The Literary Gazette

Some nineteenth-century American teenagers produced magazines to be read by family and friends; “Oliver Onley”—one of the subscribers to Robert Merry’s Museum—and his siblings included puzzles in their own “Home Casket,” and the March sisters in Little Women had their own home magazine. Lucy Larcom and her friends wrote twelve issues of “The Diving Bell” before they became involved in the mill-girls’ magazines: it was “a little fortnightly paper, … filled with our original contributions …. We kept our secrets of authorship very close from everybody except the editor, who had to decipher the handwriting and copy the pieces.” (A New England Girlhood, p. 170) The pupils of “District No. 15” included jokes, essays, and sentimental poetry in The Ladies Wreath.

“The Literary Gazette” is a handwritten collection of essays, jokes, editorials, and poems. The sewn booklet of lined paper measures 9.75 x 7.5 inches (25 x 19 cm). (The background image was scanned from a blank section of the booklet.) I’ve tried to transcribe as carefully as possible, preserving spelling and punctuation as well as my fingers would let me, although I’ve left out phrases crossed out in the original. Paragraphing and spacing of words is eccentric: not all paragraphs were indented in the original, as I’ve tried to indicate. (I only hope I’ve paragraphed the pieces correctly.) The original has no page numbers; I’ve added page numbers in brackets for convenience.

[Note for “Balmorals”: Balmorals apparently were white woolen petticoats sometimes shown off by an artfully draped skirt.]

[front cover]

The Literary Gazette.

Tuesday Eve Feb 19th 1861.

Editors Miss Emaline Wicks
J. V. H. Scoville

Vol 1st No IV.

[Remainder of page lost]

[inside front cover]

Ladies and Gentleman:

In presenting to you the present number of the Literary Gazette, it is not done without many misgivings as to its contents, but whatever may be its deficiencies, it is the best offering we have to present.

Experiencing as we do that it is much easier to point out errors afterwards, than to remedy existing defects at the time; we hope and trust that you will judge us with lenity and forbearance.

But if you should derive aught of benefit from the content of its pages, and if they shall prove instructing as well as interesting and amusing; your Editors will feel exceedingly gratified and will consider that their labors have been amply rewarded.

[Remainder of page lost]

[p. 1]

The signs of the Times.

We live at an important period in the history of the world. Great events are on the eve of, or are, already transpiring, not only in our own but in foreign lands.

If the thick vail which envelops the future could only for a few moments be withdrawn, and we could be permitted to feast our eyes upon the lovely sight; what untold benefits would be the result; how much blood and slaughter might be avoided; how much trouble and anguish prevented, if we were only able to shape our course of action in strict conformity to events, which must inevitably follow. But no such infallible guide is permitted to erring man, he is compelled to carve out his own destiny.

And it is this imperceptible power which moves Garibaldi, to undertake the liberation of his countryman; and which nerves him and his devoted followers, to endure with patience and resignation, so many deprivations and hardships; that the sacred tree of liberty may be planted, and that its roots may sink deep down into the earth, and its branches spread over Italy’s classic

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soil. This youthful Washington is now laying seige to the important stronghold of Yalta, and if the Eagle of success shall perch upon his standard, one more laurel will be added to his brow, and another gigantic stride taken toward the accomplishment of Italien unity. The successful defence of this fortress is the only hope of Francis the II, for if defeated, there the last of the once powerful and influential Princes of the Bourbon family is dethroned and its dynasty extinguished. The Holy Father is troubled also; being unable to determine whether to remove to Avignon or to cast himself on the protection of the Austrian Emperor. No longer able to exact the faithful and universal collection of Peter’s Pence, he is obliged to rely on the generosity of his devoted followers, and most nobly have they responded to the call even in this country. Prussia mourns the loss of King, and the Prince Regent on acceeding to the Throne, summoned his Generals in council before him, and urged the utmost vigilence in placing Prussia on a war footing; intimating that the events of the coming season, might render it necessary

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in the protection of her princes on the Rhine, to drive back the advancing columns, of the Emperor Nepolons Army. The French Government is making active preparations to place her army on a war footing; but what untold horrors loom up in the future, for if her Emperor attemps to cross the Rhine with the intention of annexing those fertile provinces; all Europe must be embroiled in the contest in which no power can possibly remain neutral.

The war with China is closed, and it is claimed that a beneficial treaty has been negotiated, but I am sorry to say that an important article, which the Chinese Emperor was compelled to grant, legalizes the exportion of Coolies.

In our own beloved country distracted councils prevail.

The fourth of February, will long be remembered as a memorable day, for on southern soil were organized two conventions; one of peace to preserve the Union, and the other to concert measures for the formation of a southern confederacy, which adjourned not until a President and Vice President were chosen, and a constitution adopted.

[p. 4]

What may be the result of the former, time alone can tell, but every true American citizen cannot but hope for a successful termination, involving no concessions of principle, no compromises but what are right. But alas one is almost compelled to beleive otherwise. Much depends upon the course pursued by foreign nations. American vessels now sail to southern ports with British clearances, and under the protection of the British flag.

But we must look forward in trust and hope. Mr Lincoln is now on his way to assume the reigns of government, and it becomes the duty of every American citizen; to sustain him, in the faithful execution of the laws. The difficulties which surround him are greater than any Executive ever before experienced, yet no alternitive remains but to do his duty, and then look to the American people for succor and support. Should the government inaugurated at Montgonery be promptly recognized by the leading European Powers, and should the remaining border states secede, our domestic dif-

[p. 5]

ficulties would be exceeding complicated; yet the times at present look more auspicious, indulging the hope that those States which have seceded may retrace their road, and again become loyal members of this great brotherhood of States.



Education is derived from a Latin word, which signifies to draw out, to unfold, to expand. To educate the mind therefore is to bring forth to Knowledge and use; its hidden treasures of truth, to disclose and develop its wondrous powers, to cultivate and direct its emotions and tastes, to enlarge and strengthen the whole mind. The object of education consequently is twofold: Viz. 1st, to make a man “know himself”, know what powers he has and what he has not, what traits are defective and what redundant, and what intentions are folded up in the higher departments of the spirit; what inate ideas are laid away in the deep cav-

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erns and recesses of the soul: and 2dly to secure the improvement and growth of the mind, supply what is deficient, clip what is excessive, correct what is perverted, refine what is course and solidify and expand all its powers and capacities. That is true education which tends to make a man know himself, just as he is, no more than he is, no less than he is, and no different from what he is; and to cultivate every part and faculty of the mind in due proportion to the intellectual; the aesthetic and the emotional, the animal nature, the ordinary powers, and the spiritual or religious.

A false education leavs a man with mistaken views of himself, and his powers and character, and of his sphere and duties in life, and misdirects the current of his thoughts, feelings and purposes, and gives strength and expansion to those traits, which when in excess, are evil and dangerous in their character. A false education makes the conceited man, the proud and arrogant man, the despiser of

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honest industry, the wild and desperate spirit, the dishonest, profane and libidinous character. A defective education cultivates one part of the mind or class of powers, and neglects another part or class of powers; as the intellectual, at the expense of the emotional; the useful at the expense of the ornamental; the worldy, at the expense of the religious and devotional; or vice versa, in all these cases. To cite instances among the eminent and learned: Johnathon Edwards was all intellectual without much of the warmph of affection; he stood in his pulpit as cold and hard as a marble statute and heard unmoved his people shreik under the fire and brimstone of his preaching. Locke neglected the culture of the imagination, and the aesthetic traits generaly, making him a logician with not enough of rhectorician, to oil his reasoning machinery and prevent its creaking.

Dr Neander was a profound philopher and theologian, but he so neglected his common sense, that he could not find his way from his house to the Lemmery, although he traveled it every day

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for years. Dr Darwin and Humbolt, and many others are like him,—kept his mind in such an unrelaxing stretch, in the direction of curious and scientific research, that this devotional and spiritual nature, withered and nearly died out, leaving him a skeptic in regard to the highest truth and truest living. As to the means by which the mind is educated they are threefold. First—Influence. Every thing around us and with which we come in contact, produces an educational effect upon the mind. They give their own hue thereto, they enstamp their own image thereon. The mind is like wax,—receiving the exact impress of whatever touches it. It is a Daguerotype plate—taking an accurate copy of every impression made upon the feelings; every object seen by the eye; every word and sound heard by the ear; every thought conveyed to the soul. Other things being equal, we can always determine the surrounding of an individual; whether they have been course or refined, worldly or religious—by his character.

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The importance therefore of being environed with good surroundings cannot be overestimated.

Secondly—Study. By this we mean of course, the application of the mind to the acquistition of knowledge—storing the memory with conscious principles. The sources from which we draw knowledge, the volumes open before us, are, Books, Speeches, the works of Art and the works of nature. Man and his works; God and his works. The great caution needed is that we store the memory with valuable facts, and treasure up in the mind wholesome principles and truths. Third—Reflection. This is taking the impressions given by objects around us, and the knowledge acquired by study, and in applying them to the mind, that it shall be improved and strengthened thereby. These impressions, and this knowledge, are the aliment and food of the soul. Reflection is the digestion of this food, and the means of incorporating it

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into the mind, so as to make it a part of its substance.

The facts in the memory, the store house of the mind,—are like grain lying unused in the granery; they are of little value only when kneaded into, and assimulated with the mind by reflection.

Reflection therefore is the most important auxiliary to have in human education. The correction of what is evil, the improvement in what is good, the culture of the taste, the strengthening of the faculties, the enlargement of the whole mind;—is indebted no more to this than to any of the other means of mental advancement.

In proportion as we practice Reflection, shall we become great, strong and vigorous in mind.

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A portion of the History of Job.

There is many a strange thing told us in history,—

But the queerest of all and the most of a mistery;

And awakes in my mind the most curious mood,

Is the life of Old Job,—so patient and good.

He lived “once on a time”—none seemed to know where,

Or how many years—no one seemed to care;

Had Parents of course,—but their names we dont know—,

Or how passed his childhood—there’s nothing to show.

First we know he is married:—with daughters and sons,

And enormous possessions—the good story runs,

That three thousand Camels and seven thousand sheep

Were a part of his substance, with servants to keep.

Also one thousand oxen and seven more

She asses:—the strangest thing mentioned before;

A very great household, so greatly increased,

They called him the wealthiest man of the East.

He was perfect—upright, and evil eschewed;

And from reading the story you’d surely conclude;

That his home was a happy and sacred retreat,

Where his daughters and sons oft delighted to meet.

[p. 12]

The exact kind of feast, each son held with his brother,

Whether Passover, Pentecost,—new moon or other;

The story says not—though my second reflection,

Is, that they were civil, promoting affection.

And Job, who the days of their feasting were ended,

Lest they in their hearts God might have offended,

Rose early and sacrificed duty for all,

And prayed that no ill, on his loved ones might fall.

Now a day there soon came, as my story relates,

For my mind it a world of conjecture creates;

When Gods sons presented themselves to the Lord,

And worshiped togather in cheerful accord.

And that Satan came also, is nowhere denied

And when asked from whence,—he promptly replied,

I compass the Earth and I march to and fro,

And wherever I wish, there streightway I go.

Then the Lord said to Satan, in all the vast round,

A being so perfect as Job hast thou found?

He escheweth all evil and feareth his Maker,

And in no sinful practice is ever partaker.

Satan quickly replied:—Dothe he fear for naught?

Behold and consider—what has thou not wrought.

[p. 13]

Thou hast hedged him about—both house and his lands,

And blessed, greatly blessed, all the work of his hands.

But put forth thine hand now, and touch what he hath,

He’ll speedily curse thee, and curse Thee in wrath,

For Job is a hypocrite,—serves for the loaves,

Like the most of mankind,—as history proves.

Behold saith the Lord, all he hath’s in thy hands,

His children and servants; his flocks and his lands,

But touch not his person,—and now for a space,

I permit thee to test my servants Jobs grace.

So Satan went forth from the face of the Lord,

Maliciously boasting that with his accord,

On Job he’d a series of evils inflict,

More dreadful than language has power to depict.

Poor Job! thy dark future, is sadness and pain,

Thy goodly possessions, thou canst not retain;

Call forth all thy virtues and gird thee with speed,

For rapidly cometh the hour of thy need.

Cometh too,—in the day of thy feasting and joy,

When pleasure and happiness without alloy,

Seems filling thy cups to o’er flowing with bliss,—

Alas! that Earths joys are as transient as this

[p. 14]

Now in rapid succession, his ills came to pass;

“The Labeans have stole every ox every ass,—

Thy servants have slain with the edge of the sword,

I alone am escaped—to bring the sad word”.

While yet he was speaking another there came,

Saying:—the fire of God hath fallen in flame,

And burned up thy sheep and thy oxen and all,

Twas a scene the most obdurate heart to appal.

Ere the second had finished,—a third came to say,

The Chaldeans have driven thy Camels away,

Every one of thy servants have slain except me,

Who strangely enough have escaped unto thee.

The fourth and by far the most sad message yet,

Was:—thy children were all at thy eldest sons met,

A wind smote the house, and it suddenly fell,—

They are dead! I alone have escape thee to tell.

Then Job in the depth of hs anguish or grief,

Shaved his head;—rent his mantle, and sought his relief,

In a low humble attitude worshipping God,

And kissing the hand that inflicted the rod.

In all this he sinned not nor uttered a word,

Of complaint or reproach to his Maker and Lord,

But blessed him for giving, and taking away,

And a thought of past good,—seemed his grief to allay.

[p. 15]

We have been erroneously called a free nation,—while Kingdoms and Empires in the Old World have been subject to tyranny and oppression;—have not we too been held in bondage? One fourth of each year, are we ruled by an iron hearted monarch;—who delights alike, in the service of the rich and the poor. We know him, and fear him none the less. As he approaches; the wealthy hasten to prepare them selves, and their dwellings for his reign. Vast expenditures are made,—for they now think not of hoarding their gains, but how best to make themselves comfortable.

They would fain be persuaded they are not under his power, but are as gay and happy as when free to roam over the world at wish. Not so those who have all their lives struggled with poverty. They labor “from morn till dewy eve”, during the absence of this cruel tyrant, and only obtan the necessaries of life. And is it strange that they tremble, and hope dies within them, when they knew he is advancing to usurp their rights as free citizens? Many are the victims sacrificed by him. They are pricked with cold and hunger, and easily fall a prey to this ruthless destroyer.

[p. 16]

He has a powerful rival however—a friend to humanity, whose presence is ever welcome—and who daily visits us. This the tyrant considers an invasion on his rights, and would banish him altogether were it in his power. But as this is impossible, he contents himself with shortening his visits, and much of the time spreading a thick vail of clouds about us, to prevent his seeing our sufferings, and thus being able to alleviate them.

But occasionally even this monster seems to be fatigued, and tempted to enjoy a little sleep in his lair;—on which occasions we are seen to express our delight, which immediately arouses his jealousy, and he calls to his aid Old Boreas,—a fearful ally, who is ever ready to lend his assistance. Their forces combined are sufficient to quell any insurrection on our part.

During the last few weeks we have often suffered from these attacks of jealousy,—and have endured many outbreaks of his temper. But we will soon be free from his icy chains, and cheerfully bid him adieu—rejoicing that we are to be free from his galling yoke, and again enjoy all the liberty of a free people.

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What reason have we to beleive that Adam and Eve were in great haste to engage in the Sugar busness, after their expulsion from Paradise?


Because we find that they went to raising Cain, before they got (able) Abel.


Letters to burn.

Old letters to burn up. That sounds harshly to my ear. It seems as though, it was burning up so many kind wishes, and so much that may some day interest me to peruse over again, that I hesitate to burn them.

Still old letters do litter up a desks so badly! Ah a happy thought! Why not put them all up stairs in my old trunk, and put the key of said trunk in the place the letters now occupy. Verry well, I’ll do so. It is much better than consigning them to the flames.

Many a pleasure, perchance forgotten, may be revived by the perusal of those old letters two years hence, provided I am not called to

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cross the “dark river” with the pale boatman, ere that time comes round. Let me sort them, and put the letters from each dear friend togather, and tie them up. I toss them all on the table. The first one I take up, tells me instantly by the unsteady faltering, somewhat crabbed writing, that it is from my grand-mother, long since gone to rest. Listen how she closes this not very elegant looking epistle. “My Child if sinners entice thee consent thou not”. Does not that one sentence lend beauty and elegance to the whole letter? How could I wish to burn grandmother’s precious letters. Seven of these crabbed looking letters, I put by as entirely too good to be sent off up stairs. I put them back into my desk.

Next comes the light graceful character of my school-mate, Jennie Pearle, but as she is soon to visit me, I must exempt hers also from the darkness of the old trunk.

The next—That bold dashing writing, is my sailor boy brother. Not for a fortune would I burn them. One sentence rises with sobs to my lips, as I select them from others and tie them with a bit of

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black ribbond, “died at sea”.

The waves sing a ceaseless requiem over his grave, but no sea bird droops its graceful wing over him, to mourn that he died in his brave youth, without a friend to wipe the death dews from his brow, save his sailor friends, kindly but rough they were tis true.

Blow ye winds gently, roll ye waves softly o’er his bier. But why? His spirit has gone home. There is nought the saves can harm in his ocean bed.

Letters unanswerable lie before me, but I have not the heart to banish those remainders of olden times off up stairs, so I put them back in my desk and mentally resolve never to burn another old letter.

These have afforded me an hours pleasant occupation, this windy, cloudy day.

Old letters are the grave of thoughts long since dead, why not cherish them as a friends grave, and ever preserve them as menorable relicts of the past.


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A set of teeth for the mouth of the Mammoth Cave Kentucky?


For a curiosity pebles from the banks of the river of life.

The following question has been selected by those appointed by the President of the “Young mens Literary association” to conduct the debate which will take place one week from this evening.


That commerce has done more towards the civilization of the world than war.

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The Huguenots

When Martin Luther first promulgated the great doctrines of the Reformation, nearly all the powers of the Old World, acknowledged the Pope of Rome as their spiritual head.

To refuse to do homage to this sovereign power, and to dare to dissent from the doctrines of the Romish faith, was considered in the dark days of superstition and tyranny, a crime that could be punished only by the utmost rigor of the law. It was in such circumstances as these, that the French Protestants, or Huguenots as they were contemptuously called by the church of Rome, felt the full force of persecution. During the short reign of Francis the II, they were subjected to the most fiendish cruelties and tortures, that tyranny could invent.

Yet in spite of the hostility every where shown them, their members continued to augment daily; until whole towns renounced the Romish faith.

On the death of the King, his brother Charles the IX succeeded to the throne.

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Too young to rule, the government was entrusted to the care of the Queen Regent,—the notorious Catherine of Medicis, and to the machinations of this designing woman, is France indebted for the fierce civil and religious war that for so many years desolated her fair realm.

The strife between the two great contending parties was more fierce than ever. The talented but unprincipled Catherine and her equaly unscrupulous minister, the haughty and ambitious Duke of Guise; were both bitter enemies of the reformed religion, and togather they bent all their energies to repel its advances in the kingdom. The Queen Regent, whose zeal as a Catholic caused her to bear a personal feeling of hatred towards every protestant, at length formed a plot for their destruction;—the most diabolicle in conception and fiendish in execution of which history bears record.

Many of the most distinguished Huguenots in the realm were gathered at Paris, to witness the nuptial

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ceremonies of the protestant King of Navarie, and the sister of Charles.

At midnight of that memorable twenty fourth of August 1572, when all Paris was wrapped in profound slumber, the signal was given for the commencement of the work of death.

Numbers of the unsuspecting Huguenots were surprised and slain in their beds, and for eight days blood literaly flowed in streams, through the streets of that illfated City.

Even Charles himself, forgetting his scruples and the horror he had manifsted at the baseness that prompted the committal of so unnatural and attrocious a deed; shot the poor fugitives as they fled in their terror, past the windows of the Louvrie.

Similar tragedies were occurring all over France, and during the thirty days that this ruthless butchery continued, one hundred thousand persons were sacrificed.

Yet notwithstanding this terrible slaughter two milions of Huguenots escaped the cruelty of the mercenaries of government; and the authors

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of this unparalelled crime, had the satisfaction to know that it had been perpetrated in vain.

Civil war now raged with greater fury than ever; and from the death of the King which occured soon after the massacre of St Bartholamew, until the reign of Henry the IV France continued to be the theatre of their most terrible tragedies and convulsions.

But a new era was about to dawn upon the unhapp Kingdom. A Huguenot had come into the posession of the royal acts of Henry, was to proclaim religious toleration, for the persecuted sect.

France was once more releived from the horrors of civil war, which for forty years had deluged the fair realm with the blood of her nobles, citizens, the Huguenots were restored to their lawful rights; and during the twelve years of peace in which Henry was allowed to repair his kingdom from the ravages of war, their lives and property were held inviolably sacred.

But the star of prosperity

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that had so auspiciously appeared on the French horizon was destined soon to set. The Huguenot Henry was not permitted to see the happy results of a reign so prosperously begun, the knife of the assassin again brought terror and dessolation to the people of France. The kingdom was left with but a mere child to sway the sceptre and his Mother Marie de Medicis, a woman of weak mind was appointed Queen Regent, untill the majority of Louis XIII, when the King selected as his prime minister the famous Cardinal Richelieu. This gifted but base statesman was entrusted with the government of France during the life of Louis, and by him was struck the first blow that opened anew the persecution of the Huguenots.

Untill his death his great talents and energies were employed with unrelenting assiduity, towards securing their overthrow.

Louis the XIV succeeded and completed what Richelieu had commenced. Said the bigoted King of the French; “My grandfather loved the Huguenots

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without fearing them, and I neither fear nor love them”, and most prophetic was this language, and how fearfully enforced! The edict of Nantes was revoked and the poor Huguenot was again made a martyr to his faith;—again deprived the protection of the law, and all the privilages of citizenship. A more cruel persecution was commenced against them than any they had ever before endured. They were put to death wherever the blood- hounds of tyranny could find them, and their property was confiscated by the King. The most strenuous measures were taken to prevent their leaving the Kingdom, but notwithstanding the vigilance of the government, nearly half a million found the means of escape to different parts of Europe and America, carrying their property with them.

France never recovered from the blow her industry received at this time. Quiet and law-abiding citizens, the Huguenots carried on almost exclusively many branches of the arts. To them

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only was known the method or preparing tin and steel, and their expulsion deprived the Kingdom of the knowledge of those valuable arts.

Little is known of the after history of this persecute sect.

The great evolution of 1782 that caused the downfall of the bourbon dynasty, secured to them liberty of conscience. But they never returned again to France, choosing rather to loose their nationality by adopting the habits, customs and languages of the countries wherein they had cast their fortunes; than to dwell in a land which tyranny had rendered unworthy of the name of home.

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Auction Sale.

The following articles found in the Editorial office of the literary gazette, the morning after its last issue, will be exposed to public Vendue on the 4th of March 1861, between the hours of midnight and noon. The property is as follows[] Viz—One large wheel minus 13 cogs, three small wheels badly broken, 1 crank awfully wrenched, 1 index somewhat defaced, 1 spout full of holes, supposed to be eaten by lye. 1 leach tub from which the lye was extracted, 1 jug containing one quart of Old Bourbon marked Joe,—four pounds scraps of hair supposed to have been ground from the poets head, One jar of gas marked Isaac,—5 1/2 bushels of unpublished poetry much saturated with lye! four shoes,—1 tail, 1 ear, two jaws and a quantity of hair,—supposed to be the last remains of old Gray. The above property will be sold to the highest bidder.—Sales to continue from day to day untill all is disposed of. Terms of sale—. All sums over $5,00 cash down on the delivery of the article,—and all sums

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under $5,00 good endorsed notes will be received, pay able any where[]

Paris Feb 19th 1861.

Johnny Sayball


The Legacy of the Past.

The future is a vast sea, stretching away in the distance till earth and sky seem to blend into one.

Man stands upon the shore of the trackless ocean, and wistfully gazes on its misterious expanse; and to no purpose have the keenest optics of science, scanned the horizon for its thither shore. Many a strong armed Greek manned the fabled Argo, yet the golden Fleece never rewarded their search. Many a curious Jason—since the mithic days of Greece, has trimmed his sails of imagination, and giving them to fancy’s breeze, has attempted to penetrate the clouds that hang over dark futurity; yet no memento

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of that unknown shore has ever been found. None “can unfold the untold.”

Unlike the future, the past is a river down whose placid waters, we have gently glided on the noiseless tide of time. We can recall the scenes that have been acted on the shores as we have passed along. On memories page they are all recorded. The present is situated at the conflux of these waters. As the Mississipi receives the waters of a thousand lesser streams and conveys them to the Gulf, so adown the vale of past ages there comes a stream of intellectual worth, widening and deepening as it advances; till it pours its untold wealth into the lap of the present. It may not be unprofitable briefly to consider our indebtedness to the past. Its legacy which it has so gratefully bequeathed to us, is indeed a rich one.

The tree which bends with lucious fruit is not like Jonahs gourd, the product of a night, for the birds of many summers have watched its growth; many showers have refreshed it; many winds have formed it;

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till now its golden fruit is a rich reward. Thus the institutions of the nineteenth century are but the perfect development of the institutions of past centuries.

Solon and Lycurgus sowed the seeds of our republican institutions. Though the tree of liberty was short lived in Greece, yet the germ there planted produced its fruit, and its seeds were wafted over the waters in the onward march of civization, to flourish in a more genial clime. The relation between the past and the present may not always be easily discerned, yet one is but the antecedent, the other the consequent.

It seemed indeed that the spark of intellect had gone out during the night of the dark ages, yet with the mornings dawn came the revival of letters. The past is fruitful in examples. Her self-made men though dead yet speak.

They all remind us “we may

Make our lives sublime,

And departing leave behind us,

Footprints in the sands of time.

The orators of the past died, but not

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their influence. Their genius still lived in their schollars and in their productions. The voice of Demosthenes still comes down to us through the vista of ages, and the little stuttering boy has become the immortal and unrivaled orator. The past is rich in material. The ancient classics are a mine of intellectual wealth. Within them are embodied the most sublime thoughts, of the most brilliant minds the world ever saw. True they may be hidden beneath the ruins of a dead language, yet industry can bring them forth to the light. Like the rough diamond they abundantly repay all the labor bestowed upon them. Nor should the ancient poets be overlooked. Do modern poets use beautious figures? In Homer may be found tehir counte[r]part. Do our poets picture nature? Homer did more, he pictured life. Do modern poets thrill the soul with their grandeur? Homer thrilled the great soul of the world. Homer, Virgil and Horace stand forth peerless. As examples they are faultless.

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The arts were carried to a high degree of perfection by the ancients, and many of their productions are preserved to the present time in Europe. One cannot look upon these masterly works of art without feeling his soul within him glow with admiration. Would you appreciate the influence exerted by the labors of these orators poets and sculptors? They are but so many models by which moderns may be taught to polish and beautify their otherwise crude productions.

The vast research of the ancients, the important conclusions they arrive at are all ours, if we will only cultivate their acquaintance by reading and research. We start at the stand point from which they left off. We take their conclusions, and push the investigation further.

We stand as it were upon their shoulders, and thus are enabled to obain a more extended view of the world arround us.

[p. 34]


I had a dream the other night,

When every thing was still;

Which made each hair stand streight with fright,

Stiff as a porcupines quill

Methought that “Balmorals” had grown,

To such a vast and monstrous size,

That there was room for them alone,

And none for man beneath the skies.

That beast and every creeping thing

Had died. That flowers bloomed no more,

The grass and tender herbs of spring,

Were withered on the desert shore.

Ten million leagues of “Balmorals”

Stretched ore this earth like a funeral pall;

And on the cold and cheerless scene,

The suns warm rays could never fall.

On Tassel Hill its highest peak,

The last man stood with palid face,

For clouds of skirts soon filled the plain

And rolled around the mountains base.

Still larger grew those spheres of white,

Untill they reached the summit high;

And streamed above the wretched wight,

Like snowy banners in the sky.

The man looked over the precipiece;

“Make way for Balmorals” he cried,

And plunging down from Tassel Hill,

Made way for “Balmorals” and died.

[p. 35]

The Pacific Railroad.

Government can appropriate large sums of money for such purposes as erecting fortifications, increasing and equipping the army, manning and equipping the navy, obtaining territory, and for various other expensive objects; while for a measure so evidently and undeniably beneficial as the Pacific Rail Road, nothing can be appropriated. Representatives from those far off widely seperated Pacific States entreat and implore. Far seeing statesmen predict the untold benefits resulting from its completion.

The increasing commercial business of the western seas, and the rapid agricultural development of the Pacific slope demands it, but still our government hesitates with long delaying debates, as to whether we shall have one, two or three roads; if one, whether it shall be erected upon the northern, central or southern rout; debates as to whether government or private enterprise shall build it. Debates instigated by designing and scheming polititions, for the express purpose of staving off and eventualy killing every proposition in favor of it,

[p. 36]

mark the action of our legislators on this subject.

It is well that a measure involving so large an outlay of capital should be carefully considered and prudently acted upon, but all unnecessary delay, all political chicanery and log rolling, all bickerings for mere party purposes should be entirely ignored. The object in view, the increased prosperity and greatness of the nation, is sufficient for candid and reasonable minds to obliterate all party lines, all political and selfish considerations, and make the completion of the Pacific Rail Road a national undertaking. The benefits to be derived from its completion are almost incalculable, whether we consider it in a military, commercial or agricultural point of view. Build the road, and in the event that our country should have difficulties with some foreign nation; it could in a few days line the Pacific coast with bristling bayonets, transported with our present means of transportaiton. The cost of transporting at the present time a sufficient force to be of any avail; suitably equiped

[p. 37]

to the Pacific coast, would build many miles of the proposed road.

The time and expense incured in overland transportation, would under such a course of procedure almost impossible; while the danger from hostile fleets would render water communication almost unavailable. Indeed, in case of open hostilities with a nation possessing a navy, we should be compelled to leave those fairest of our posessions almost defenceless.

The unfriendly attitude of the Mormons, the continued outbreaks of the Indians, the almost defenceless condition of the Pacific States, call in a manner not to be mistaken for the construction of a Pacific Rail Road. Consider it commercially and the argument grows still stronger, for during the last ten years, the commerce of the South Seas has increased to a wonderful extent. The rapid growth of California and Oregon, the opening of the ports of Japan to foreign commerce, the rising importance of Australia, the increasing trade with China and the East Indies, have given a new impetus to commercial exchange, and call for the establishment of a shorter and more

[p. 38]

rapid means of transportation, by which to crack the great markets of th world. The rout across the Ithmus to accomplish the desired results, is to far on one side. A central road, built and managed by the great Yanke nation, is the only one which will be entirely satisfactory to ourselves; and when once completed a great shore of the trade which now goes by the way of Cape Horn, across the Ithmus of by the Cape of Good Hope, would flow through the centre of our confederacy. At both termini would spring up vast Cities; while the intervening territory would soon thickly settle with an industrious population, thereby increasing the wealth and prosperity of that whole inland territory. Considered in relation to its bearing upon the agricultural development of our country, and the argument for its construction still strengthens. The vast productive resources of the Pacific slope, are now in a measure paralized for the want of a safe and rapid means of communication, whereby their produce will reach a market which will amply remunerate them.

[p. 39]

Once open a safe and reliable outlet, communicating with the Eastern States, by which to send their produce; fruit, vegetables and grain would flow in one continuous stream throughout its entire length.

The people would strive in all possible ways to increase their means of producing, and in a few years at the outside; that vast and now comparatively uncultivated region, would become the granery of the world.

But its opposers raise a number of objections, among the more prominent is the immense outlay necessary to complete it, and the scarcity of fuel and water along the route. To the first objection we have this to say, that judging from the past this is nothing serious; for the New Yor Central which does the business of a few States only, yields a large profit on the capital invested[] If this occurs on a road on which the business of a very small portion of the world is done, what other than satisfactory can be the result, on a road over which the business of almost the whole world will pass.

As to fuel but imperfect

[p. 40]

researches have revealed large deposits of coal, underlying vast regions at invervals throughout the whole rout. Iron founderies might also be established upon the route, in proximity to some of the best and richest ore beds in the world; which ore when smelted is said to yield almost its original weigh of pure iron of the best quality. Timber suitable for ties can be found in sufficient quantities skirting the banks of the numerous streams which must be crossed, while in those localities where springs, rivers and lakes, are not sufficiently numerous, supplies may be procured from Artesian wells.

In short no one enterprise ever came before the American people, fraught with so great benefits to mankind, as the construction of the Pacific Railroad.

[p. 41]

A new case of secession.

Tofit Feb 10th 1861.

Mr Editor:

Dear Sir:

Under the most humiliating and heartrending circumstances, I take up the pen to write and ask your most candid advice. The women around here feel so ashamed and indignant at the conduct of Pete Sniffles wife, for dont you think she has seceded from her husband, who was a good, kind, gentle and loving man, who held over her a gentle reign no stronger than a cobweb, and whose only fault was that he sat quietly by and said nothing, while she was storming the castle or giving one of her frequent “curtain lectures;” and now she has the audacity to demand that he shall furnish her ful income, without occupying either his bed or board.

Suppose she thinks she will by her course gain the enthusiastic admiration of admiring men, and furnish an example worthy of being imitated by all high

[p. 42]

minded women. And not only has she done that, but goes around the neighborhood trying to persuade others to follow her example, and rumor says she has been instrumental in inducing Mrs. Ebanezer Cartwright, to follow in her footsteps. But what an awful thing that would be, I have been thinking what can be done with those children, as she refuses to have any care of them; and says she “ain’t going to be tied to the apron stirngs of her lord and master longer”. Why only the other day she got terribly enraged about nothing, and seizing the shears cut the coat and pants of her husband which he always wore on training day, in which suit he always looked so slick and trim, all full of holes, so that now they look just like sive; and glancing around she happened to see the baby seceding from the cradle in an unusual and affrighted manner, and arising hastily put on her bonnet and shawl, left the house and has not since been heard from.

We all feel so scandalized!

We don’t know what has got into the women nor is it possible to tell who will secede next. Things didn’t use to be so when our quiet

[p. 43]

ancestors sat around the cheerful fireside and knit, and darned stockings or wove, while the august lords of creation sitting round, told stories for the edification of the children: but how the times have changed since this secession business has come to be generaly understood, for it seems as though it was invented on purpose to give every mans wife a chance to run away. Moses Parks was in at our house a short time since, and he talked about this exciting topic in the most vehement manner, and I found to my utter astonishment that he and my husband exactly agreed. He said if a man had a wife he could not tell whether when he got home he would find his house deserted or not, and furthermore that his estimable privilage was not all on the side of the women—; for a man had got just as good a right to secede as a woman had. Upon this I saw a great change pass over the countenance of my husband and the general sadness which had brooded over it of late was suddenly dispelled, while the thought flashed suddenly across my mind that I might, ere long be left a grass widow. But I thought best to

[p. 44]

conceal my apprehensions, and on the first opportunity would go over and consult with Susan Figets, who is always well posted on such matters and see what ought to be done.

Wal now dont you think that when brother Parks got home, he happened to go in very quietly at the back way; and to his astonishment found that his wife had got her things all packed, and was on the point of “seceding”, declaring it as her intention to remove to Utah. Thinking it would not be exceedingly agreeable to live alone, he shut her up in a tight room, and kept her on a slow diet of graham bread and water, until she had entirely repented of her folly, and promised sincerely to be in the future a faithful and loving wife.

Now Mr. Editor I desire to enquire whether you approve of that kind of coertion?

Whether, if I have any doubts about my husbands fidelity, it would be good policy to adopt and carry out the same plan, or whether I had better let him depart at pleasure and bear with patience the inevitable consequence? I shall look for an answer to these injuries in the next issue of your valuable jounal.

From your sincere friend
Mary Lovemore.

[p. 45]

Daniel Webster as a Jurist, an orator, and a statesmen.

I think it is our duty, or at least it well becomes us as members of the great human family, to pay a passing tribute to the illustrious departed. I feel my utter inability to do anything like justice to the memory of one, the mention of whose name seldom or never fails to awaken feelings in my bosom; which I cannot suppress, and which I would not, if I could. Who is there even in America or elsewhere, capable of pronouncing a fitting eulogium upon his character?

None but a mind capacious as his own, could bring such diversified greatness home to our hearts. Was he not especialy commissioned by the Almighty, to superintend the doubtful destinies of this youthful Republic? In the contemplation of his unsullied career as a public man, we almost forget his earlier fame at the Bar. He is acknowledged to have been the first jurist of his age.

The fifty thousand lawyers of the United States who are naturaly interested to deny his pretensions; have accorded to him an

[p. 46]

unapproachable supremacy at the Bar while his forensic efforts are the admiration of the world. His thoughts were deep and penetrating, his utterances a weighty as decrees; while principles and facts ever formed the groundwork of his arguments. Each sentence seemed the result of profound meditation. What he uttered he knew. Whenever he was counsel for a certain peorty, he did not urge that they were guiltless, as many lawyers do; but he examined criticaly his case in all its bearings; setting it forth on the broadest grounds, forcing the tribunal he was adressing to see what he saw, and in precisely the same manner as he saw it.

In his speeches you find no poetical aray of words, nothing for mere effect, nothing to bewilder a jury, or confuse and overawe a Judge. We may safely say that for once at least, the rights of man have found a bold and powerful champion. It was the boast of the Suffolk Bar, that their leaders strengthened by his every stroke the foundations of human rights, and lifted the pillars of eternal justice higher towards the ethereal heavens. As an orator his career has been the grandest the

[p. 47]

most magnificent that human imagination can conceive.

As Americans we knew and are proud to acknowledge it, that as an orator Webster stands second to none, perhaps not even excepting the mighty Demosthenes himself. I can see him on the dim background of the past, as he stood on the floor of the Congress; the strong staff of the bewildered and staggering States. I can see him when the fate of the Republic seemed to hang on the decision of the moment, towering aloft calm and dignified, yet with manly determination written on his lofty brow, awing the refractory, and enshrining himself in the hearts of Union and liberty loving men. While that splendid triumverate, Clay, Calhoun and Webster, the West, the North and the south, made that senate chamber the grandest arena, that human eyes ever beheld.

Webster was ever the acknowledged chief of this glorious band, he was ever the personal friend of his political opponents (quite unlike the polititions of our own day) deeming them as connected with himself by all the ties of a common

[p. 48]

country. Aye more; as the representatives of a mighty Union, cemented by the blood of those he revered. It is something to thank God for, that it should be left for America to produce this human Niagara, whose tones of thunder were never heard, but in the cause of liberty and right.

If the time shall ever come when Greece, England and America shall be left in ruins; when they shall be remembered only by their eloquence, they will be personified by Demosthenes, Chatham and Webster.

As a statesman the name of Daniel Webster stands first even from the beginning. Let us stop and contemplate upon this fact for a moment. Thousands upon thousands of ages have rolled along, hundreds and hundreds of empires and kingdoms have arose, conquered and passed into nonentity; millions upon millions of human beings have lived, moved, thought and passed away, and it is left for America, for a youthful Republic; to cradle, to educate and to enjoy, the greatest statesman the world has ever produced. And yet to day thousands of our citizens pretend to wish that this Union

[p. 49]

may be dissolved; that this mighty Republic may be overthrown. It has been truly said, “Mr Webster gave not up to party what was meant for mankind”, he loved the Union as a complete whole. His love was not centered upon the north or the south, and his hatred upon another section, he was not the champion of a clique, he was for justice to the whole country; his mottoe was “Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseperable”. Any thinking man who will censure his political course on the slavery question, I can almost say does not deserve the name of American.

We all know that slavery is an evil, and one of the direst of evils, but we know we know as well that the dissolution of the Union would be a greater evil.

Such in brief are some of the prominent characteristics of his life, and holding to those great principles by which he was ever distinguished, he used almost super human effort, to save the country from impending ruin. He needed not the Presidency for his fame, for it is now so great, that it will be dear to mankind, as long as there is any thing left of America.

[p. 50]

After one of his mighty efforts, which Mr Calhoun declared had saved the Union, that generous stateman remarked, that “Webster ought to be President,” and pausing a moment added “but he is too great a man ever to be.”

If there is any one thing which more than another distinguishes the true statesman, it is deep and penetrating research.

This trait was paramount in the character of Webster, and he probably carried it higher, and to greater perfection than any statesman of his own or any other age. Briefly have I endeavored to portray to you, surrounded as it is by a halo of glory, the name of Daniel Webster; as it stands emblazoned forth on the illumined page of history; as the Demosthenes of America, as the guardian angel of a great flourishing and mighty Republic.


“Dust thou art and unto dust shalt thou return” that thy anchor of hope may be safely embedded in those celestial regions beyond the grave, where the terrors of death are banished, where pleasure and contentment ever reign without alloy.

[p. 51]


The slender thread of life is drawn to its utmost tension, and soon may the hand of time sever the fragile cord, and snap assunder the dearest ties, which bind man to this earthly paradise below.

But though at any time a single link in the continuous chain may be broken into fragments, “yet strange it is, that a harp of a thousand strings should keep in tune so long”. But the event is ever looked upon as distant and remote, and we tread the hopeful pathway of life, with a firm and unwavering step; never turning to bhold the danger which ever beset the way. And as we journey on over the green sward, we find

“Our foot half sunk in hillocks green and soft, Raised by the mole, the miner of the sod. He not unlike the great ones of mankind, Disfigures earth: and plotting in the dark, Toils much to earn a monumental pile, That may record the mischiefs he has done”.

And thus man goes plodding on step by step, untill gray hairs and old age tell too plainly that he is a valiant warrior, bearing many glorious scars, showing that he has conquered on many a hard fought and contested field. But so live that when the dread summons shall come, proclaiming in its clarion tones opposite page.

[p. 52]

The Creation.

This World is probably as old,

As any in creation,

And the way in which twas made,

I’ll give an explanation.

Twas difficult to work at first,

For it was dark as night;

But fumbling round they found a match,

And shortly struck a light.

This World was then, a chunk of mud,

As awkward as a biscuit;

When the carpenters got out their tools,

And went to work to fix it.

One of them knocked the corners off,

And smoothed them with his knife;

While others puttied up the holes,

As natural as life.

When this was done, another two,

Bartholomew and Shaugar,

Bored out a monstrous hole clear through,

With Davids three foot augur.

Then they obtained a cedar pole,

[p. 53]

And hacked it full of notches,

And drove it thorugh the infant world

And hung it in the crotches.

Then Moses oiled the gudgeons up,

And putting on the handle;

He turned it like a paper mill,

While Aaron held the candle.

It made a little fuss at first,

And gave a groaning wince,

But soon it got to going good,

And has been ever since.

It turned away a day or more,

Till it was hard and dry;

And then the carpenters went up,

And tinkered on the sky.

They filled the roof with gimlet holes,

To save from burning oil;

And the moon is but a swallow hole,

Through which the pidgeons crawl.

Then David hit upon a plan

To move the world by steam;

[p. 54]

For though they’d made a water wheel,

They could not find a stream.

So they bought an engine then, which weighed

About a thousand ton;

And the hole they cut through for the pipe,

Is what we call the sun.

Then coming down, they took their spades

And scooped the lakes and bays;

And piled the dirt up for the hills,

Where now it firmly stays.

They built a rain tub in the sky,

From a plan of Robert Parrels,

And never since has it been dry,

For it holds a million barrels.

They pulled the plug and let it run,

A day or two or more;

Til every bay and lake was full,

Up level with the shore.

They made the little fishes then,

So slippery and so slim.

And Jonah liked the sea so well,

They made a whale of him.

[p. 55]

They made the blue eyed codfish too,

The pickerels and the pikes,

The bullhead with his ugly horns

Which prick like Iron spikes.

And then they made the animals

That live upon the land;

From the folish little chipmonk,

To those that understand.

They made flies to eat the sugar,

And hens to eat the flies;

And man to catch the biddies,

And make ’em into pies.

Then they made the pretty birds,

Some with feathery wings;

From the toad that croaks and jabbers,

To the nightingale that sings.

They thought that all was finished then

But going round to see,

They found that woman was’nt made,

According to decree.

So Adam drank a pail of milk,

Which made him rather dozy;

[p. 56]

And then they came a little game,

Both cunningly and cozy.

A butcher took a carven knife,

And opening his jacket;

Took out a rib, in half a gift,

Not making any racket.

Then they put their heads togather,

To see what they could make,

And shortly heat an oven hot,

And put it in to bake.

They took it out and through the nose

They breathed the living breath;

And when Adam woke and found a wife,

He was tickled half to death.

Thus woman being made at first,

From a bone so hoocked;

Is just and all the reason why,

Her notions are so crooked.

So now you have a strict account,

How this world was made of clay,

And what has been a doing since,

I’ll tell some other day.

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