, Vermont] 2 Jan 1853; p. 3.

• “Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” Vermont Christian Messenger [Montpelier, Vermont] 16 March 1853; p. 2.

• notice of March issue. Buffalo Morning Express and Illustrated Buffalo Express [Buffalo, New York] 24 March 1853; p. 3.

• Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine. The Burlington Weekly Sentinel [Burlington, Vermont] 24 March 1853; p. 2.

• notice. The Burlington Courier [burlington, Vermont] 24 March 1853; p. 3.

• “Forrester’s Boys & Girls Magazine.” Bradford Inquirer [Bradford, Vermont] 26 March 1853; p. 3.

• “An Illustrated Monthly for the Young.” The National Era [Washington, District of Columbia] 21 April 1853; p. 4.

• “Forresters’ [sic] Boys & Girls Magazine.” The North-Carolina Star [Raleigh, North Carolina] 18 May 1853; p. 2.

• Messrs. F. & C. Rand, Boston. Buffalo Morning Express and Illustrated Buffalo Express [Buffalo, New York] 6 June 1853; p. 3.

• notice. Moore’s Rural New-Yorker 11 June 1853; p. 194.

• notice. The Burlington Weekly Sentinel [Burlington, Vermont] 16 June 1853; p. 2.

• We have received several numbers. Oshkosh Democrat [Oshkosh, Wisconsin] 17 June 1853; p. 2.

• “Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” Vermont Chronicle [Bellows Falls, Vermont] 12 July 1853; p. 3.

• “Forrester’s Boys and Girls Magazine.” The Burlington Free Press [Burlington, Vermont] 13 July 1853; p. 2.

• “Boys and Girls Magazine for 1854.” The Washington Sentinel [Washington, District of Columbia] 17 Jan 1854; p. 3. Also, Forrister’s [sic] Boys’ and Girls Magazine for 1854. Evening Star [Washington, District of Columbia] 2 Feb 1854; p. 4.

• The March number of “Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” Buffalo Morning Express and Illustrated Buffalo Express [Buffalo, New York] 16 March 1854; p. 3.

• “Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” Vermont Christian Messenger [Northfield, Vermont] 22 Nov 1854; p. 2.

• “Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine for 1855.” Daily American Organ [Washington, District of Columbia] 11 Dec 1854; p. 3.

• “Make Way for Francis Forrister, [sic] Esq.” Vermont Christian Messenger [Montpelier, Vermont] 13 Dec 1854; p. 4.

• “Forrester’s Boys and Girls’ Magazine.” Bradford Inquirer [Bradford, Vermont] 30 Dec 1854; p. 2.

• advertisement for Gray & Ballantyne. Evening Star [Washington, District of Columbia] 9 Jan 1855; p. 2.

• Forresters’ Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine. Aurora of the Valley [Newbury, Vermont] 6 April 1855; p. 2.

• notice of Nov issue. Vermont Christian Messenger [Montpelier, Vermont] 31 Oct 1855; p. 2.

• “Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” The St. Johnsbury Caledonian [St. Johnsbury, Vermont] 10 Nov 1855; p. 1.

• “forester’s [sic] Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” Orange County Journal [Bradford, Vermont] 22 Dec 1855; p. 2.

• “Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” The National Era [Washington, District of Columbia] 14 Feb 1856; p. 3.

• “Pamphlets.” Raleigh Christian Advocate [Raleigh, North Carolina] 6 June 1856; p. 2.

• “Forrester’s Boys and Girls Magazine.” Raleigh Christian Advocate [Raleigh, North Carolina] 17 Oct 1856; p. 2.

• “Foresters [sic] Boys and Girls Magazine.” The Burlington Weekly Sentinel [Burlington, Vermont] 8 Jan 1857; p. 2.

• notice of Nov issue. Hartford Courant [Hartford, Connecticut] 15 Oct 1857; p. 2.

• “Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” Raleigh Christian Advocate [Raleigh, North Carolina] 22 Oct 1857; p. 2.

• “Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine.” Northeastern Christian Advocate [Brandon, Vermont] 8 Jan 1858; p. 4.

• Harriet L. Matthews. “Children’s Magazines.” Bulletin of Bibliography. 1 (April 1899); p. 133-136.

• Dorothy Dechert. “The Merry Family: A Study of Merry’s Museum, 1841-1872, and of the Various Periodicals that Merged with It.” Master’s thesis. Columbia University, 1942.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 141, 173-174, 187, 200-202, 213.

• John B. Crume. “Children’s Magazines, 1826-1857.” Journal of Popular Culture 7 (1973); p. 698-706.

Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

• Alice Brazeau. “ ‘I must have my gossip with the young folks’: Letter Writing and Literacy in The Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine and Fireside Companion.” Children’s Literature Association Quarterly 38 (Summer 2013); p. 159-176.

The Young People’s Mirror and American Family Visitor (also Young People’s Mirror ; also Mirror); 1 Jan 1848-1 Dec 1849

edited by: Benson John Lossing

published: New York, New York: Edward Walker; publisher at 114 Fulton St., 1847-1849. • Boston, Massachusetts: H. W. Swett.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 12 pp.; page size, 11.5″ h x 8.25″ w; prices: 1 copy, 50¢/ year; 5 copies, $2/ year

• The Independent Monitor states that the May 1848 issue is 16 pages; my copy is 12 pages.

• Erroneously referred to as The Youth’s Mirror by at least one contemporary reviewer

• The first issue was available Dec 1847.

relevant information:

• Lossing had edited other periodicals and become a wood engraver before editing the Mirror.

• Advertisements for Walker’s publications used “Young People’s Mirror, New York” for a few years after the magazine’s demise.

relevant quotes:

• Introduction: “In consenting to employ some leisure hours in the Editorial management of the Young People’s Mirror, we obey the pleasing impulse of a desire to become thus personally linked with the younger branches of our Republican family …. Parent, son, and daughter, for you the Mirror will give its reflections from the luminaries of nature, art, and mind—for you the Visitor will make its monthly calls, and dispense its treasures of advice and knowledge.” [“Salutatory.” 1 (Jan 1848); p. 10]

• Difficulties in publishing, & a new prospectus: “We are at the close of our first volume, several hundred dollars the loser, upon our circulation, but the hope of having the Mirror yet placed upon a remunerating basis, induces us to publish another volume. All must be aware upon a little reflection, that so low a price as fifty cents per annum for an illustrated paper of the size and quality of our sheet, requires a subscription list of several thousand paying subscribers, to meet the current expenses of publication. If it shall reach that mark—if its income shall equal its disbursements—we shall be satisfied. Double our list of paying subscribers, and the Mirror will be placed upon a permanent basis. We shall give it a fair trial, … and then, if it shall not be considered worth fifty cents a year to a sufficient number of persons to pay the expense of publication, we shall, in common fairness to ourselves, abandon the enterprise, and conclude that our judgment was at fault.” [“Volume II.—Prospectus.” 2 (1 Jan 1849); p. 1]

• The editor of the Maine Farmer was sympathetic: “We are sorry to learn that the publisher has sustained a loss as yet by the enterprise. But he has the courage to go on, strong in the hope that he will yet be remunerated. If any parent has fifty cents to bestow on his child, or to invest for his good, let him subscribe for the Young People’s Mirror.” [“Young People’s Mirror”]

• An advertisement asked adults to persuade possible subscribers: “Ministers, Colporteurs, Post-Masters, Teachers, Parents, and Guardians, are invited to aid in circulating this work among the young, for they may be assured that it will be precisely such a work as they will take pleasure in recommending to those over whom they severally exercise an influence. For example, the minister in his Sunday School, and his pastoral visits among his flock; the Colporteur in his lectures, and in his visits of love from house to house; the Post-master in his office, where the young are sent for letters; Teachers, who are constantly training the young mind for the future; and Parents and Guardians, who bear the solemn responsibility of moulding human character, and watching over and directing aright the expanding intellect of youth, may all present our enterprise directly to those for whose benefit it is chiefly intended, and through its instrumentality each may and himself in the work in which he is engaged.” [Sunbury Gazette 12 May 1849]

• The last issue: “This is the closing number of the second Volume of the Mirror. Like the first, its publication has been a loss to the publisher. He had hoped for a different result, and has delayed the determination to suspend the publication of the work, until the last moment, hoping there might be better indications for the next volume. Profit was not expected, and the publisher would cheerfully give his time, if his money outlay could be reimbursed. But he does not feel warranted in working for nothing and paying the expense. There are many who are desirous of having the publication of the Mirror continued, and have substantially aided in making the publisher’s loss less than it might have been. … And we now make a pledge …, if between this and the 1st of January, a sufficient number of subscribers shall be received to insure the publisher against loss, the first number of the third volume will appear on the first of February. If not, then our young readers, with whom we have journied so pleasantly, and ourselves, must part company.” [“The Closing Number.” 2 (Dec 1849); p. 141]

available: AASHistPer, series 3

• Pieces from the Mirror were reprinted in newspapers across the nation for years after the magazine’s demise: “Don’t Become Rich Again,” by Lydia Sigourney: Saturday Morning Visitor [Warsaw, Missouri; 12 Aug 1848; p. 1]; “Little Graves”: Green-Mountain Freeman [Montpelier, Vermont; 5 Oct 1848; p. 1]; “Modes of Salutation”: The New Orelans Crescent [New Orleans, Louisiana; 20 Oct 1848; p. 1] and others; “Kindness, the Best Punishment”: Fort Smith Weekly Herald [Fort Smith, Arkansas; 6 June 1849; p. 1] and others; “Leaning Tower at Pisa”: Alabama Beacon [Greensboro, Alabama; 21 July 1849; p. 1]; a poem: Alton Weekly Telegraph [Alton, Illinois; 7 Sept 1849; p. 1]; “Think Again”: Hinds County Gazette [Raymond, Mississippi; 19 April 1854; p. 1]

excerpts online

source of information: 1848-1849 bound volume; Lyon; AAS catalog

bibliography:

• advertisement for the Odd fellow’s Offering. The Evening Post [New York, New York] 29 Nov 1847; p. 2.

• “Young People’s Mirror.” The Vermont Union Whig [Rutland, Vermont] 23 Dec 1847; p. 2.

• “The Young People’s Mirror.” The Hillsborough Recorder [Hillsborough, North Carolina] 6 Jan 1848 [misdated 6 Jan 1847]; p. 3.

• We have received the May number. The Independent Monitor [Tuscaloosa, Alabama] 11 May 1848; p. 3.

• “August.” Spirit of the Age [Woodstock, Vermont] 3 Aug 1848; p. 2.

• “The Young People’s Mirror, and American Family Visitor.” Alabama Beacon [Greensboro, Alabama] 20 Jan 1849; p. 3.

• “Young People’s Mirror.” Maine Farmer 17 (25 Jan 1849); p. 2.

• notice. Grove Hill Herald [Grove Hill, Alabama] 7 Feb 1849; p. 2.

• advertisement for book by Dowling. Monmouth Democrat [Freehold, New Jersey] 15 Feb 1849; p. 3.

• notice. North Star [Danville, Vermont] 10 March 1849; p. 2.

• “The Young People’s Mirror.” Alabama Beacon [Greensboro, Alabama] 24 March 1849; p. 2.

• “The Young People’s Mirror.” The Sunbury Gazette [Sunbury, Pennsylvania] 12 May 1849; p. 3.

• “The Young People’s Mirror, and American Family Visitor.” Alabama Beacon [Greensboro, Alabama] 12 May 1848; p. 2.

• notice. Glasgow Weekly Times [Glasgow, Missouri] 8 Nov 1849; p. 2.

• “Sterling and Attractive Books for Agents!” Spirit of Jefferson [Charles Town, West Virginia] 2 July 1850; p. 5.

• obituary of Benson Lossing. Altoona Tribune [Altoona, Pennsylvania] 5 June 1891; p. 1.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 141.

Juvenile Gazette ; 18 March 1848-?

edited by: W. Roscoe Deane, G. W. Chapman, & G. G. Crocker

published: Boston, Massachusetts; Deane, Chapman & Crocker; publisher at 32 Congress

frequency: weekly

description: Page size, 8″ h; price, $1

source of information: AAS catalog; NUC; Adams

bibliography:

• George Adams. The Boston Directory … 1848. Boston, Massachusetts: James French, 1848; p. 36. [google books]

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 142.

The Scholar’s Penny Gazette ; 29 April 1848-17 Aug 1850

cover/masthead: 1848

edited by: April 1848-March 1849, Asa Fitz, with La Fayette Forrest

• March-May 1849, Asa Fitz, with S. L. Hobbs

published: Boston, Massachusetts: Asa Fitz & L. F. Forrest, 1848; publisher at 138 1-2 Washington.

frequency: weekly: Saturday morning

description: 4 pp.; page size, 13.25″ h; price, 50¢/ year

relevant information: The issue for 29 April 1848 was preceded by a sample issue: “Some weeks ago, we issued a specimen number of The Scholar’s Penny Gazette, and the success which has attended our efforts in obtaining subscribers for it, experiment as it was, is the cause of the appearance of the present number, which we hope is an improvement upon the last.” [“The Scholar’s Penny Gazette.” 1 (29 April 1848); p. 3.]

• Recommending it, the Times-Picayune had an agenda other than education: “The terms are but twenty-five cents for six months, and, we will add, that if half the money which is worse than wasted by children in the confectioner’s store for cake and candy, were expended to purchase publications like the ‘Scholar’s Penny Gazette,’ or other similar ones, suited to the juvenile mind, the stomach and general health would be none the worse, while the head would get well filled,a nd the heart be improved.”

source of information: AASHistPer; Lyon; AAS catalog; OCLC; NUC; Adams

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• George Adams. The Boston Directory … 1848. Boston, Massachusetts: James French, 1848; p. 36. [google books]

The Boston Directory … 1849. Boston, Massachusetts: George Adams, 1849; p. 41. [archive.org]

• “Literary Notices.” The Common School Journal 11 (15 Jan 1849); p. 31.

• notice. The Common School Journal 11 (15 April 1849); p. 128.

• “The Scholar’s Penny Gazette.” The Times-Picayune [New Orleans, Louisina] 11 Aug 1849; p. 2.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 142, 158.

The Youth’s Pictorial Magazine ; May 1848

cover/masthead: cover

published: Papermill Village, New Hampshire: A. K. Severance

frequency: monthly (only 1 issue)

description: 24 pp.; page size, 9.25″ h x 6.25″ w

• “Each volume will contain upwards of three hundred pages, and more than a hundred Engravings. Every fourth number, at least, will be embellished with a beautiful steel or copper plate engraving.” [“Introduction.”]

• Price: $1/year, “invariably in advance, or on the receipt of the first number.” [“Introduction.”]

• Apparently published only the specimen issue

relevant quotes:

• The editor apologized for the quality of the sample issue: “The present number is not a fair specimen of the work, as our paper is so thin that we could not apply sufficient ink to make the impression show out without showing through. And on account of the pressure of other duties, we in our hurry to issue the first number without farther [sic] delay, suffered too many errors to pass uncorrected—but these evils will be avoided in future.” [back cover (cover page 4)]

• Much was promised: “Every intelligent person will perceive at a glance that unlike many young people’s Magazines, ours will not merely embrace light literary articles, but will join the amusing with the instructive. Our design is to improve the three-fold nature of mankind, especially the young—to lead them upward and onward to virtue and happiness; to give a table of important Historical and Scientific facts; to furnish short Biographical Sketches of eminent men, that the recital of others’ virtues and efforts may make the young emulous of true greatness; to give the elements of the English Language in such a manner that every reader will gain such an amount of rudimental knowledge as will fit him for the usual avocations of life; to furnish short illustrated articles from the different branches of Natural History, that the rising generation may not be wholly ignorant of the structure, habits, &c., &c., of insects, beasts, birds, fishes, and vegetables; to furnish such miscellaneous reading as will give the young a fund of useful and general knowledge; to present a monthly Tale, adorned with truth and pointed with a moral; to exemplify the ups and down, lights and shades, of human life. Finally, we shall endeavor not to confine our range of subjects, or our selections, to one department of literature or science, but to make it an Encyclopedic Repository of important facts and principles, presented and illustrated in such a manner as to amuse, instruct, and improve every reader.” [“Introduction”]

• However, subscribers shouldn’t expect too much: “We do not pretend that our Magazine will compare, with others in Artistical points of view—because we have not the facilities which city publishers have: but, in intrinsic value, it shall equal any other dollar Magazine in the country.” [“Prospectus.” back cover (cover page 4)]

source of information: May 1848 issue

The Asteroid ; 1 Aug 1848-July 1849?

cover/masthead: Aug 1848 | Sept 1848-Jan 1849 | Feb-July 1849

edited by: Aug-Oct 1848, Harry Lake; Frank Lawe

• Feb-July 1849, William H. Hutchinson

published: Salem, Massachusetts: William H. Hutchinson, 1848-1849.

frequency: monthly

description: 4 pp.; page size, 13″ h; price, 25¢/ year

relevant information: The first issue began with page 3 and thus includes pages 3-6.

relevant quotes:

• The editors expressed more than a little local pride: “Why should the Salem boys and girls not have a paper of their own? They are as good children as you will find any where; they like to read as well and have as good a literary taste as their neighbors of Boston, and there you will find eight or a dozen papers similar to this which we propose to publish; but here there is not one. And why is this? Boston is not eight or twelve times larger than Salem, nor are the means of education there better than those found in our own city. Our boys have as good talents, and our girls can write as fine a composition, as those of any place. There is no reason why there should not be such a publication here; there is not, simply because try has been misplaced by can’t. Salem can support us, it must, it will. Such were our thoughts as we contemplated our present undertaking, and echo answered WILL!! It is our intention to furnish the youth of Salem with a paper that shall be emphatically their own, which shall be devoted to their interests, and to the columns of which they shall contribute. Its office of publication is in their midst, its agents will be taken from their own ranks, and the management, direction and execution of it, shall be purely a Salem affair.” [editorial. 1 (1 Aug 1848); p. 4]

• Just naming the paper was a feat: “What is in a name? Every thing. If you doubt it, sit down some hot afternoon in the middle of July to rake up one for a new paper. We, at least, found labor and perplexity in it. Sunbeams and Magnolias, Miniatures and Coronals, Argonauts and Hyacinths, [p. 5] Mirrors and Mermaids, Rovers and Roarers, without end or satisfaction, danced to and fro in our mind. This was too short, that was too long, this too comic, that too common; senseless this, pedantic that; presumptuous one, insipid the other. Then why our present selection? The Asteroid! It sounds well, it looks well, it means well. Originality it wants not, neither can presumption be laid at its door. We claim to be neither sun nor moon, nor planet, not even a twinkling star. … We have made selection of this name because we have never heard of its being applied to any other publication; nor do we presume that our little sheet, in point of size, (say nothing of its quality) will rank higher in the newspaper system, than the Asteroid in the planetary. But, perhaps, some of the knowing ones may suggest that we might have contented ourselves as a secondary planet, but we would just remind them that we intend to play satellite to none.” [“Our Paper.” 1 (1 Aug 1848); p. 4-5]

• With the last issue, readers were left in suspense, as Hutchinson announced that—ironically, given the earlier vague disparagement of Boston—the paper’s fate would depend on Boston publishers: “The twelvth [sic] number of The Asteroid is in your possession. Examine it for yourself, and if you like the paper, remember us with kindness; our faults have been many, and our endeavors to please have been great. If we have amused or caused time to pass pleasantly with our readers, or in any way benefited them, we are repaid for the efforts we have put forth. It will not be improper to state that we have edited the paper, set up the types, got it ready for press, and printed it ourself. The pro[b]able expense of printing our paper, if we paid a living price, and hired it done, would be near $16 a month, but by being qualified ourself, we have not been obliged to pay out money except for paper; we can go on another volume the same as last year, if we wish, and if we do not, it will be from the consideration, that ‘Time is money,’ and that we must not give too much of it to the paper unless we have more ‘tin,’ alias ‘filthy lucre.’ There is ten chances to half that number whether we continue our paper another year; it depends much on the decision of two gentlemen of Boston. If we do not appear promptly by the first of August, it may be concluded that we have ‘kicked the bucket,’ should it be thus, those who have lately subscribed, may have this volume perfect, or the money refunded. We may continue and we may not.” [“The Close of the Volume.” 1 (July 1849); p. 49.] Streeter says that after being published in Salem, Massachusetts, the paper was “removed to Boston.” However, no Boston issues appear to have been located.

source of information: AASHistPer; AAS catalog; Streeter

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• Gilbert Streeter. An Account of the Newspapers and Other Periodicals Published in Salem, from 1768 to 1856. Salem, Massachusetts: Wm. Ives and Geo. W. Pease, 1856; p. 30. [archive.org]

Young People’s Journal of Science, Literature, & Art ; Nov 1848-?

cover/masthead: 1848

edited by: Nathan Brittan; Frances H. Greene

published: New York, New York: S. B. Brittan; publisher at 235 Broadway. Boston, Massachusetts: Bela Marsh.

frequency: monthly

description: 32 pp.; page size, 9.75″ h; price, $1/ year

relevant quotes:

• The publisher intended the magazine for schools: “Teachers are aware that the same old book, read from day to day, from year to year, and from one generation to another, will weary and at length disgust the most zealous scholar. But a monthly periodical such as we propose to make the Young People’s Journal, would furnish to the student at school and to families a continued succession of interest and delight. Thus presented, Truth would never lose its power to captivate and govern the mind, nor would Beauty and Sublimity pall upon the mental taste; but the mind and heart would be constantly open and interested in the continually changing series of readings. Much of the indifference to Literature and mental cultivation may be imputed to the distaste acquired at school, through the injudicious mode of drilling the pupil perpetually in the same reading exercises. But here is a remedy for the evil. One Number of our Magazine may be mastered in the couse of the month. With each succeeding number the student will be furnished with new lessons of increasing interest. And besides the mere practice in Elocution, much scientific and other valuable information will have been acquired. Indeed, while the scholar is learning to read, he will cultivate a taste for what is refined and elegant in Literature, and acquire a comprehensive knowledge of the Arts and Sciences.” [1 (Nov 1848): inside front cover (cover page 2)] Advertising later in the issue suggests that the Journal also may be “invaluable” to “Farmers, Mechanics, and Operatives in our manufactories, male and female”, “[t]hose who have not the means to obtain a large number of expensive books, nor the time to peruse the more elaborate treatises on the Arts and Sciences”. [1 (Nov 1848): inside back cover (cover page 3)]

• At least one editor noticing the periodical had trouble with the editor’s name, stating that the Journal was edited by “Prof. Nathan Burton.” From the description of the first issue: “There will be three departments. The work will not be confined to sect or party. The present number is embellished with a fine engraving, and we heartily commend the work to our readers. The present number contains some excellent articles, and the patrons of the work may expect a rich treat.” [notice. Prisoner’s Friend]

• Another editor—listing the editor as “Nathan Britain”—included the contents of the Nov 1848 issue: “The first No., comes to us with papers on Physiology, Physiognomy, Botany, Astronomy, Mythology; a biography of Banvard; a Dramatic sketch, &c.” [notice. Christian Register]

source of information: AASHistPer, series 3; AAS catalog; OCLC; Prisoner’s Friend ; Christian Register

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• notice. Prisoner’s Friend 1 (1 Nov 1848); p. 134.

• notice. Christian Register 27 (4 Nov 1848); pp. 178-179.

The Student ; Nov 1848-April 1854 • The Student and Family Miscellany ; May 1854-Oct 1855

cover/masthead: 1849 | 1854

edited by: Nov 1848-April 1854, Norman A. Calkins • 1848-1850, J. S. Denman • 1849-1850, S. E. Paine

published: New York, New York: Denman, Calkins & Paine, 1849-1850; publisher at 148 Grand.

• New York, New York: Fowler & Wells, 1850-Dec 1853; publisher at 131 Nassau St., 1851.

• New York, New York: Norman A. Calkins, Jan 1854-Oct 1855; publisher at 131 Nassau St., Jan 1854; publisher at 348 Broadway, 15 April 1854: “The office of The Student will be removed on the 15th of April to No. 348 Broadway, Room No. 10, over Appleton’s Bookstore.” [8 (April 1854); p. 185]

frequency: monthly; 2 vol/ year: volumes begin with May & Nov issues

description:

• Nov 1848-April 1854: 32 pp.; 8.75″ h x 5.5″ w; price, $1/ year

• May 1854-1855: 36 pp.; price, $1/ year

• Circulation (from magazine): May 1854, 10,000

relevant information:

• In 1851, Fowler & Wells also published The American Phrenological Journal (“devoted to the Moral and Intellectual development of Man. Psychology, Magnetism, Physiognomy, and all that relates to Mind, may be found in this publication”) and The Water-Cure Journal (“devoted to Hydropathy, Physiology, and the laws which govern life and health, including Dietetics, together with the philosophy and practice of Water-Cure”), both for adults. [advertisement. The National Era 23 Oct 1851]

relevant quotes:

• As a continuation of The Student and Young Tutor, the Student also tried to accomodate a wide age group and range of reading abilities: “The Student will embrace the same general plan which has been sustained by its predecessor, The Student and Young Tutor, from the time of its first publication—having four departments, which will contain a variety of interesting and instructive articles, for persons of every age and grade of improvement, from the abecedarian, who is making his first efforts to obtain a knowledge of writte language, to the academician and collegiate, whose mature minds are thoroughly disciplined by classic lore.” [“Prospectus of The Student.” 5 (Nov 1848); p. 31.] The magazine used four different typefaces in order to appeal to children, teenagers, and adults.

• From the prospectus: “It is devoted to the Physical, Moral, and Intellectual Improvement of Youth; embracing the Natural Sciences, including Physiology, Astronomy, Botany, Geology, Chemistry, and Natural Philosophy, and important discoveries made from time to time in each.” [Western Star] The prospectus also promised lessons in phonography (also, shorthand).

• The first issue, with a new illustration at the top of the first page, allowed the editor to detail the creation of wood engravings, how stereotypes were made, and how much everything cost: “When the drawing was completed we paid [the artist] three dollars, and took it to … an engraver on wood …. [W]hen it was done, we paid him twelve dollars, and took the block on which he had engraved the picture, to … a stereotyper …. For this work we paid [the stereotyper] two dollars.” [“The Student.” 5 (Nov 1848); p. 12-13.]

• On the cover change in May 1851: “Our New Title-Page.—It has already been seen that the cover appears with a new, beautiful, and attractive title-page; but we wish to call attention more particularly to its design. On one side is represented the family, a lovely group, attentively listening to the father, who is reading for their instruction, on the opposite side is a school scene during recess. In the foreground of this view, with a theodolite, is a lad making a practical application of the principles of Surveying, which he is learning at the school. Near him is another lad who has become interested in Geology and Mineralogy, and, with hammer in hand, is breaking in pieces the rock to obtain specimens for his cabinet. Near him is a girl who, having collected a handful of flowers, has seated herself to examine and analyze them; and in the distance are three smaller children taking exercize in various sports. The whole design is in harmony with and appropriately represents the character of the work.” [“Our New Title-Page.” The Student. 3 (May 1851); p. 29]

• Intentions: “The Student is designed for Children and Youth—to be used in schools and families. It is devoted to Education, Natural History, (with illustrative engravings,) to Biography, Music, Phonography, and the Natural Sciences generally. It is probably the best Educational Serial published in this country.” [advertisement. National Era 23 Oct 1851]

• On absorbing The Flower-Basket: “The Flower-Basket, a monthly magazine for the young, formerly edited and published by the Rev. J. J. Buchanan, at Pittsburg, Pa. is now merged into The Student. There will be no change in The Student, from this union, but according to an arrangement between the publishers of the two works, those whose term of subscription for The Flower-Basket has not expired, will receive The Student in place of that work. … The present widely extended circulation of The Student is a flattering testimonial of the favor with which it is received as a valuable family periodical, and of its increasing popularity among the friends of education and improvement.” [“The Student and Flower-Basket United.” The Student 4 (April 1852); p. 185]

• On the magazine in 1854: “During the eight years which we have been connected with The Student, our aim has been, through its pages, to awaken an ardent love for learning and self-improvement, not only in the school-room, but in the family circle, around the centre-table of the richly-furnished parlor, and by the hearth-stone of rural country homes. … We believe that no other periodical, claiming to be educational, has obtained so large a circulation by subscriptions as The Student. Not a county can be found, where it has not been seen and read, and, so far as we have heard, it has met with a cordial approval.” [8 (April 1854); p. 185]

• On the change to Student & Family Miscellany in 1854: “A New and Improved Volume of The Student and Family Miscellany will commence with the number for May. It will appear in a new form, with new type, and four additional pages; containing 36 pages each month, instead of 32, as heretofore. We intend to send the first number of the new volume to each of our present subscribers, even though the subscriptions of some expire with the present number, and we hope all will examine it. Should any whose subscriptions have expired receive The Student for May, and wish to discontinue the work, please D O    N O T return that number, but keep it and show it to your friends. … Sample numbers of the new volume will be ready on the 15th of April, and will be forwarded, gratis, on application by letter, post-paid, to any person who may desire to examine the work.” [8 (April 1854); p. 185]

• The New York Times was critical: “Its illustrations, on wood, are so extremely bad that they entirely spoil the appearance of the book.” [11 June 1855]

continues: The Student and Young Tutor ; Nov 1846-Oct 1848

absorbed: The Flower Basket • Flower Basket; or Youth’s Magazine • The Flower Basket; or Youth’s Monthly Monitor (Oct 1850?-March 1852) • The Favourite Magazine of Instruction and Amusement for Boys and Girls (also The Favorite); April-Sept 1852

merged with: The Schoolmate (Feb 1852-Oct 1855) to form The Student and Schoolmate ; Nov 1855-1872

source of information: 1851-1852 issues (located in Winterthur Library, Wilmington, Delaware); May 1853-April 1854 bound volume; Lyon; AAS catalog; Mercantile

available: AASHistPer, series 3 & 4

The Spirit of Democracy reprinted selections in a separate column, beginning in 1853, though it considered the Student as “formerly published”: “Should we ascertain that the Student is still published, we will duly notify our young readers.” [“Column for Children”]

excerpts online

bibliography:

• “The Student.” The Evening Post [New York, New York] 19 Dec 1848; p. 2.

The New York Mercantile Union Business Directory … 1850. New York; p. S. French, L. C. & H. L. Pratt, 1850; p. 289. [google books]

• notice. Water-Cure Journal 9 (April 1850); p. 128.

• “Notices of Books, &c.” The St. Albans Weekly Messenger [St. Albans, Vermont] 16 May 1850; p. 3.

• “Editor’s Table.” Vermont Watchman and State Journal [Montpelier, Vermont] 16 May 1850; p. 2.

• “The Student.” Weekly News [Shippensburg, Pennsylvania] 23 May 1850; p. 2.

• “The Student.” Alabama Beacon [Greensboro, Alabama] 25 May 1850; p. 2.

• The Student. Anti-Slavery Bugle [Lisbon, Ohio] 25 May 1850; p. 2.

• “Book Notices.” Green Mountain Eagle and Even Fellow’s Gazette [Wilmington, Vermont] 30 May 1850; p. 2.

• prospectus. Valley Farmer 2 (June 1850); p. 198.

• “New Publications.” The Brattleboro’ Eagle [Brattleboro, Vermont] 18 July 1850; p. 2.

• “A Prospectus of The Student.” Alabama Beacon [Greensboro, Alabama] 27 July 1850; p. 3. Also, The Western Star [Pulaski, Tennessee] 14 March 1851; p. 3.

• notice. Independent [New York, New York] 21 Nov 1850; p. 192.

• “The Student.” Daily American Telegraph [Washington, District of Columbia] 9 June 1851; p. 2.

• “A Condensed Prospectus of The Student.” Pensacola Gazette [Pensacola, Florida] 5 July 1851; p. 1.

• notice. Ohio Cultivator 7 (15 Aug 1851); p. 251.

• advertisement. The National Era. 23 Oct 1851; p. 171, col 7.

• notice. The Massachusetts Teacher 5 (Jan 1852); p. 31.

• “The Student and Flower-Basket United.” The Student 4 (April 1852); p. 185.

• advertisement. American Phrenological Journal 16 (Dec 1852); p. 139.

• advertisement. Evening Star [Washington, District of Columbia] 14 Jan 1853; p. 3.

• advertisement. The National Era 7 (27 Jan 1853); p. 15.

• notice. Monthly Literary Miscellany, Feb 1853; p. 64. online

• “Column for Children.” The Spirit of Democracy [Woodsfield, Ohio] 13 April 1853; p. 4.

• The Student. Vermont Watchman and State Journal [Montpelier, Vermont] 14 April 1853; p. 2.

• “A Liberal Offer.” The Burlington Free Press [Burlington, Vermont] 6 April 1854; p. 2.

• “Literary and Personal.” The Saturday Express [Lancaster, Pennsylvania] 6 May 1854; p. 2.

• “New Publications.” New England Farmer [Boston, Massachusetts] 6 May 1854; p. 2.

• advertisement. The National Era [Washington, District of Columbia] 11 Jan 1855; p. 3.

• advertisement. American Phrenological Journal 21 (Feb 1855); p. 44.

• “The Student.” Argus and Patriot [Montpelier, Vermont] 1 Feb 1855; p. 2.

• notice of March issue. Carroll Free Press [Carrollton, Ohio] 29 March 1855; p. 3.

• notice of April issue. Carroll Free Press [Carrollton, Ohio] 3 May 1855; p. 3.

• advertisement. Carroll Free Press [Carrollton, Ohio] 24 May 1855; p. 2.

• advertisement. The Plough, the Loom and the Anvil 7 (June 1855); p. 932.

• notice. The New York Times [New York, New York] 11 June 1855; p. 3.

• “New Publications.” New York Observer and Chronicle 33 (14 June 1855); p. 190.

• “Editor’s Book Table.” The Independent 7 (5 July 1855); p. 216.

• notice of June issue. Carroll Free Press [Carrollton, Ohio] 12 July 1855; p. 3.

• notice. Carroll Free Press [Carrollton, Ohio] 18 Oct 1855; p. 3.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 224-228.

The Bubble ; 1849?

published: New York, New York

source of information: Kelly

bibliography: Children’s Periodicals of the United States, ed. R. Gordon Kelly. Westport, Connecticut & London, England: Greenwood Press, 1984.

The Scholars’ Leaf of the Tree of Knowledge ; 6 Jan 1849-16 Dec 1850

cover/masthead: 1849 | 1850

edited by: M. B. Walker; Joseph Osgood Barrett

published: Portland, Maine: Walker & Barrett

frequency: Jan 1849: weekly; Saturday • Feb 1849-16 Dec 1850: semimonthly

description: Jan 1849: 8 pp.; page size, 10″ h; price, 50¢/ year

• Feb-Dec 1849: 16 pp.

• 1850: “common octavo”

• 48 issues total [Maine]

• Circulation: 1850, 2,500

relevant quotes:

• The Leaf came with instructions for use: “Let each number, when received, be stitched, cut open, and preserved for binding at the close of the year, when they can have a neat volume of four hundred and sixteen pages ….” [1 (6 Jan 1849: 7.]

• The 1849 masthead was described and explained to young readers in sentences almost as long as the paper itself: “Scholars, do you see that picture upon our first page, representing a tree, at the base of which is written Liberty, and other words upon its beautiful branches, ranging one above another, till they reach the top, where a light is breaking down from the skies, as if it were the smile of Heaven? If you please, look at that teacher pointing upward in the midst of a little group of scholars, one of whom is pressing forward towards another who stands with one hand upon the trunk of the tree, and the other extended, as if he were beckoning to his school-mates, as he exclaims, perhaps, ‘I’ll try!’ But what is that little girl doing at her desk, gazind upward and waiting to catch an inspiring thought, and pen it down upon the manuscript before her, upon which, perhaps, she has written the words, ‘For The Scholars’ Leaf,’ the very name which you see inscribed upon this paper, like a rainbow, bending over the [t]ree of Knowledge? What does all this mean? But here is something more, a beautiful motto: ‘And the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations.’ ” [“Introductory Chat with Our Young Readers and Correspondents.” 1 (6 Jan 1849); p. 7.]

• The intention was to have part of the paper written by its readers: “[H]ere is another idea that will please you much. … It is this: you ask your teacher to let you have a little, weekly paper in school, called by any name that pleases you, such as the Snowball or Rainbow, for which you will write the very best you can; and let him take care of it and read it in school, at the close of every week. And then ask him to select some of the articles, and send to our office, and if they will do, we will publish as many of them as we can, and send them, in The Scholars’ Leaf, over all the State, so that other scholars can see what you have written. This will please them, and they will try and write. Thus there will be a great many papers for scholars, who will all try to write something worthy of being published in The Scholars’s Leaf.” [“Introductory Chat with Our Young Readers and Correspondents.” 1 (6 Jan 1849); p. 8.]

• The Kennebec County Teachers’ Association recommended the Leaf “to the patronage of scholars” during a meeting which also saw resolutions that teachers shouldn’t use tobacco, and that “the teacher who occasionally or habitually makes use of intoxicating drinks, or uses profane language, is a disgrace to the profession, and ought not to be employed by those who would promote the welfare of the rising generation.” [“Teachers’s Association”]

• The Leaf was unsuccessful for the usual reason: “[N]o paper of the size can be afforded for less than one dollar per annum. In the original estimate regulating its price, our inexperience in the publishing business led us into one fatal error, namely, non-allowance for non-paying subscribers. Owing to this miscalculation, the result of our efforts to promote the cause of universal education is, that we have not been able to make the paper what we intended; and, after having gratuitously bestowed two years’ hard labor upon it, and suffered a loss of several hundred dollars into the bargain, we are now obliged to discontinue the publication rather than attempt to raise its price to what it should have been originally.” [“Parting Words to Our Patrons” 2 (16 Dec 1850); p. 353]

• One historian was candid: “It excited much interest among scholars, and contained very many discussions written by scholars and teachers. But pecuniarily it was a failure. It is doubtful if any paper in the State [of Maine] ever had a larger corps of regular but voluntary correspondents.” [Maine]

continued by: Portland Transcript (for adults)

source of information: AASHistPer; NUC; Harvard University, Widener Library catalog; Yale University Library catalog; notices, etc., below

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• “Third Report of the Board of Education.” Bangor Daily Whig and Courier [Bangor, Maine] 26 July 1849; p. 2.

• “Teachers’ Association.” Maine Farmer 18 (9 May 1850); p. 2.

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; catalog of newspapers, p. 15. [archive.org]

History of the Press of Maine, ed. Joseph Griffin. Brunswick: 1872; p. 294. [archive.org]

The Schoolfellow ; Jan 1849-Dec 1852, Feb 1853-Sept 1857

cover/masthead: 1856

edited by: Jan 1849-1852, William C. Richards

• 1853-1855, William C. Richards and Alice B. Haven

• Daniel Jacques.

published: Athens, Georgia & Charleston, South Carolina: William C. Richards, 1849.

• Charleston, South Carolina: Richards and Walker, 1850-1852. 1852, publishers also listed as “Walker and Richards” and “Walker, Richards &. Co.”; publisher at 101 East-Bay, Oct 1852

• New York, New York: C. M. Saxton, Feb-April 1853. Charleston, South Carolina: B. F. De Bow, 1853. Chillicothe, Ohio: Whittemore & Saxton, Feb-April 1853.

• New York, New York: Evans & Brittain, May 1853-1854?. Cincinnati, Ohio: Ward & Taylor, May 1853-1854?

• New York, New York: Evans & Dickerson, 1854.

• New York, New York: James S. Dickerson, 1855.

• New York, New York: Dix & Edwards, Jan-May 1856; publisher at 10 Park Place, Jan 1856; at 321 Broadway, Feb-May 1856.

• New York, New York: Dix, Edwards & Co., June 1856-Jan 1857; publisher at 321 Broadway.

• New York, New York: Miller & Curtis, Aug 1857.

• London, England: Sampson, Low, Son & Co., Jan 1856-Jan 1857.

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 1854, 36 pp.; Jan 1856, 42 pp.; Feb 1856-Aug 1857, 36 pp.

• Prices: 1848, $1/ year. 1856-1857, 10¢/ each; $1/ year

• Page sizes: 1854, 7.25″ h x 5″ w; 1856-1857, 7.75″ h x 5″ w

• Circulation: 1850, 2000 (from Livingston); 1852, 2000 (from Kennedy); Nov 1853, 4000 (from magazine)

• No issue for Jan 1853

• Referred to as “The School Fellow” in several periodicals.

• Dechert notes that, after the Schoolfellow merged with Robert Merry’s Museum in Oct 1857, “the numbers of Merry’s Museum from October to December 1857 were enclosed in a Schoolfellow cover as well as in the Museum cover, to enable the volume for that year to be bound uniformly.” [p. 133] My copy of the Nov 1857 issue has the front cover of Schoolfellow glued over the cover of the Museum at the spine; readers opening their “Schoolfellow” were presented with the cover of Merry’s Museum, reinforcing the merger. The Schoolfellow cover for that issue also features its new publisher’s address. Oct-Dec 1857 issues of the Museum often are found bound with the Jan-Sept 1857 issues of the Schoolfellow; the Sept 1857 issue of the Schoolfellow ends with page 324; the Oct 1857 issue of the Museum begins with page 97.

relevant information: Hoole points out that volume 1 appears to have been published in Athens, Georgia; volumes 2-4, in Charleston, South Carolina, and volumes 5-9 in New York, New York: “Richards moved to Charleston in December, 1849, bringing with him both The Schoolfellow and Richards’ Weekly Gazette. The title-page of volume I indicates, however, that The Schoolfellow was printed simultaneously in Athens and Charleston.” [Hoole]

relevant quotes:

• Introductory: “As the kind schoolfellow is not less ready to help his associates to learn a hard lesson than he is to join them in any proper amusement, so he will be, at once, your teacher and your playmate—not less ready to inform you of curious facts in History, Philosophy, and other Sciences, than to share with you in those innocent pastimes which constitute the charm of boyhood and of girlhood.” [1 (Jan 1849); in Flanders, p. 106]

• The editor of the Charleston Courier became positively regionalistic when the Schoolfellow moved to Charleston: “There is none other of its kind in the whole country, and the South should be proud of it. … It will be a shame to the South if their enterprise is inadequately rewarded, which, however, certainly cannot be.” [25 Jan 1850] The Weekly Commercial [Wilmington, North Carolina] became a little caustic: “This is a southern work, but for all that, the best and cheapest Juvenile Magazine in the United States. We might suppose that a work’s being southern would be rather an objection to southern men, if we might judge from the immense number of periodicals taken from the north, and the slender patronage generally bestowed on those of the South.” [“The Schoolfellow.”]

• About the move to New York, 1853: “So far as the character of the magazine is concerned, the removal will make no change in it. … It will never so long as we control it, be a whit less Southern than it has always been. Necessity, not inclination, has induced us to change the scene of our labours; the spirit of them will remain the same.” [(Dec 1852); p. 380; in Lyon, p. 205]

• When the 1856 issues of the Schoolfellow were reprinted as a gift album, Putnam’s Magazine expressed its apprecation of the magazine, pointint out that “It does not treat its audience like a school-marm or a buffoon.” [p. 94]

• About the merger with the Museum: “With this number of the Schoolfellow, children and friends, with whom we have so long been pleasantly talking, the Magazine passes into other hands. … As the little schoolfellow grows older, and becomes large enough to look with delight at all the wonders in Merry’s Museum, and study with interest the gems of Woodworth’s Cabinet, you will find that he grows also more entertaining. … He is still your old friend in a new dress: and with his face more smiling than ever. You must not cease to smile back again, and take him always kindly by the hand, you will cheer him, and he you: and as long as there are children and Schoolfellows, and Museums, and Cabinets, so long we shall think of you together, telling stories, looking at pictures, and good lessons, and all growing wiser and better as all grow older—And so good bye.” [“Union of the Schoolfellow with the Museum and Cabinet.” Robert Merry’s Museum 34 (Nov 1857): inside Schoolfellow cover]

• John N. Stearns welcomed readers of the Schoolfellow to their new magazine: “To the Schoolfellows, thus kindly commended to our regards, we give a most cordial welcome. We hope the arrangement—the very best that could be made under the circumstances—will be satisfactory to all, and that the Schoolfellows will find themselves perfectly at home and happy with their cousins of the Museum and Cabinet. … We trust that this addition to it will be another confirmation of the adage, so often proved in our past experience,—‘the more the merrier.’ ” [“Union of the Schoolfellow with the Museum and Cabinet.” Robert Merry’s Museum 34 (Nov 1857): inside Schoolfellow cover]

absorbed by: Robert Merry’s Museum ; Feb 1841-Nov 1872

source of information: 1854-1857, some bound volumes & scattered issues; Nov 1857 Museum ; Dechert; Lyon; Flanders; Livingston

available: AASHistPer, series 3 & 4

• Pieces from issues for 1851 were reprinted in The Forget-Me-Not, for All Seasons, a gift book edited by Ida Maitland (New York: Cornish, Lamport & Co., 1851).

bibliography:

• “The School Fellow.” Southern Literary Gazette 1 (4 Nov 1848); p. 207.

• “Specimen Engraving from ‘The Schoolfellow,’ for April.” Richards’ Weekly Gazette 1 (12 May 1849); p. 2.

• “The Schoolfellow.” Richards’ Weekly Gazette 1 (12 May 1849); p. 3.

• “The Schoolfellow.” Richards’ Weekly Gazette 2 (30 June 1849); p. 3.

• “The Schoolfellow, a Magazine for Boys and Girls.” Charleston Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 48 (25 Jan 1850); p. 2.

• advertisement. The Tri-Weekly Commercial [Wilmington, North Carolina] 29 Jan 1850; p. 3.

• “The Schoolfellow.” Weekly Commercial [Wilmington, North Carolina] 26 April 1850; p. 2.

• “Southern Literature.” The Charleston Daily Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 2 May 1850; p. 3. Also, The Madisonian [Canton, Mississippi] 30 May 1850; p. 4.

• advertisement. The North-Carolina Star [Raleigh, North Carolina] 23 Oct 1850; p. 4.

• “The School-Fellow.” Charleston Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 49 (17 Jan 1851); p. 2.

• advertisement. The North-Carolina Star [Raleigh, North Carolina] 23 Jan 1851; p. 3.

• notice of Feb issue. Charleston Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 49 (12 Feb 1851); p. 2.

• From the publisher, C. M. Saxton. Buffalo Morning Express and Illustrated Buffalo Express [Buffalo, New York] 15 Feb 1853; p. 3.

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; catalog of newspapers, p. 47. [archive.org]

• J. C. G. Kennedy. Catalogue of the Newspapers and Periodicals Published in the United States. New York, New York: John Livingston, 1852.

• notice of the move to New York. Charleston Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 50 (21 Dec 1852); p. 2.

• notice of the move to New York. The Southern Literary Messenger 19 (Jan 1853); p. 59.

• “New Books.” The Plough, the Loom and the Anvil 6 (Feb 1853); p. 114.

• advertisement. The Cultivator 1 (March 1853); p. 98.

• The School Fellow. The Burlington Weekly Sentinel [Burlington, Vermont] 16 June 1853; p. 2.

• “Messrs. Evans and Brittans Publications.” The Literary World 13 (8 Oct 1853); p. 169.

• Franklin B. Hough. “Newspapers and Other Periodicals Published in New-York in 1855,” in Census of the State of New-York, for 1855. Albany, New York: Charles Van Benthuysen, 1857; pp. 490-491.

• The same publishers announce. The St. Johnsbury Caledonian [St. Johnsbury, Vermont] 10 Nov 1855; p. 1.

• “A Beautiful Magazine for Children.” The Times-Picayune [New Orleans, Louisiana] 5 Dec 1855; p. 4.

• notice of 1856 volume. Putnam’s Monthly Magazine 9 (Jan 1857); pp. 94-95.

• notice of sale to Dix & Edwards. Charleston Courier 53 (7 Jan 1856); p. 1.

• “The Schoolfellow, for January.” The Burlington Weekly Sentinel [Burlington, Vermont] 8 Jan 1857; p. 2.

• review. New York Evangelist 28 (8 Jan 1857); p. 16.

• “The Schoolfellow.” The National Era [Washington, District of Columbia] 11 June 1857; p. 3.

• notice. Maine Farmer 25 (27 Aug 1857); p. 2.

• Gertrude C. Gilmer. Checklist of Southern Periodicals to 1861. Boston, Massachusetts: F. W. Faxon Company, 1934; p. 51.

• William Stanley Hoole. A Check-list and Finding-list of Charleston Periodicals, 1732-1864. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1936; pp. 56-57.

• Dorothy B. Dechert. “The Merry Family: A Study of Merry’s Museum, 1841-1872, and of the Various Periodicals that Merged with It.” Master’s thesis. Columbia University, 1942.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 142, 150, 152, 153, 155, 157, 158, 166, 203-208, 376.

• Bertram Holland Flanders. Early Georgia Magazines: Literary Periodicals to 1865. N.p.: The University of Georgia Press, 1944.

The Satchel ; Feb-May 1849

edited by: Aaron F. Cox

published: Cincinnati, Ohio: Aaron F. Cox

frequency: monthly

description: Page size, 6.7″ h

relevant information: Cox is listed as a “printer” in the 1850 U. S. census for Cincinnati, Ohio; he is a “publisher” in the 1860 U. S. census for St. Louis, Missouri, where Cox was publishing a periodical for adults.

relevant quote: Lyon quotes what may have been an advertisement inserted into the 6 Jan 1849 issue of The Boys’ and Girls’ Penny Journal: “The above publication it will be perceived is by the former editor and publisher of the Penny Journal. Mr. C’s long experience, and personal ability, enables him to produce a magazine peculiarly suited for little folks, and his success in this enterprise clearly demonstrates the fact that the boys and girls of the ‘Great West’ readily appreciate all worthy efforts made for their benefit.” [in Lyon; p. 192]

source of information: OCLC; sources listed below

bibliography:

• 1850 United States census. Ward 8, Cincinnati, Hamilton County, Ohio; dwelling #1467, family #2005.

• 1860 United States cenus. Ward 5, St. Louis, St. Louis County, Missouri; p. 63, dwelling #439, family #439.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 192.

Sunday School Gazette ; 4 Aug 1849-15 Dec 1871 • The Dayspring ; Jan 1872-after Dec 1879

cover/masthead: 1849 | 1858-1860

edited by: 1846-1861, W. H. Cudworth

• 1861-1866, Joseph H. Allen 1866-1867, T. J. Mumford

• 1867-1868, James P. Walker

• 1872, John Kneeland

• 1878-1879, George F. Piper

published: Worcester, Massachusetts: A. Hutchinson & Co., 1849-1855.

• Boston, Massachusetts: A. Hutchinson & Co., 1856-

• Boston, Massachusetts: Sunday-School Society, 1858-1863; publisher at 21 Bromfield St. Worcester, Massachusetts: Sunday-School Society, 1858-1860; printed by Henry J. Howland, 245 Main St.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Joseph H. Allen, 1864-1866.

• Boston, Massachusetts: William V. Spencer, 1866.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Sunday School Society, 1867-1870.

• Boston, Massachusetts: Unitarian Sunday School Society, 1870-1879. Publisher at 42 Chauncy St., 1872; at 7 Tremont St., 1875-1879. Printer, 1872-1879, John Wilson & Son, Cambridge, Massachusetts

frequency: biweekly, after 4 Aug 1849-1 Jan 1862; 1 vol/ year: “The second number will be issued as soon as the subscriptions warrant it. After that number, The Gazette will be published once a fortnight, twenty-five numbers making the annual volume.” [1 (4 Aug 1849); p. 4.]

• semimonthly, 15 Jan 1862-15 Dec 1863, 15 Feb 1866-15 Dec 1871; 1 vol/ year

• monthly, Jan 1864-Feb 1866, 1872-1879; 1 vol/ year

description: • 1858-1860: 4 pp.; page size, 15″ h x 10″ w; price, 25¢/ copy

• 1872-1879, 16 pp.; page size untrimmed, 8″ h x 6″ w. Prices: 1 copy, 30¢/ year; 4 copies, $1/ year

• Vol 1-vol 22 (4 Aug 1849-15 Dec 1871); new series, vol 1-8 (Jan 1872-Dec 1879)

• Religious focus

relevant quotes:

• The intended reading level of the Gazette seems to have been … complicated. In a detailed discussion for adults of why the paper was founded, the editor explained that “[i]t was thought that it would easily furnish for the youngest children, those simple lessons, which it is not very easy to find for them, which, however, their teachers always require by way of varying their more formal lessons in the catechism.” [“To Fathers, Mothers, and Guardians.” 1 (4 Aug 1849); p. 1.] The “youngest children,” however, apparently were ones who could read and understand the article intended for adults: “Those of you old enough to read the article addressed to your fathers, mothers, and teachers, will see that this newspaper is meant wholly for you.” [“To Children.” 1 (Aug 1852); p. 2.] And one seven-year-old apparently could read the whole thing: “Judging by the interest it excited in a little boy of seven years old, under our own eye, who has re-read it several times, we are inclined to think it will obtain the suffrages of children.” [review. Christian Inquirer]

source of information: AASHistPer, series 4; 1858-1860, 1872-1879, scattered issues; AAS catalog; Rowell

available: AASHistPer, series 4 & 5

bibliography:

• advertisement. Christian Register 28 (21 July 1849); p. 115.

• “Sunday School Gazette.” Christian Register 28 (11 Aug 1849); p. 127.

• review. Christian Inquirer 3 (25 Aug 1849); p. 2.

• M. “The Sunday-School Gazette.” Christian Inquirer 9 (17 Feb 1855); p. 2.

• “The Best and Cheapest Children’s Papers Published.” The Advocate [Buffalo, New York] 10 Feb 1859; p. 3.

• Every Sunday School should supply. The Charleston Daily Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 22 Aug 1860; p. 3.

• Daniel J. Kenny, comp. The American Newspaper Directory. New York: Watson & Co., 1861; p. 33. [google books]

Geo. P. Rowell & Co.’s American Newspaper Directory. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1872; p. 74. [archive.org]

The Friend of Youth ; Nov 1849-Oct 1852

cover/masthead: 1849-1850

edited by: Margaret L. Bailey

published: Washington, District of Columbia: printed by Buell & Blanchard

frequency: monthly: 1st day of the month; 1 vol/ year

description: 1849-1850: 8 pp.; page size untrimmed, 13.5″ h x 9.25″ w. Prices, 1 copy, 50¢/ year; 5 copies, $2/ year

• Circulation, Dec 1849, “nearly 2,000”; Feb 1850, “about four thousand”; May 1850, 4,000-5,000

relevant information:

• In 1846, Margaret Bailey edited Youth’s Monthly Visitor in Cincinnati, Ohio, as more than one notice points out.

• The Friend was essentially an anti-slavery paper, containing a handful of articles about the slave trade. The Friend was mentioned often in issues of The National Era, an abolitionist paper also published in Washington, D. C., by Gamaliel Bailey, Margaret’s husband. Both papers published works by E. D. E. N. Southworth and Mary Irving, among other writers. Copies of the first issue of the Friend were sent to subscribers to the Era.

• The editor planned to make the Friend a source of news for its young readers: “Our object will be to make the paper an attractive companion for Youth. While we please, we shall also aim to form their tastes.—In addition to agreeable Stories, Lessons on Natural History, Descriptions of Natural Scenery, Sketches of Travel, and Notices of New Books for children, we shall converse with them, in language adapted to their comprehension, about the important events of the present era. We know this is not usually done in such publications, but we think we do not mistake the taste or capacity of young people, when we suppose them to feel some interest in the world they live in, beyond the nursery, the schoolroom, and the play-ground. It shall also be our care to interest them on all great subjects connected with the well-being of mankind. Freedom, Peace, and Temperance, shall receive our earnest advocacy. Teaching our readers to sympathize with the oppressed, and weep with the suffering, we hope to awaken in them a generous abhorrence of all wrong, and an earnest love and reverence for all that is just and pure ….” [“Prospectus of The Friend of Youth”]

• The Friend was intended for a fairly wide audience: “We hope to succeed in adapting our paper to all ages of youth; so that while the elder brothers and sisters have a full share of our attention, the little ones shall not be forgotten. They are our special favorites, and shall be cared for accordingly.” [“Prospectus of The Friend of Youth”]

• Bailey hoped also to reach an earlier audience: the readers of Youth’s Monthly Visitor: “As this Prospectus may reach many of the former friends and patrons of the ‘Youth’s Monthly Visiter,’ … we cannot forbear expressing the great pleasure it will give us to renew our former intercourse with them. The little children who then received the ‘Visiter’ as a welcome guest, are now almost grown up men and women.—But they will perhaps find some little brother or sister or cousin to whom they may introduce us as an old friend.” [“Prospectus of The Friend of Youth”]

• The first issue was intended to be published Nov 1, but “[o]wing to the failure of the paper ordered for the Friend of Youth, and to other causes which it is needless to mention,” it was instead published Nov 6, on paper of a different grade. [“The Friend of Youth.” The National Era: 1 Nov 1849; 8 Nov 1849]

• The first issue of the Friend was reprinted: “We have exhausted one edition of our first number, and shall print a second as soon as possible. Meantime, the subscribers now coming in will receive the second and third numbers, and as soon as the new edition of the first number is ready, they shall have that also. We are anxious as far as possible to have all our subscribers date from the commencement of the paper.” [“Our Paper.” 1 (Jan 1850); p. 20]

The National Era sent specimen copies of the first issue of the Friend to its subscribers: “Those who do not wish to subscribe will please return the number sent them, as it will be needed to supply subscribers.” [“ ‘The Friend of Youth.’ ” The National Era 15 Nov 1849] They got 50 back. [“The Friend of Youth.” The National Era 22 Nov 1849]

• The second issue of the Friend had difficulty reaching some subscribers: “From Cincinnati and Philadelphia we have had letters stating that few, if any, copies of the second number of the Friend of Youth had been received at those places. Now, we know that that number was regularly forwarded to the subscribers in those cities. We shall believe, until better advised, that the failure to receive them is chargeable upon something wrong in those offices. We are out of patience with these miserable annoyances. We hope the subscribers will call again and again at the offices, and insist that their papers be looked for. Other publishers, we notice, are suffering similar annoyances.” [“Mails”]

• Printing the prospectus and notices of a periodical usually meant that a newspaper received free issues, to show to prospective subscribers and to peruse for reprintable pieces. The key word is usually, as the Daily Free Democrat discovered: “We did our best to get this monthly …. We published the prospectus, at starting, three months, noticed it editorially, did what we could to recommend it to our readers, wrote twice to get an exchange and at last, at the commencement of the second volume, we received all the back numbers of the first volume but one, in a heap, and that was the last we saw of it. Another year has passed, and we now receive two numbers—the last of the 2d, and the first of the 3d volume. We are rejoiced to know that is [sic] prospering, for it is a nonpareil of its kind, and wish we were worthy to receive it, but as we are not, we hope it will fall into better hands.” [15 Dec 1851]

• The Friend’s merger with Little Pilgrim apparently didn’t begin as a merger, but as Sarah Clarke Lippincott taking over editing the Friend: “The editor of the Friend of Youth, pressed by domestic cares, finds it necessary to transfer her paper to other hands. With the third volume, which closed on the first of this month, her connection with it terminated, and she transferred it to Grace Greenwood. As Miss Clarke is absent, however, the further publication of the paper will be deferred till her return, next spring.” [National Era 14 Oct 1852]

merged with: The Little Pilgrim ; Oct 1853-April 1869: “The editor of the Friend of Youth, pressed by domestic cares, finds it necessary to transfer her paper to other hands. With the third volume, which closed on the first of this month [October 1852], her connection with it terminated, and she transferred it to Grace Greenwood. As Miss Clarke is absent, however, the further publication of the paper will be deferred till her return, next spring.” Sarah J. Clarke (later, Sarah J. Lippincott) used “Grace Greenwood” as her pseudonym; she wrote exclusively for The National Era from around 1850 to 1851. [“The Friend of Youth.” The National Era 14 Oct 1852]

• However, subscribers apparently had to wait several months more to receive their magazine, as the Friend wasn’t continued. Instead, the Pilgrim was founded, and subscribers to the Friend were sent the Pilgrim: “We have received from Dr. Bailey a list of the names of those subscribers to whom The Friend of Youth was indebted when its publication was discontinued, with pay for the same; and we shall furnish The Little Pilgrim to all of them to the full extent of their respective payments. To some only a part of a volume was due; the names of such will be stricken off our list as soon as they shall have received the number of copies due them from Mrs. Bailey, unless their subscriptions are renewed.” [“The Friend of Youth.” The Little Pilgrim. 1 (March 1854); p. 21]

• One editor was disingenuously confused: “[The Little Pilgrim] is said to be a continuation of the Friend of Youth, lately published in Washington by Mrs. Bailey; but we can’t quite see how that is, when it has another name, another place of publication, and another editor.” [“ ‘The Little Pilgrim’ ”]

source of information: 1850 scattered issues; National Era ; AASHistPer, series 3; Pilgrim ; Lyon; AAS catalog; OCLC

available: Extracts were published in The National Era: 23 Jan 1851; p. 16. • 20 March 1851; p. 48. • 15 May 1851; p. 80. • 19 June 1851; p. 100. • 3 July 1851; p. 108. • 17 July 1851; p. 116. • 4 Sept 1851; p. 144.

• The Daily American Telegraph [Washington, District of Columbia] reprinted “Geology” [13 May 1852; p. 4].

• AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• “Prospectus of The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 3 (20 Sept 1849); p. 150.

• “The Friend of Youth.” State Indiana Sentinel [Indianapolis, Indiana] 4 Oct 1849; p. 2.

• Mrs. Margaret L. Bailey. Lewisburg Chronicle [Lewisburg, Pennsylvania] 17 Oct 1848; p. 4.

• The Friend of Youth. The Evening Post [New York, New York] 20 Oct 1848; p. 2.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 25 Oct 1849; p. 170, col 1.

• It gives us great pleasure. The Examiner [Louisville, Kentucky] 27 Oct 1849; p. 2.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The Anti-Slavery Bugle [Lisbon, Ohio] 27 Oct 1849; p. 2.

• notice. Water-Cure Journal 8 (Nov 1849); p. 160.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 1 Nov 1849; p. 174, col 1.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 8 Nov 1849; p. 178, col 1.

• “ ‘The Friend of Youth’.” The National Era. 15 Nov 1849; p. 182, col 2.

• “Prospectus of The Friend of Youth.” The Anti-Slavery Bugle [Lisbon, Ohio] 17 Nov 1849; p. 3. Also, 24 Nov 1849; p. 3.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 22 Nov 1849; p. 190, col 1.

• notice. The Literary Union 2 (24 Nov 1849); p. 122.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The New Orleans Crescent [New Orleans, Louisiana] 24 Nov 1849; p. 2.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The Anti-Slavery Bugle [Lisbon, Ohio] 24 Nov 1849; p. 3.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 13 Dec 1849; p. 198, col 1.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 27 Dec 1849; p. 206, col 1.

• “Mails.” National Era 4 (3 Jan 1850); p. 2.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 14 Feb 1850; p. 26, col 3.

• “The Friend of Youth.—No. 7.” The National Era. 2 May 1850; p. 70, col 2.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 3 Oct 1850; p. 158, col 6.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 17 Oct 1850; p. 166, col 1.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The Evening Post [New York, New York] 24 Oct 1850; p. 2.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 7 Nov 1850; p. 178, col 1.

• “The Friend of Youth—Vol 2., 1851.” Oshkosh Democrat [Oshkosh, Wisconsin] 8 Nov 1850; p. 3.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 14 Nov 1850; p. 182, col 1.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 28 Nov 1850; p. 190, col 2.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 5 Dec 1850; p. 194, col 1.

• “The Friend of Youth”—Vol. II. The National Era. 12 Dec 1850; p. 198, col 1.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 9 Jan 1851; p. 6, col 2.

• advertisement for Light’s Literary Agency. Green Mountain Eagle, and Even Fellow’s Gazette [Wilmington, Vermont] 9 Jan 1851; p. 3.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 23 Jan 1851.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 20 March 1851; p. 46, col 1.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 17 April 1851; p. 62, col 6.

• notice of Aug issue. The National Era. 14 Aug 1851; p. 130, col 2.

• “Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 18 Sept 1851; p. 150, col 4.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 23 Oct 1851; p. 171, col 6.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 20 Nov 1851; p. 186, col 1.

• “The Friend of Youth.” Daily Free Democrat [Milwaukee, Wisconsin] 15 Dec 1851; p. 2.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 18 Dec 1851; p. 203, col 1.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 15 Jan 1852; p. 10, col 1.

• “The Friend of Youth.” The National Era. 14 Oct 1852; p. 166, col 1.

• The October number. Daily Free Democrat [Milwaukee, Wisconsin] 27 Oct 1852; p. 2.

• “ ‘The Little Pilgrim.’ ” National Era 7 (3 Nov 1853); p. 174.

• “L.” [Leander Lippincott] “The Friend of Youth.” The Little Pilgrim, 1 (March 1854); p. 21.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 220.

Youth’s Casket ; early 1850-1852?

edited by: Ross Alley

published: Middlefork, Ripley County, Indiana: Ross Alley. “Middlefork” here used was not a town, but an area near the middle fork of the Indian Kentuck Creek

frequency: weekly

description: 4 pp.; page size, 8″ h x 6″ w

relevant information:

• The first issue was published when Alley was about 16.

• The Casket’s press was built from a cider press, by Alley and the man he was working for: “Brother Ross, and John B. Carrington metamorphosed an old cider-press, into a Printing Machine. I was working between corn rows, on the old grandfather Jolly farm, when Ross published his first paper.” [James Alley (Ross’s brother); in King-Benham; p. 26]

continued by: The Genius of Youth (1 June 1852-mid/late 1852)

• Alley pointed out that this was a bargain: “All who subscribed to the Casket, will receive the ‘Genius’ until their subscriptions would have expired. Thus they will get the ‘Genius’ for 10 cts. per annum.” [“To Subscribers of the Casket.” The Genius of Youth 1 (1 June 1852); p. 7]

source of information: King-Benham

bibliography:

• Emma King-Benham. Memorial Volume to the Boy, Pioneer-Poet-Printer Ross Alley. Terre Haute, Indiana: N.p., 1929. Printed by the Viquesney Company; pp. 26-27, 35, 46.

Youth’s Gem ; 1850

published: Milledgeville, Georgia: J. D. Reagan

frequency: weekly

description: price, $1/ year

• Probably a religious focus, since J. D. Reagan was a minister

relevant information: The Gem, described by Flanders [p. 92] as being edited by “J. C. Reagan.”

relevant quotes:

• Notices provide general descriptions: The Times-Picayune says, “Its aim is to disseminate useful knowledge.” The Southern Methodist Pulpit explains, “The object of the editor is to furnish pure and solid food to the minds of the young, and in his praiseworthy efforts we wish him all encouragement and success.”

continued by: Youth’s Gem and Southern Cadet ; Jan 1851-?

source of information: notices, etc., below

bibliography:

• “New Publications.” The Times-Picayune [New Orleans, Louisiana] 23 July 1850; p. 2.

• notice. The Southern Methodist Pulpit vol 3 #3 (1850); p. 181. [archive.org]

• Bertram Holland Flanders. Early Georgia Magazines: Literary Periodicals to 1865. N.p.: The University of Georgia Press, 1944; p. 92.

Union Sunday School Visitor ; 1850-1853?

edited by: Rev. Loyal A. Alford

published: Hillsdale, Michigan: Loyal A. Alford

frequency: semi-monthly

description: 50¢/ year

• Religious focus: nonsectarian

relevant information: Listed as published monthly by the Baptist Memorial.

• Also referred to as the Sunday School Union Visitor in at least one notice.

relevant quote:

• From the Youth’s Casket: “The Sunday-School Visitor is an excellent paper for youth, published semi-monthly at Hillsdale, Michigan, and is designed to aid in fixing on the minds of the young, right impressions of the Gospel of our Saviour—a good design truly, and one, in the prosecution of which, we wish its editor, Rev. L. A. Alford, all success. It is not sectarian, and is only 50 cents a year. We heartily commend it to the patronage of the young. See advertisement on our cover.” (Unfortunately, I have not seen the cover referred to.)

source of information: Youth’s Casket ; Baptist Memorial ; Family Favorite ; Biographical

bibliography:

• “Union Sunday School Visitor.” The Baptist Memorial, and Monthly Record 9 (1850); p. 30. [google books]

• “Papers.” Family Favorite and Temperance Journal 1 (June 1850); p. 143.

Biographical and Genealogical History of Cass, Miami, Howard and Tipton Counties, Indiana. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Co., 1898. vol 2, pp. 1011-1012. [google books]

• notice. The Youth’s Casket 2 (March 1853); p. 76.

• “Sunday School Union Visitor.” Daily Free Democrat [Milwaukee, Wisconsin] 17 Sept 1853; p. 5.

The Youth’s Friend ; 8 Feb 1850-?

edited by: Miss W. C. Tyson

published: Augusta, Georgia: Miss W. C. Tyson.

frequency: monthly

description: 8 pp.; quarto; page size, 12″ h

source of information: Flanders; NUC; OCLC

bibliography:

• notice. Augusta Chronicle (9 Feb 1850)

• Bertram Holland Flanders. Early Georgia Magazines. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1944; p. 92.

The Juvenile Weekly Gazette ; 9 Feb 1850-13 Dec 1851

edited by: L. T. Hoyt • E. Barnewall

published: New York, New York: Robert Coddington; publisher at 36 Bowery.

frequency: weekly; 1 vol/ year

description: Page size, 11.75″ h • Price, $1/ year

relevant quotes:

• Hoyt and Barnewall apparently were two teenagers recovering from injury: “This little paper is edited by two most intelligent lads, both prevented (we understand,) by accidents, from mingling in the out-of-door sports of those of their own age, but in full possession of their mental faculties, and thus occupying their compulsory and thoughtful seclusion.” [Home Journal]

• The Gazette offered a variety of content: “L. T. Hoyt and E. Barnewell “ contrive to fill it weekly with original or translated tales, fugitive poems, anecdotes, riddles, essays, and notices of works of art, and the current amusements of the day. We should think that intelligent young persons, who do not care to read the tiresome politics, and prosy speculations of the larger papers, which come home of a morning, would find in this spirited little sheet, much to interest and improve their minds, and to please their fancies.” [“The Juvenile Weekly Gazette” The Evening Post]

• Older editors were admiring: “The four or five numbers we have seen are full of vivacity and talent,” said the editor of the Home Journal; the editor of the Spectator declared that the editors “make of [the Gazette] quite a readable and interesting paper, with more food for thought in it than some more pretentious sheets.”

source of information: notices; Lyon; NUC

available: The Spectator reprinted a piece from the Gazette (“The New Costume”).

bibliography:

• notice. Home Journal 14 (30 March 1850); p. 2.

• “The Juvenile Weekly Gazette.” The Evening Post [New York, New York] 10 Dec 1850; p. 2.

• “The Juvenile Weekly Gazette.” Spectator [New York, New York] 26 June 1851; p. 2.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 143.

The Mentor ; May 1850-Dec 1851?

edited by: Horatio Hastings Weld

published: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Staveley & McCalla, 1850; publisher at 12 Pear St.

frequency: monthly; 2 vol/ year

description: 32 pp.; octavo. Godey’s (1850) says that it was 64 pages.

• Price: 10¢/ issue; $1/ year.

• 1850: agents in Baltimore, Maryland; Charleston, South Carolina; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Wilmington, Delaware; Frederick, Maryland. Later, agents in New York, New York; Brooklyn, New York.

• Circulation: 1850, 1,500

relevant information: A list of contents of the first issue was printed in the Episcopal Recorder [28 (25 May 1850); p. 36] Contents for the second issue also appeared in the Recorder [28 (3 Aug 1850); p. 75]

relevant quote: One editor enjoyed the Mentor, but had some qualms: “There is an excellent moral tone to it, a quality which is especially important and necessary, in a work of this kind. One or two statements, however, in the present number [July 1851], in the Biographical Department, we would not approve. In all other respects, we like the number.” [Calendar]

absorbed by: Youth’s CabinetWoodworth’s Youth’s Cabinet ; 28 April 1837-March 1857

source of information: Episcopal Recorder and other notices, etc., below ; Livingston; Dechert; OCLC

bibliography:

• advertisement. Episcopal Recorder 28 (27 April 1850); p. 19.

• advertisement. Episcopal Recorder 28 (25 May 1850); p. 35, 36.

• notice. The Church Review 3 (July 1850); p. 320.

• notice. Christian Advocate and Journal 25 (13 June 1850); p. 94.

• advertisement. Episcopal Recorder 28 (13 July 1850); p. 64.

• advertisement. Episcopal Recorder 28 (3 Aug 1850); p. 75.

• advertisement. Episcopal Recorder 28 (31 Aug 1850); p. 91.

• notice. Godey’s Lady’s Book 41 (Oct 1850); p. 250.

• advertisement. Episcopal Recorder 28 (5 Oct 1850); p. 112.

• “The Mentor.” Sunday School Advocate 10 (Nov 1850); p. 27.

• notice. Independent [New York, New York] 21 Nov 1850; p. 192.

• notice. The Independent 2 (12 Dec 1850); p. 203.

• notice of Dec 1850 issue. Godey’s Lady’s Book 42 (Feb 1851); p. 135.

• notice. Sartain’s Union Magazine of Literature and Art 8 (2 Feb 1851); p. 142.

• notice of July issue. Calendar [Hartford, Connecticut] 1 (19 July 1851); p. 265.

• notice of June issue. Sartain’s Union Magazine of Literature and Art 9 (Aug 1851): 7.

• notice of July issue. Godey’s Lady’s Book 4 (3 Sept 1851); p. 188.

• “The Mentor.” Granville School Clarion 1 (Dec 1851); p. 61.

New York Weekly Tribune. 11 (13 Dec 1851); p. 8.

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; catalog of newspapers, p. 45. [archive.org]

• Dorothy Dechert. “The Merry Family: A Study of Merry’s Museum, 1841-1872, and of the Various Periodicals that Merged with It.” Master’s thesis. Columbia University, 1942.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; pp. 143, 158.

Youth’s Monthly Magazine ; July 1850-June 1851?

cover/masthead: 1850

edited by: John G. Adams

published: Boston, Massachusetts: James M. Usher, Sabbath School Depository; publisher at 37 Cornhill, 1850.

frequency: monthly

description: 48 pp.; page size untrimmed, 7.25″ h x 4.75″ w. Price: $1/ year; 5 copies, 75¢/ year; 10 copies, 60¢/ year; 20 copies, 50¢/ year

• Circulation: 1850, 20,000

• Religious focus: Universalist

relevant quotes:

• On the founding: “[T]he ‘Gospel Guide’ was started and published three years …. When three years had passed, it was thought desirable to have a change, and the Sabbath School Association requested that the ‘Youth’s Monthly Magazine’ be started, and this was done. Two numbers have now been published. It has not yet, of course, any established character,—but can be made just what its friends wish to have it.” [Usher]

• Prospectus: “It is the design of the conductor and publisher of the Periodical to furnish as large and as good an amount of reading, suited to the moral and religious instruction of youth, as can be found in any other Juvenile Publication now offered to the public; and to present it also in an attractive form. The character of the Magazine, though intended to answer in some respects the wants of a particular denomination, will be such as may entitle it to the favorable attention of all lovers of Christian Truth. This Prospectus is made to accompany a Specimen Number of the Magazine. It is desirable that the opinions of the friends of youth be expressed to the publisher as to the form in which the work is issued[.]” [“Prospectus.” 1 (July 1850): back cover (cover page 4)]

• The publisher preferred to consider the Monthly as another in a series of experiments: “We have been experimenting in reference to a paper for youth for some few years; and we believe an improvement has been made in this presentation. It is to be hoped that the ‘Magazine’ will answer in a good measure the call for a juvenile periodical. If it does not, we shall try again, and keep trying till we accomplish the object. Our motto is,—‘Never give up.’ ” [“Youth’s Monthly Magazine.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 20 July 1850]

• It was apparently on-target as a religious periodical: “The matter is varied and substantial as well as entertaining. It is matter, too, of the purest and most salutary kind. It has the right Christian instruction in it, doctrinal and practical.” [“Youth’s Monthly Magazine.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 11 Jan 1851]

relevant information: The contents of the issue for Jan 1851 was printed in the Trumpet and Universalist Magazine. [“Youth’s Monthly Magazine.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 11 Jan 1851]

continues: The Child’s Gospel Guide (1847-1849)

source of information: July 1850 issue; Usher; AAS catalog; OCLC; Rowell

available: AASHistPer, series 3

bibliography:

• “Youth’s Monthly Magazine.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 23 (20 July 1850); p. 22.

• J. M. Usher. “Sabbath School Paper.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 23 (24 Aug 1850); p. 43.

• Hosea Ballou. “Youth’s Monthly Magazine.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 23 (31 Aug 1850); p. 47.

• “Youth’s Monthly Magazine.” Trumpet and Universalist Magazine 23 (11 Jan 1851); p. 122.

• John Livingston. Livingston’s Law Register, for 1852. New York: U. S. Law Magazine, 1852; p. 20. [archive.org]

• Richard Eddy. Universalism in America. Boston, Massachusetts: Universalist Publishing House, 1886; vol 2, p. 597. [google books]

Fireside Miscellany and Young People’s Encyclopedia ; Sept 1850-July 1851

cover/masthead: cover

edited by: Darius Mead; Hannah Flagg Gould

published: New York, New York: S. G. Mead, 1850-1851; publisher at 122 Nassau St., Nov-Dec 1850; publisher at 123 Fulton St., June 1851; publisher at 151 Nassau St., Feb 1854

frequency: monthly; 1 vol/ year

description: 32 pp.; page size untrimmed, 9.5″ h x 6″ w; price, $1/ year in advance

• Reprinted in 1854 with same cover & description as 1850 & 1851

relevant quotes:

• Description: “The Fireside Miscellany is designed to be, as its name imports, a Family and Fireside Companion. It has originated in a strong persuasion of the value of enlightened and virtuous HOME influence, and in a desire to put into the hands of the various members of the family group a description of reading which shall be at once entertaining, instructive, and elevating. We hope, through this medium, to diffuse a large amount of useful knowledge to both parents and children, in connexion with the inculcation of virtuous principles; and we shall aim to make the work so far attractive in dress, manner, and matter, that it shall be a welcome guest and an agreeable and instructive visiter to those who honor it with their patronage.” [1 (Dec 1850): back cover (cover page 4)]

• Reprinted in 1854, with the same description as in 1850: “The Fireside Miscellany will be issued monthly, the first volume commencing with January, 1854. The work will contain 32 pages of original matter and choice selections, making at the end of the year a volume of 384 pages.” [1 (Feb 1854): back cover (cover page 4)]

relevant information: What appears to be a book by this title was published in 1849 (New York: M. W. Dodd).

source of information: Nov-Dec 1850, June 1851, Feb 1854 issues; AAS; OCLC

available: AASHistPer, series 3

The Flower Basket • Flower Basket; or Youth’s Magazine • The Flower Basket; or Youth’s Monthly Monitor ; Oct 1850?-March 1852

edited by: J. J. Buchanan

published: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: J. J. Buchanan

frequency: monthly; 2 vol/ year: April & Oct

description:

• 1851: 16 pp.; prices: 1 vol, 25¢; 2 vol, 50¢; 10 vol, $2.30; 20 vol, $4; 30 vol, $5.66; 40 vol, $7.25. This was later simplified to 1 copy, 25¢/ 6 months; 5 copies, $1.50/ 6 months; 10 copies, $2

• Oct 1851-March 1852: 32 pp.; prices: 1 copy, 75¢/ year, 37¼¢/ 6 months, $1/ 18 months; 10 copies, $7/ year, $3.50/ 6 months; 20 copies, $12.50/ year, $6.25/ 6 months; 40 copies, $10/ 6 months

relevant information:

• The illustrations in the April 1851 issue included “a cut of the Fourth Ward School Edifice, Pittsburgh; a picture of the Battle of Bunker Hill; and a likeness of Jenny Lind.” [notice. 24 March 1851]

relevant quotes:

• Buchanan promised a wide variety: “THIS PERIODICAL for Youth has met with encouraging success. Wherever it has been presented, the reading youth have received it as a pleasant visitor. It is the intention to make it, not only a CHEERFUL STORY-TELLER, but also a vehicle of USEFUL INFORMATION and TIMELY HINTS; short Moral and Instructive STORIES; sketches of CIVIL and NATURAL HISTORY; POETRY, EPISTLES and ESSAYS. Each number will contain sixteen large octavo pages, and from two to three finely-executed Wood Engravings. And, unless ordered differently, will be firmly stitched, and covered with an engraved cover.” [advertisement. 14 June 1851]

• An advertisement for volume three gives a clear description: “THE FLOWER BASKET is published monthly; contains sixteen large octavo pages, (double columns;) is printed with clear type on superior book paper, and is handsomely covered. Each number is highly embellished with choice Wood Cuts. The matter is chiefly original.” [The People’s Press]

• The format changed in Oct 1851: “The Flower Basket, a magazine for youth, published by Rev. J. J. Buchanan, Pittsburg, appears in a new dress, and looks very well.” [“Notices”]

• Buchanan addressed a notice to his readers, dated 19 Feb 1852: “Owing to a want of proper encouragement, and a decline of health, I am compelled to suspend the publication of The Flower-Basket; and that those who have not received their full proportion of numbers may be supplied with a work as good, if not superior, I have made arrangements with the gentlemanly proprietors of ‘The Student’ to supply the numbers still due you.” [“The Student and Flower-Basket United”]

absorbed by: The Student ; Nov 1848-Oct 1855

source of information: Student ; Lyon; notices, etc., below

bibliography:

• notice. Pittsburgh Daily Post [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania] 24 March 1851; p. 2.

• advertisement. Pittsburgh Daily Post [Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania] 14 June 1851; p. 2.

• “The Flower Basket; or Youth’s Monthly Monitor.” The People’s Press [Winston-Salem, North Carolina] 25 Oct 1851; p. 4.

• “Notices.” Carlisle Weekly Herald [Carlisle, Pennsylvania] 12 Nov 1851; p. 2.

• “The Flower Basket.” Jacksonville Republican [Jacksonville, Alabama] 27 Jan 1852; p. 3.

• “The Flower Basket: Or Youth’s Monthly Monitor.” American Union [Morgantown, West Virginia] 31 Jan 1852; p. 3.

• “The Student and Flower-Basket United.” The Student 4 (April 1852); p. 185.

• Betty Longenecker Lyon. “A History of Children’s Secular Magazines Published in the United States from 1789-1899.” PhD diss. Johns Hopkins, 1942; p. 225.

Sunday School Visitor ; Nov 1850-Dec 1854, May 1855-March 1862, 1866-1898 • The Children’s Visitor ; 1899-1909 • The Visitor 1909-1921

edited by: Thomas O. Summers, Nov 1850-Dec 1854, 1866

• Lorenzo D. Huston, May 1855-25 Feb 1862 (at least once listed as “H. D. Huston”)

• 1867, Thomas O. Summers

• perhaps Robert J. Harp, 1868-1869

• Atticus Greene Haygood, 1870-1873

• W. G. E. Cunnyngham, 1875-1880

published: Charleston, South Carolina, 1850-1854

• Nashville, Tennessee: Stevenson & Owen, for the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, Nov 1850-1851, May 1855-after 1921.

• Nashville, Tennessee: J. B. McFerrin, 1860.

• perhaps New Orleans, Louisiana, 1868-1869

frequency: 1850-June 1851, semi-monthly

• July 1851-March 1862, 1866-1869, monthly

• 1870, weekly, with monthly & semi-monthly editions

description:

• Jan-June 1851: 8 pp.; page size, 13″ h x 9½″ w

• July-Dec 1851: 16 pp.; page size, 13″ h x 9½″ w

• 1852-1862: page size, 15″ h x 11½″ w

• 1855: price, 25¢/ year

• 1867-1870: 8 pp.; page size, 27″ h x 20″ w; price, 50¢/ year

• The Feb 1852 issue was available before the end of Jan 1852. [“New Publications”]

• Vol. 2, #9 is 1 Jan 1857

• Due to the move to Tennessee, the first issue for 1855 was May. [Deems 1855, 214]

• Circulation: Dec 1854, 20,000 [Deems 1855, 191]. 1859, 16,080. Nov 1860, 40,000. early 1867, 22,000. Sept 1867, 25,000. 1871, 50,000/ month. 1872, weekly issue, 15,000/ month; monthly issue, 12,000. 1873, 65,000/ month

• Religious focus: Methodist Episcopal

relevant information and quotes:

• Vol 1, issues 1-4 apparently published simultaneously in Charleston, South Carolina, and Nashville, Tennessee. [Hoole; p. 60]

• Intended to replace the Sunday School Advocate, published in the North.

• Circulation appears to have been a problem from the beginning, with Summers pointing out the Visitor’s low circulation at several twice-yearly regional conferences.

• The Visitor, in fact, lost money: in 1853, a notice of the Southern Christian Advocate—the publication for adults—noted that the Advocate had been instrumental in “[paying] off a deficiency of $700 incurred during the previous year, partly on account of the Sunday School Visitor.” [“The Southern Christian Advocate”] In 1858, it was reported that the Visitor “is in debt $3,145.72.” [From the report of the Book Agents]

• Changes in the Visitor were a response to its position as a money-loser: “This sweet little messenger of truth and grace, sent monthly to the children of the Church, I am sorry to state, does not get patronage enough from those to whom it carries tidings of life, peace, and joy, to pay its way through the world. In other words, it is an actual expense to the Publishing House. And what do you suppose has been done in this case? Did the Joint Board order its discontinuance? No, indeed. This must be done—never. What then? Why, very wisely and properly, they resolved that the Sunday-School Visitor should be doubled in size, and improved in other respects, and at the same time be furnished at the old price. Here, Mr. Editor, is a theme for you—the claims of the Sunday-School Visitor, as enlarged, and otherwise rendered more attractive and worthy of the patronage of the Sunday-School children and their teachers; and I hope you will urge its claims till they are heartily and fully honored all over the land. ‘Feed my lambs,’ said the Chief Shepherd; and here truly is food convenient for them. Shall they starve, and we be guiltless?” [Deems 1856, 168]

• Huston was elected editor of the Visitor on 30 May 1854. [“Proceedings.” Augusta Chronicle 1854]

• Due to the move to Tennessee, there were no issues for Jan-April 1855; the first issue was 3 May 1855 [Deems 1855, 214]: the “machinery, presses, type, etc. … arrived at Nashville on the 25th of February; but, owing to a variety of hindering causes, the steam-engine was not brought to bear on the presses until the 31st of March following.” [Deems 1855, 209]

• An illustrated description of the Southern Methodist Publishing House in Nashville was printed in the Aug and Sept 1855 issues of the Visitor; the pieces were reprinted in Deems (1855; pp. 201-203).

• The Visitor was central in the promotion of Methodism, according to one snarling critic taking issue with—among other things—the desire of the Methodists to have their own sunday schools: “In consummating their design, that denomination introduces into their schools sectarian books and tracts, and recently have commenced the publication of the Sabbath-School [sic] Visitor, which is introduced into all their schools, abounding with essays and pictures teaching infant baptism and church membership, sprinkling, pouring, ‘falling from grace,’ salvation by half work and half grace, together with all the lax religious principles of Methodism.” [in Graves; pp. 492-493]

• The Visitor, itself, sometimes took a hit: “The last Sunday School Visitor has a picture of a company dancing to the music of a brass band. Such a picture is quite out of place in that excellent publication, seeing that dancing is prohibited by the Discipline. Perhaps it was a second hand plate, purchased by Dr. Huston without examination.” [“Out of Place”]

• Unsurprisingly, the Visitor was suspended during the Civil War, after Nashville was occupied by Union troops in 1862; a visitor in Sept 1865 found that “[o]ur publishing house was in military possession. The presses were being run for printing army orders, etc., of which there are volumes, as you may know. the bindery, under Mr. Locken, works in the same line. The front sales-room and the room used for packing and stitching, are now devoted to a Government harness shop. Two rooms only, one in the second story, and the other in the third story, just above it, are allowed us. An improvised and narrow stairway leads up to these ‘reserves.’ Over the door hangs this humble sign—‘Methodist Publishing House, Up Stairs.’ There, R. Abbey, with a youth as clerk, holds forth—selling what stock is on hand and attending to correspondence, etc. … Well, you will ask, what is the prospect of our getting possession of the Publishing House, and starting the Christian Advocate, and the Quarterly, the Sunday School Visitor, the Home Circle, and making books, and all that? I can’t speak positively or promisingly. The property is all there; presses, types, stereotypes, houses, etc. I think there is no probability, not the least, of its confiscation. But we must wait on military law and military necessity. May be next month we shall be put in possession; may be next year. Our friends are not idle; and Gen. Fisk, the Commissioner of the Freedmen’s Bureau, which has a large power in the premises, seems to me a very sensible and large minded man, and is disposed to do in the shortest way what is just. Let us be ready, when the good time comes, of making and of reading books.” [McTyeire]

• The Visitor was self-sustaining by 1867: “[I]t appears that the net profits of [the publishing house] during the last fiscal year are about sixteen thousand dollars, and the papers published there, the Nashville Advocate and Sunday School Visitor, are both self-sustaining.” [“Kentucky M. E. Church.”]

• May be the Sunday School Visitor mentioned in Louisiana in 1868 and 1869: “The Sunday School Visitor.—This is a very neat and interesting semi-monthly Sunday school paper, very handsomely illustrated and published in this city by Rev. Robert J. Harp, on Camp, above Poydras. We hope that this New Orleans periodical for the little ones, which is very interesting, as we can testify from examination, may be well sustained.” [“The Sunday School Visitor.” The Daily Picayune 2 June 1868] Harp is listed as a Methodist minister in 1865 in McTyeire. The “Editor of the Sunday School Visitor” is listed among those having uncalled-for mail in the New Orleans post office on 18 Sept 1869. [The Daily Picayune 19 Sept 1869] No issues of a Louisiana Sunday School Visitor have been located.

continues: The Child’s Casket (also, Children’s Casket) (March-Sept? 1863)

continued by: Haversack (1922-1936; for boys), Torchbearer (1922-1936; for girls), and Our Young People (for older students)

source of information: notices, etc., below; OCLC; Batsel; Stroupe; Hoole

available: AASHistPer, series 5 (1876 only)

bibliography:

• notice. Charleston Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 48 (28 Nov 1850); p. 2.

• “Conference Procedings.” The Sun [Baltimore, Maryland] 29 (3 Nov 1851); p. 4.

• “North Carolina Conference.” The Message [Greensboro, North Carolina] 6 Dec 1851; p. 2.

• “New Publications.” Charleston Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 50 (31 Jan 1852); p. 2.

• “The Southern Christian Advocate.” Augusta Chronicle [Augusta, Georgia] 29 Nov 1853; p. 2.

• “Proceedings of the General Conference of the M. E. Church, South.” Augusta Chronicle [Augusta, Georgia] 4 June 1854; p. 2.

• “Official Proceedings of the General Conference of the M. E. Church, South.” Charleston Courier [Charleston, South Carholina] 52 (5 June 1854); p. 4.

• “South-Carolina Conference.” Charleston Courier 52 (21 Nov 1854); p. 1.

• Thomas O. Summers, rev. Ephraim Holdings’s Homely Hints. Nashville: R. Stevenson & P. A. Owen, 1855; last item in “Publications of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South”. [google books]

• J. R. Graves. The Great Iron Wheel: Republicanism Backwards and Christianity Reversed Nashville: Graves and Marks, 1855; pp. 492-493. [google books]

• notice of Heart Blossoms for my Little Daughters. Charleston Courier 52 (15 Aug 1855); p. 2.

• “The Home Circle.” The Message [Greensboro, North Carolina] 11 Oct 1855; p. 2.

• Charles F. Deems, ed. Annals of Southern Methodism for 1855. New York: J. A. Gray’s Fire-Proof Printing Office, 1856; pp. 45, 191, 201-203, 209, 212, 214. [google books]

• “Items, Literary, Scientific, and Religious.” The Ladies’ Repository 16 (March 1856); p. 186.

• “Sunday School Visitor.” Raleigh Christian Advocate [Raleigh, North Carolina] 20 June 1856; p. 2.

• “Sunday School Visitor.” Raleigh Christian Advocate [Raleigh, North Carolina] 8 Aug 1856; p. 2.

• Charles F. Deems, ed. Annals of Southern Methodism for 1856. Nashville: Stevenson & Owen, 1857; pp. 19, 168. [google books]

• “Publications of the M. E. Church, South.” Methodist Pamphlets for the People, ed. Thomas O. Summers. Nashville: E. Stevenson & F. A. Owen, 1857. [google books]

• “Sunday School Visitor.” Raleigh Christian Advocate [Raleigh, North Carolina] 6 Feb 1857; p. 2.

• From the report of the Book Agents. Northeastern Christian Advocate [Brandon, Vermont] 11 June 1858; p. 2.

• “Report of the Proceedings of the South Carolina Conference.” Charleston Courier [Charleston, South Carolina] 58 (6 Dec 1858); p. 1.

• “Out of Place.” Raleigh Christian Advocate [Raleigh, North Carolina] 19 May 1859; p. 2.

• “Methodist Sunday School Society.” Edgefield Advertiser [Edgefield, South Carolina] 31 Aug 1859; p. 2.

• “Editor’s Table.” Raleigh Christian Advocate [Raleigh, North Carolina] 10 Nov 1859; p. 2.

• “Methodist Sabbath Schools.” The Greensboro Times [Greensboro, North Carolina] 3 Nov 1860; p. 2.

• H. N. McTyeire. “Southern Methodist Church.” Houston Tri-Weekly Telegraph 31 (8 Sept 1865); p. 5.

• “Kentucky M. E. Church.” The Cincinnati Daily Gazette [Cincinnati, Ohio] 23 Sept 1867; p. 4.

• “Kentucky Conference.” The Courier-Journal [Louisville, Kentucky] 23 Sept 1867; p. 1.

• advertisement. Southern Star [Newton, Alabama] 25 Sept 1867; p. 3.

• “The South Carolina Conference.” The Daily Phoenix [Columbia, South Carolina] 18 Dec 1867; p. 2.

• “The Sunday School Visitor.” The Daily Picayune [New Orleans, Louisiana] 2 June 1868; p. 7.

The Daily Picayune [New Orleans, Louisiana] 19 Sept 1869; p. 3.

The Men Who Advertise. New York: Geo. P. Rowell & Co., 1870; p. 745. [google books]

• “Quadrennial Address of the Bishops of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.” Georgia Weekly Telegraph [Macon, Georgia] 64 (17 May 1870); p. 1.

• “Memphis Conference.” Georgia Weekly Telegraph 64 (31 May 1870); p. 2.

• notice of July issue. Raleigh Christian Advocate [Raleigh, North Carolina] 13 July 1870; p. 2.

• “August No. of Visitor Exhausted.” Raleigh Christian Advocate [Raleigh, North carolina] 17 Aug 1870; p. 3.

• “Methodist Conference M. E. Church.” Richmond Whig [Richmond, Virginia] 49 (15 Nov 1870); p. 2.

• “Baltimore Conference M. E. Church, South.” Richmond Dispatch [Richmond, Virginia] 11 March 1871; p. 3.

• “Periodical Publications.” Republican Banner [Nashville, Tennessee] 26 March 1871; p. 4.

• “The Publishing House.” The Tennessean [Nashville, Tennessee] 18 Feb 1872; p. 4.

• “Methodist Publishing House.” Republican Banner [Nashville, Tennessee] 2 March 1873; p. 3.

• “Periodicals.” The Milan Exchange [Milan, Tennessee] 9 Dec 1875; p. 2.

• “Sunday School Periodicals.” Raleigh Christian Advocate [Raleigh, North Carolina] 14 July 1880; p. 5.

• “Thomas Osmond Summers.” In Matthew Simpson. Cyclopaedia of Methodism, 5th rev. ed. Philadelphia: Louis H. Everts, 1883; pp. 838-839. [google books]

• Horace M. Du Bose. A History of Methodism. Nashville, Tennessee: Publishing House of the M. E. Church, South, 1916; pp. 156-158. [google books]

• Gertrude C. Gilmer. Checklist of Southern Periodicals to 1861. Boston, Massachusetts: F. W. Faxon Company, 1934; p. 58.

• William Stanley Hoole. A Check-list and Finding-list of Charleston Periodicals, 1732-1864. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1936; p. 60-61.

• Henry Smith Stroupe. The Religious Press in the South Atlantic States, 1802-1865. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1956; p. 125.

• Harold W. Mann. Atticus Greene Haygood. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1965 (2010); pp. 76-78.

• “The Writer’s Directory of Periodicals.” The Writer 33 (Oct 1921): inside front cover (cover page 2). [google books]

• Daniel W. Stowell. Rebuilding Zion: The Religious Reconstruction of the South, 1863-1877. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998; p. 119.

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