A timeline of 19th-century America

Because it can be interesting and fun to see books and events in context, this timeline is an attempt to organize things mentioned or transcribed at this site. It begins with 1788, when The Juvenile Magazine is published in England; it supplies much of the material for the first American magazine for children, published a year later.

Periodicals are listed in approximate chronological order and are taken from the detailed bibliography of American children’s periodicals I’m assembling; the titles link directly to the description of that periodical.

Like this site, this is a work in progress.

Children’s periodical founded: The Juvenile Magazine
The Juvenile Magazine is published in England; it provides much of the material for the first American magazine for children
at this site:Editor’s Address to Her Young Readers” (Juvenile Magazine [1788]; January) • February serials (Juvenile Magazine [1788]; February) • “The Female Adviser” (Juvenile Magazine [1788]; February & March) • “The Schoolboy” (Juvenile Magazine [1788]; April & June)
Children’s periodical founded: Children’s Magazine
George Washington becomes president • US Congress meets in New York City
at this site:Preface” (Children’s Magazine; January) • some pieces in the February issue of Children’s Magazine (Juvenile Magazine [1788]; February 1788) • “The Schoolboy” (Children’s Magazine; April)
1790 1st US census: pop = 3,929,214
1791 First 10 amendments to the US Constitution ratified; first allows for freedom of the press • Vermont becomes 14th state • May 16: an earthquake measuring 4.5 to 5.0 shakes Connecticut
1792 White House cornerstone laid
1793 Fugitive Slave Law • Capitol cornerstone laid • Eli Whitney creates cotton gin • June 20: Captain Crabtree spots a sea serpent off the coast of Maine
at this site: Recollections of a Lifetime, Samuel Griswold Goodrich (born 1793)
1794 Whiskey Rebellion
1795 1st US circus
1796 Tennessee becomes a state • August: Sea serpent seen at Portsmouth, New Hampshire
Children’s periodical founded: The Youth’s News Paper
John Adams becomes president
at this site: Love Triumphant; or, Constancy Rewarded, Abner Reed
1800 US pop = 5,308,483: black = 1,002,000; free black = 108,000 • 2nd Great Awakening begins -1840s • DC becomes US capitol
at this site: The American Spelling Book, Noah Webster
1801 Thomas Jefferson becomes president • Robert Fulton creates the first submarine
Children’s periodical founded: The Juvenile Magazine, or Miscellaneous Repository of Useful Information
at this site: “Big Bone Lick,” in A Short But Comprehensive System of the Geography of the World, by Nathaniel Dwight
1803 Louisiana Territory sold to US
1804 Population of Louisiana Territory: 10,350 non-Native American, 15% of which are slaves; 3/5 of inhabitants are Americans • May 14: Meriwether Lewis & William Clark start up Missouri River • July 11: Alexander Hamilton dies in a duel with Aaron Burr
1805 Thomas Jefferson begins second term as president • June: Large water monster lurks in Lake Ontario
Children’s periodical founded: The Fly; or Juvenile Miscellany
at this site: Love Triumphant; or, Constancy Rewarded, Abner Reed (1797) presented to Anna Mills by her teacher
1806 A complete eclipse of the sun darkens New England
1807 Robert Fulton’s paddle steamer navigates the Hudson River • Dec 14: A meteorite breaks up over Connecticut around dawn, in a dramatic display which deposits fragments near Weston
1808 Slave importation to US prohibited
1809 James Madison becomes president (-1817)
at this site:Gertrude of Wyoming,” Thomas Campbell
1810 US pop = 7,239,881: black = 1,378,000; free black = 186,000 • New York City = most populated in US
1811 July: John Brown meets a sea serpent in the north Atlantic ocean
Children’s periodical founded: The Juvenile Magazine
Steamboats on Mississippi River • Battle of Tippecanoe • Great Comet (still visible early 1812) • Dec 16: First of hundreds of earthquakes which devastate southeast Missouri, change the course of the Mississippi River, & are felt over much of the US; the largest probably would register over 8.0 on Richter scale; aftershocks felt until February 1812
Children’s periodical founded: Juvenile Port-folio and Literary Miscellany
Great Comet still visible • War breaks out between the US & Great Britain -1815
Children’s periodicals founded: Youth’s Repository of Christian KnowledgeThe Juvenile Magazine
at this site: “Mammoth,” in Youth’s Companion; or An Historical Dictionary, Ezra Sampson
1814 British invade DC • Creek nation defeated by American forces • “Star-Spangled Banner” written • Dec 24: end of War of 1812; treaty signed in Ghent
at this site: René, Françoise-René Chateaubriand (Samuel Griswold Goodrich translation)
Children’s periodicals founded: Monthly Preceptor; or, Universal Repository of Knowledge, Instruction and AmusementYouth’s Cabinet
Jan 8: Battle of New Orleans is last battle of the War of 1812 • Sept 22-23: what may have been a hurricane strikes New England
at this site: The Present; or, Fragments from Celebrated Modern Poets, with marginalia
1816 Regular transatlantic shipping inaugurated • Florida purchased by US • Indiana becomes a state
1817 James Monroe becomes president (-1825) • Mississippi becomes a state • Construction of Erie Canal begun -1825 • August 14: Great Sea Serpent spotted off the coast of Massachusetts
Children’s periodicals founded: Juvenile GazetteYouth’s Magazine: or, Evangelical MiscellanyThe Sunday Visitant; or, Weekly Repository of Christian Knowledge
National Road reaches Wheeling, Virginia • Illinois becomes a state • September 3: Great Sea Serpent captured off the coast of Massachusetts
Children’s periodicals founded: The Guardian, or Youth’s Religious InstructorJuvenile Gazette
Financial panic & depression -1823 • Alabama becomes a state • July: Comet Tralles is visible most of the month
at this site:The Velocipede or Swift Walker” (Connecticut Mirror; 31 May) • The Vagabond, Samuel Griswold Goodrich • The Two Doves and the Owl, Samuel Griswold Goodrich
1820 US pop = 9,638,453: black = 1,772,000; free black = 234,000 • Missouri Compromise • New England textile mills expand as decade progresses
at this site:Teeth” • “On Novel Reading” • “Novels and Romances
Children’s periodical founded: The Sunday Scholars’ Magazine; or, Monthly Reward Book
James Monroe begins 2nd term as president • Missouri becomes a state • Santa Fe trail established • Sept 3: what may have been a hurricane strikes Philadelphia, New York City, & central Connecticut
at this site: The Two Doves and the Owl, Samuel Griswold Goodrich
Children’s periodicals founded: Juvenile MuseumThe DawnThe Juvenile RepositoryThe Literary Kaleidoscope
Children’s periodicals founded: Youth’s Instructer and Guardian ; Youth’s Instructor and Sabbath School Assistant ; Youth’s Instructor and Sabbath School and Bible Class AssistantThe Sabbath School Repository and Teacher’s AssistantThe MonitorTeacher’s Offering; or Sabbath’s Scholar’s Magazine ; Teacher’s Offering; or Sunday Scholar’s Magazine ; Youth’s Friend, and Scholar’s MagazineThe Juvenile Magazine
Monroe Doctrine • Mexico becomes a republic
at this site: poem about Sarah Bishop, Samuel Griswold Goodrich (Connecticut Mirror; 25 August 1823) • “A Visit from St. Nicholas,” Clement Moore (in the Troy Sentinel; 23 December)
Children’s periodicals founded: Sabbath School VisitantThe Moral and Religious Repository; or Youth’s Christian Monitor ; The Moral and Religious Repository, and Youth’s Christian Monitor ; Youth’s Christian Monitor
Lafayette tours US
at this site:The Waverly Novels” (Connecticut Mirror; 23 August) • Memoirs of a Captivity Among the Indians of North America, 3rd ed., John Dunn Hunter • “Birth, Nursing, & Education of Infants; Education & Amusements of Youths,” John Dunn Hunter
Children’s periodicals founded: The Guardian and MonitorThe Youth’s Friend (El amigo de la juventud)
John Quincy Adams becomes president • Erie Canal finished
at this site: extract from Blair’s Outlines of Chronology
Children’s periodicals founded: Children’s FriendThe Juvenile Miscellany
at this site: The Riddle Book
Children’s periodicals founded: The Baptist Tract and Youth’s Magazine ; Baptist Tract MagazineYouth’s GazetteThe Juvenile MagazineYouth’s Companion ; Youth’s Companion and Sabbath School Recorder ; Youth’s CompanionThe Child’s MagazineJuvenile GazetteJuvenile Gazette
at this site:Female Resources for Writing,” P. P. (Boston Lyceum; August) • To the readers of Juvenile Gazette (Juvenile Gazette; 24 November) • Marriages & deaths in Juvenile Gazette (Juvenile Gazette; -1828) • Lew Wallace (born 1827) remembers reading Peter Parley
Children’s periodicals founded: Youth’s JournalThe Scholar’s Quarterly Journal ; Scholar’s JournalThe HiveThe Juvenile RepertoryThe Sabbath School Messenger, and Children’s Friend
March 29: Kidnapped son of Benjamin Clark is recognized after missing for at least two years & is reunited with his parents
at this site: Ditties for Children, Nancy Sproat • The Riddle Book • “Books for Children” (American Annals of Education) • Eliza Leslie’s recipe for curds and whey • “Remarks on Children’s Play,” by Oliver Kendall, jr (Juvenile Gazette) • “Novels,” by Timothy Flint (The Western Monthly Review; December) • about The Legendary • about The Token
Children’s periodicals founded: The Children’s MagazineThe Infants’ MagazineYouth’s Herald and Sabbath School MagazineThe Sabbath School Visitant and Juvenile Magazine ; Western Sabbath School Visitant, and Juvenile MagazineJuvenile Museum
Andrew Jackson becomes president • 1st steam locomotive in US (“Tom Thumb”) • Venus begins to brighten in the sky as the planet swings closer to Earth • Nov 13: Sam Patch, famous for jumping from great heights, dies jumping the Genesee Falls; his body isn’t found until March 1830
at this site: Peter Parley’s Story of the Trapper, Samuel Griswold Goodrich • Peter Parley’s Method of Telling About Geography to Children, Samuel Griswold Goodrich • Peter Parley’s Tales of the Elephant, Samuel Griswold Goodrich • Peter Parley’s Winter-Evening Tales, Samuel Griswold Goodrich • Review of The Soldier’s Orphan; or, History of Maria West (Youth’s Companion; 2 December) • “ ‘Reviewer’, Reviewed” (Youth’s Companion; 30 December) • “Remarks On Reviews” (Youth’s Companion; 30 December)
Children’s periodicals founded: The Parent’s Gift; or Youth’s MagazineThe Juvenile RepositoryYouth’s Magazine; or, Spirit of the Juvenile MiscellanyClassical Journal and Scholar’s Review ; Juvenile Rambler ; Juvenile Rambler, or, Family and School JournalExpostulator, or Young Catholic’s GuideThe Juvenile Key ; Family Pioneer and Juvenile KeyJuvenile Magazine, and Youth’s Monthly VisiterThe Mentor and Youth’s Instructive CompanionThe Youth’s MiscellanyThe Monthly Repository and Library of Entertaining Knowledge
US pop = 12,866,020: black = 2,329,000; free black = 320,000 • Mormon Church established; Book of Mormon published • 1st Jack Downing letters, Seba Smith • Baltimore & Ohio Railroad begin operation • Jan 13: Venus at its brightest
at this site: The TokenThe Lost Child, Timothy Flint • Peter Parley’s Juvenile Tales, Samuel Griswold Goodrich
Children’s periodicals founded: The Scholar’s Gazette ; Scholar’s Weekly GazetteJuvenile GazetteThe Sabbath School Messenger, and Children’s FriendYouth’s Repertory and Child’s Magazine
Nat Turner leads a slave uprising in Virginia • Francis Abbott—who for 2 years had lived as a hermit at Niagara Falls—drowns while swimming in a small stream
at this site: The TokenTruth, 1st ed., William J. Snelling • “Books,” Lydia Maria Child • Beauties of Sentiment • “The Busy Bee” (Youth’s Companion; August 10) • “Case of Conviction,” by Francis Wayland (American Baptist Magazine; October) • “The Choice of Companions” (Youth’s Companion; October 12) • “Heroism” (Youth’s Companion; October 12) • “Lucy Nelson, the Boy-Girl,” by Eliza Leslie (Youth’s Companion; November 30)
Children’s periodicals founded: The Child’s CabinetSabbath School MagazineThe Youth’s Temperance LecturerThe Rose BudYouth’s Companion, and Weekly Family Visitor ; Youth’s Companion and Family VisitorRose Bud, or Youth’s Gazette ; Southern Rose Bud ; Southern RoseYouth’s Literary Gazette
Domestic Manners of the Americans, by Frances Trollope, published; Americans lampoon her
at this site: The Token • “A Little Girl Who was Burned to Death” (Youth’s Companion; January 11) • “Little Edward” (Youth’s Companion; February 8) • “Petrified Forests” (JR; May 16) • An editor edits “Ode, Addressed to J. G. Percival, M. D.” (The Bouquet ; September) • Truth, 2nd ed., William J. Snelling • Peale’s mastodon skeleton, in The Child’s First Book of History; in The Child’s Own Book of American Geography; in Peter Parley’s Tales About the State and City of New York
Children’s periodicals founded: The Sabbath School VisiterYouth’s CompanionParley’s MagazineJuvenile WatchmanThe Juvenile RepositoryPupil’s MonitorWestern Sabbath School Repository, and Friend of YouthThe GuardianThe Youth’s MiscellanyJuvenile Gazette
Nov 12: Leonid meteor shower so intense that many believe stars are falling from sky as world ends
at this site: The Token • “Prospectus” (Parley’s Magazine; March 16) • “To the Public” (Parley’s Magazine; March 16) • “The Terrified Sailors” (Parley’s Magazine; March 16) • “Silent Companion” (Parley’s Magazine; March 30) • “Caspar Hauser” (Parley’s Magazine; March 30) • “The Little Wood-Cutter” (Parley’s Magazine; April 13) • “Narrow Escape from a Bear” (Parley’s Magazine; April 27) • “I’d be a Butterfly” (Parley’s Magazine; May 28) • “Mr. Durant” (Parley’s Magazine; September 14) • “For My Youngest Readers” (Parley’s Magazine; September 14) • Peter Parley’s Story of the Little Gardener, Samuel Griswold Goodrich • The District School As It Was (2nd ed), Warren Burton
Children’s periodicals founded: Youth’s Lyceum and Literary GazetteThe Child’s NewspaperThe Child’s Universalist Gazette, and Monthly Visiter ; The Child’s GazetteYouth’s Magazine
Mill women strike, Lowell, Massachusetts • In England, Charles Babbage creates the “analytical engine,” which will develop into what you’re using right now
at this site: Sarah Tuttle’s scrapbook (1834-1860s) • “Fossil Shells” (Parley’s Magazine; June 7) • “Art of Pen Making” (Parley’s Magazine; September 13)
Children’s periodicals founded: The Juvenile Reformer and Sabbath School InstructorSunday School MagazineThe Juvenile Missionary IntelligencerThe Slave’s Friend
2nd war between the Seminole nation & the US -1842 • Nov 16: Halley’s comet reaches perihelion • Nov 17: unusually bright aurora borealis seen in Cincinnati, Ohio • Dec 16-17: Fire destroys much of New York City’s business district
at this site: The Slave’s Friend #1, 2, 3 • “Devouring Books” (American Annals of Education; January) • “Story of Peter Brown” (Parley’s Magazine; June 20) • “About Edwin Finley” (Parley’s Magazine; June 20) • The Token & Atlantic SouvenirThe Juvenile Polyanthos, by Henry Wightman • Rollo Learning to Read, Jacob Abbott
Children’s periodicals founded: The Family SchoolYouth’s Guide to Piety and Virtue ; Youth’s Guide to Piety and Virtue, and Literary Casket
Texas wins independence from Mexico & becomes the Lone Star Republic ( -1845)
at this site:To the Departing Comet” (American Monthly Magazine; January) • “Walks About Boston: The Indians” (Parley’s Magazine; January) • “To Our Young Female Readers” (Parley’s Magazine; February) • joke (Parley’s Magazine; June) • “Confectioners” (Parley’s Magazine; July) • “Juvenile Celebration of Independence” (Parley’s Magazine; August) • Two pieces about fireworks (Parley’s Magazine; September & October) • “The Reading of Young Ladies” (American Magazine of Useful Knowledge; December) • The Token & Atlantic SouvenirPeter Parley’s Juvenile Tales, Samuel Griswold Goodrich
Children’s periodicals founded: The Missionary NewsKe Kumu KamaliiYouth’s LyceumYouth’s Cabinet ; New-York Teacher’s Lyceum ; Woodworth’s Youth’s Cabinet ; Woodworth’s Youth’s Cabinet and Uncle Frank’s Dollar MagazineYouth’s Literary MessengerThe Juvenile LyceumSabbath School Messenger
Jan 26: unusually bright aurora borealis seen in east & midwest • Financial panic • Border tensions begin between the US & Canada -1839 • Martin Van Buren becomes president
at this site:The Aurora Borealis,” by “Francis” (Youth’s Magazine [Cincinnati, Ohio]; April 14) • “Interview of the Blind with the Deaf and Dumb” (Youth’s Magazine [Cincinnati, Ohio]; April 14) • “Reading is Not Thinking” (Youth’s Magazine [Cincinnati, Ohio]; May 26) • “Reading for Young Ladies” (Youth’s Magazine [Cincinnati, Ohio]; July 7) • “Do Your Duty to Your Brothers and Sisters,” by Lydia Sigourney (Youth’s Magazine [Cincinnati, Ohio]; July 7) • “War and Glory,” by Samuel Johnson (Youth’s Magazine [Cincinnati, Ohio]; July 7) • “The Beautiful Slave” (Youth’s Magazine [Cincinnati, Ohio]; September) • “The Noble Negro,” by Hannah More (Youth’s Magazine [Cincinnati, Ohio]; September) • “Exemplary” (Youth’s Magazine [Cincinnati, Ohio]; October) • Selections from The Pearl; or, Affection’s Gift
Children’s periodicals founded: Child’s CompanionThe Children’s Catholic MagazineYouth’s Magazine: A Monthly MiscellanyCompanion for YouthThe Youth’s Penny PaperThe Juvenile Depository, or Youth’s Mental Casket ; Youth’s Mental Casket, and Literary Star ; Casket and StarYouth’s Literary MessengerSunday School Children’s Magazine
at this site: New Year’s address (Parley’s Magazine; January) • “Gleanings and Recollections: The New York Fire,” by Eliza Leslie (Parley’s Magazine; January)
Children’s periodicals founded: The MissionaryThe AcornFamily and School VisitorSabbath School Contributor ; Light of Zion, and Sabbath School ContributorYouth’s Temperance Advocate ; Youth’s Temperance Advocate and Band of Hope RecorderThe Friend of Youth
Aroostook War • Financial depression -1843
at this site:The Dying Boy,” by Mrs. Larned (Parley’s Magazine; January) • “Confessions of a Novel Reader,” A. (Southern Literary Messenger; March) • “The Fireside” (Parley’s Magazine; March) • “Bones of a Mastodon” (Youth’s Cabinet; July 11) • Robert Merry’s MiscellanyRollo’s Travels, Jacob Abbott • The Kentucky Housewife, Lettice Bryan • The Ladder of LearningThe Well-Bred Boy (rev 1844)Diary of a Little Girl in Old New York, by Catherine Elizabeth Havens (born 1839)
Children’s periodicals founded: The Sabbath School FriendYouth’s MonitorThe Sabbath School Monitor ; Sunday School Monitor ; Light Ship and Sabbath School MonitorThe Young Catholics’ Friend (also, Young Catholic’s Friend)
US pop = 17,069,453: black = 2,874,000; free black = 386,000 • 2,816 miles of railroad in operation • Washington Temperance Society formed
at this site: William and Eliza; or, The Visit (abt now) • Peter Parley’s Wonders of the Earth, Sea, and Sky
Children’s periodicals founded: Cold Water Army and Youth’s Picnic ; Cold Water ArmyJuvenile Mirror and Youth’s Literary CompanionThe Tutor, and Boys’ and Girls’ Weekly AlbumThe Young Ladies’ CasketYouth’s Magazine and Juvenile HarpYouth’s Family Instructor and Sunday School VisitorRobert Merry’s MuseumThe Eastern Rose-Bud ; Eastern Rose-Bud and Sabbath School CompanionYouth’s MedallionYoung Catholic’s MagazineThe Young People’s BookSunday School Advocate ; Sabbath School AdvocateThe Sabbath School RepositoryThe Bouquet
William Henry Harrison becomes president; dies after one month • John Tyler becomes president on Harrison’s death • Brook Farm established (Lousia May Alcott lives here as child) -1847 • Women granted university degrees for first time
at this site: The Well-Bred Girl (rev 1850) • “Natural history plates” (Robert Merry’s Museum) • “My Own Life & Adventures,” by “Robert Merry” (Robert Merry’s Museum; -1842) • “Story of Philip Brusque” (Robert Merry’s Museum; -1842) • “Prospectus of Robert Merry’s Museum” (Robert Merry’s Museum; February)
• “Address to the Reader” (Robert Merry’s Museum; February) • “My First Whistle,” by Samuel Griswold Goodrich (Robert Merry’s Museum; February) • “About Labor & Property” (Robert Merry’s Museum; February) • “Death of the President” (Robert Merry’s Museum; April) • “The Moon” (Robert Merry’s Museum; June) • “The Horse & the Bells” (Robert Merry’s Museum; June) • “Yankee Energy” (Robert Merry’s Museum; September) • “The Mammoth” (Robert Merry’s Museum; November) • “The Squirrel” (Robert Merry’s Museum; December) • “The Picture Gallery: Organic Remains” (Youth’s Cabinet; December 9) • Peale’s mastodon skeleton, in Peter Parley’s Visit to the City of New-York (1841-1844?)
Children’s periodicals founded: Youth’s Temperance EnterpriseEvery Youth’s Gazette ; Youth’s Gazette ; Peter Parley’s Youth’s GazetteThe Dayspring ; Youth’s DayspringThe Youth’s EmancipatorBoys’ and Girls’ Literary Bouquet ; Boys’ and Girls’ Monthly Bouquet ; Boys’ and Girls’ BouquetThe WreathThe Cold Water BoyYouth’s Sunday CasketThe Cold Water GirlSchool Reader
Communes established: Amana; Fruitlands -1843; Hopedale -1856 (Robert Merry’s Museum subscriber William F. Draper lives here) • P.T. Barnum’s American Museum opens in New York City • Charles Dickens tours the United States; writes American Notes, which outrages Americans
at this site:The New Year” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “Wonders of Geology” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “Liberty,” by Samuel Griswold Goodrich (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “The War in Florida” (Robert Merry’s Museum; February) • “Names of Different Kinds of Type” (Robert Merry’s Museum; March)
Children’s periodicals founded:Child’s Gazette” • Jugend-ZeitungThe Juvenile WesleyanThe Youth’s GazetteYouth’s Guide and StarBoys’ and Girls’ Magazine ; Boys’ & Girls’ Monthly LibraryNew Church Magazine for American Children ; The Children’s New-Church MagazineYouth’s Penny Gazette ; The Youth’s Sunday-School Gazette (also The Youth’s Sunday School Gazette)The Child’s Friend ; The Child’s Friend and Youth’s Magazine ; The Child’s Friend and Family MagazineYouth’s CompanionThe Pierian
Comet visible • Millerites prepare for the end of the world -1844
at this site:A New-Year’s Bow” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “Who Filled the Coal Hole?” (Parley’s Magazine; February) • three little poems for little readers (Robert Merry’s Museum) • “Jumping Rabbit’s Story” (Robert Merry’s Museum) • “John Dunn Hunter,” by Samuel Griswold Goodrich
Children’s periodicals founded: Juvenile InstructorThe Young Reaper ; Young ReaperThe Well-spring ; The Wellspring for Young People ; The Well-spring and Missionary Echoes ; The WellspringThe BeeUncle Ezekiel’s Youth’s CabinetThe EncouragerYouth’s Monthly Visitor ; Youth’s Monthly Visiter
Great Comet • May 24: first telegraph message (Samuel Morse) sent from Washington, DC, to Baltimore, Maryland
at this site:Precocious Children,” Samuel Griswold Goodrich • “Reminiscences of a Rag” (Robert Merry’s Museum) • “The Lottery Ticket” (Robert Merry’s Museum) • “Dirk Heldriver” (Robert Merry’s Museum) • “Pictures of Various Nations (Robert Merry’s Museum) • “January” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “Three Little Boys in Prison,” by Charles Holden (The Mother’s Assistant; January) • “Novel Writers & Publishers,” M. M. Backus (Christian Parlor Magazine; May) • “The Stolen Child” (Blackwoods Edinburgh Magazine; August) • “A Story of the Revolution” (Robert Merry’s Museum; August) • Reaction to Felix Summerly’s attack on Peter Parley (Littell’s Living Age; 21 September) • “Prognostications of the Weather” (Robert Merry’s Museum; November) • Scenes in My Native Land, by Lydia H. Sigourney • What to Do, and How to Do It, by Samuel Griswold Goodrich
Children’s periodicals founded: Little Truth-Teller: A New-Church Magazine for ChildrenThe Child’s Companion and Youth’s Friend (also The Child’s Companion and Truth’s Friend)The Monthly Rose (also, the Albany Monthly Rose)The Penny Library for School ChildrenThe MyrtleThe Monthly Rose ; The Monthly Rose, and Literary Cabinet ; The Monthly Rose, and Otis School Cabinet ; The Monthly Rose, and School Cabinet ; The Monthly Rose, and Literary Cabinet ; The Monthly RoseThe Mountain Rill
Mar 3: Florida admitted as a state • Mar 4: James K. Polk inaugurated as president • August 18: Mars appears larger & brighter than usual as it reaches perihelic opposition • Dec 19: Texas admitted as a state
at this site:What Books Shall I Read?,” Simon Brown • “Dangers of Childhood, and Means of Obviating Them,” George Whippel (The Mother’s Assistant; February) • “Family Education,” Lavinia H. Pillsbury (The Mother’s Assistant; April) • “The Morality of Pictures,” William A. Alcott (The Mother’s Assistant and the Young Lady’s Friend; April) • “Alfred Poole” (Robert Merry’s Museum; May) • “Moral Poisons: The Antidote,” F. C. W. (The Mother’s Magazine; May) • “Confinement of Children in School,” Dr. James Jackson (The Mother’s Assistant; July) • “Treatment of Children at School,” Dr. S. B. Woodward (The Mother’s Assistant; October) • “Vicious Novels: Cause of Their Increase,” F. C. W. (The Mother’s Magazine; December) • Eliza Piatt’s copybookWonders of Geology, by Samuel Griswold Goodrich • A Home in the Sea; or, The Adventures of Philip Brusque, Samuel Griswold Goodrich • Margaret, by Sylvester Judd
Children’s periodicals founded: Young Churchman’s MiscellanyYoung People’s MagazineThe SatchelThe Youth’s Friend ; Youth’s Monthly Friend (also Monthly Youth’s Friend)The Golden RuleThe Student ; The Student and Family MiscellanyBoys’ and Girls’ Weekly Catholic Magazine ; Boys’ and Girls’ Catholic Magazine ; Catholic Weekly Instructor ; Weekly Catholic InstructorThe Student and Young TutorUncle Peter’s Juvenile Cabinet ; The Youth’s CabinetThe Youth’s Temperance BannerThe Souvenir, and Youth’s Literary MessengerSabbath School VisiterChildren’s Advent Herald ; Youth’s Guide
Jan: Double comet visible • Oct 16: Gilbert Abbott first American to be operated on under anaesthetic (ether) • War begins between US & Mexico -1848 • Ireland’s potato famine spurs emigration to US • Neptune discovered by Johann Galle, Germany • Oregon acquired • Bear Flag War • Donner Party trapped in the mountains • Howe develops sewing machine • Dec 28: Iowa admitted as a state
at this site:A New Year’s Address” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • poem (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “Another Story for Boys,” by Orpha (Youth’s Companion; January 7) • “Lines, on the Death of W.,” by S. (Youth’s Companion; January 14) • “Repining and Repentance” (Youth’s Companion; February 12) • “The Farmer and Soldier,” by Lydia Sigourney (Youth’s Companion; February 12) • “The Snow Storm” (Youth’s Companion; February 12) • “The Two Houses” (Youth’s Companion; 12 February) • “Petrified Forest on the Nile” (Young People’s Magazine; March) • “Child’s Grief,” by Mary Ann (Youth’s Companion; April 2) • “My Schoolmates: The Contrast,” by Abby (Youth’s Companion; June 5) • “My Schoolmates: The Inquirer,” by Abbie (Youth’s Companion; June 12) • “My Schoolmates: The Victim,” by Abbie (Youth’s Companion; June 19) • “The Boy Who Loved Truth,” by Julia A. Fletcher (Youth’s Companion; June 26) • “My Schoolmates: The Widow,” by Abbie (Youth’s Companion; June 26) • “My Schoolmates: Kate Kennedy,” by Abby (Youth’s Companion; July 2) • “My Schoolmates: The Sensitive Plant,” by Abbie (Youth’s Companion; July 9) • two celebrations of American Independence Day (Youth’s Companion; July 23) • “Jane Graham; or, ‘I Shant Marry That Man’ ” (Youth’s Companion; July 23) • “Hay-Making” (Youth’s Companion; July 23) • “Nursery Rhymes: A Dialogue” (Robert Merry’s Museum; August) • “Pleasant and Profitable” (Youth’s Companion; August 27) • “Authorcraft” (Littell’s Living Age; 6 June) • A Mid-Century Child & Her Books, Caroline M. Hewins (born 1846)
Children’s periodicals founded: The Mt. Vernon EnterpriseThe Sunday-Scholar’s MirrorThe Young American’s Magazine of Self-ImprovementDer Jugend-Freund aller Christlichen Benennungen ; Christen-Bote und Jugend-Freund ; Jugend-Freund und Christen-Bote ; Der Jugend-Freund ; Der Jugend-Freund und Illustrierte JugendBlätterThe PlaymateThe Child’s Gospel Guide
Mormons found Salt Lake City
at this site:Self-Denial, or, The Two Cousins” (Youth’s Companion; January 7) • “The Untidy Girl” (Youth’s Cabinet; February) • “Gossip of the Month” (Democratic Review; May) • “The Stolen Girls” (Youth’s Companion; June 10) • “Vanity Punished” (Youth’s Companion; September 9) • “Little Susan, the Poor-House Girl,” by J. A. (Youth’s Companion; August 12) • “The Indians: Week Day School,” by Sarah (Youth’s Companion; August 12) • “The Water-melon Boats” (Youth’s Companion; August 12) • “Boys of Sixteen” (Youth’s Companion; August 19) • “The Strawberry Woman,” by T. S. Arthur (Youth’s Companion; September 9) • “The Shoes,” by J. A. (Youth’s Companion; September 23) • “Miss Before Teens,” by Giles M’Quiggen (Youth’s Companion; September 23) • “Dress and Address,” by Nathan Sargent (Youth’s Companion; December 30) • “Girl Stealing” (Youth’s Companion; December 30)
Children’s periodicals founded: The Boys’ and Girls’ Journal ; The Boys’ and Girls’ Weekly Penny Journal ; The Boys’ and Girls’ Penny Journal ; Fithian’s Magazine for Girls and Boys ; Fithian’s Miniature Magazine: A Student Manual and Fireside Miscellany Devoted to the Useful and BeautifulThe Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine, and Fireside Companion ; Forrester’s Boys’ and Girls’ Magazine, and Fireside CompanionThe Young People’s Mirror and American Family Visitor ; Young People’s Mirror ; MirrorJuvenile GazetteThe Scholar’s Penny GazetteThe Youth’s Pictorial MagazineThe AsteroidYoung People’s Journal of Science, Literature, & Art
Jan 24: gold discovered at Sutter’s Mill, in California • Feb 2: war with Mexico ends • Mar 31: Spirits rap out messages in the presence of Margaretta & Katherine Fox, of Hydesville Village, New York, & Spiritualism sweeps the US • May 29: Wisconsin admitted as a state • May: by end, half of those in San Francisco, California, gone seeking gold • Seneca Falls suffrage meeting
at this site:Family & Social Reading” • “Adventures of Billy Bump” (Robert Merry’s Museum; -1850) • “The Snow-Bird” (Robert Merry’s Museum; February) • “Professor Morse” (Youth’s Cabinet; April) • “Wood Engraving” (Youth’s Cabinet; April) • “I Think I Will Not Change” (Youth’s Companion; April 13) • “Kate and Her Kitty” (Youth’s Companion; May 25) • “Tearing Open the Rosebud” (Youth’s Companion; June 8) • “Female Education” (The Mother’s Magazine; July) • “A Correction” (Youth’s Cabinet; September) • “Fifteen Young Men” (Youth’s Companion; September 13) • “Good Night,” by Samuel Griswold Goodrich (Robert Merry’s Museum; October) • “My Fortune’s Made,” by Mary Alexina Smith (Youth’s Companion; November 23) • “Popular Similes” (Youth’s Companion; November 30) • “Bread Upon the Water,” by T.S. Arthur (Youth’s Companion; November 30) • “Wonders of Geology,” by William Buckland (Robert Merry’s Museum; December) • “Letter to the Editor” (Youth’s Companion; December 28) • Dictionary of Americanisms, John Russell Bartlett
Children’s periodicals founded: The SatchelFriend of YouthThe BubbleThe Scholars’ Leaf of the Tree of KnowledgeThe SchoolfellowSunday School Gazette ; The Dayspring
Zachary Taylor becomes president • Gold rush: 40,000+ arrive in California • Cholera epidemic sweeps South • Mar 3: Minnesota established as a territory • Mar 5: Zacharay Taylor inaugurated • May 10: Rivalry between actors Edwin Forrest and William Macready culminates in Astor Place riots in New York City: 31 die; at least 48 injured • Great Chinese Museum, containing exhibits on aspects of Chinese life, opens in New York City
at this site:A New Year’s Salutation” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “The Skater’s Song” (Youth’s Cabinet; January) • “School Learning,” by Helen C. Knight (The Mother’s Assistant and Young Lady’s Friend; January) • “Geology” (Young People’s Mirror; March) • “William, the Negro Boy,” by Jane L. Gray (Youth’s Cabinet; April) • “Hints for Children” (Youth’s Companion; April 12) • Account of the Terrific and Fatal Riot at the New-York Astor Place Opera House • “What the Steam Engine Does” (Youth’s Companion; July 19) • “Touching Expression” (Youth’s Companion; 19 July) • “Tomo and the Wild Lakes,” by Rev. John Todd (Youth’s Companion; July 19) • “Life in the Woods” (Youth’s Companion; July 19) • “The School-Mistress,” by M. W. D. (Youth’s Companion; September 13) • “Sabbath Scholar Drowned” (Youth’s Companion; September 13) • “A Step from the Altar to the Tomb,” by J. E. E. (Youth’s Companion; September 13) • “The Old School House,” by J. A. (Youth’s Companion; November 15) • “Hints to Young Men” (Youth’s Companion; November 22) • “A Good Girl at School” (Youth’s Companion; November 22) • “The Wanderer’s Return,” by M. W. D. (Youth’s Companion; November 22) • “Unnatural Children” (Youth’s Companion; November 22) • “Young Men,” by Charlotte Gilman (Youth’s Companion; November 22) • “Unhappy Elopement” (Youth’s Companion; November 22) • “Thy Will Be Done,” by W. (Youth’s Companion; November 22) • “You Will Be Wanted” (Youth’s Companion; November 22) • “Fossil Foot-Prints” (Young People’s Mirror; December) • New and True Stories for ChildrenDiary of a Little Girl in Old New York, by Catherine Elizabeth Havens
Children’s periodicals founded: The Youth’s FriendThe Juvenile Weekly GazetteThe MentorYouth’s Monthly MagazineFireside Miscellany and Young People’s EncyclopediaSunday School Visitor ; The Children’s Visitor ; The VisitorThe Flower Basket ; Flower Basket; or Youth’s Magazine ; The Flower Basket; or Youth’s Monthly MonitorThe Youth’s CasketUnion Sunday School VisitorYouth’s Gem
US pop = 23,191,876: black = 3,639,000; free black = 435,000 • Cholera epidemic sweeps Midwest • House sparrows (Passer domesticus) released in New York City; eventually spread continent-wide • July 9: Zachary Taylor dies; Millard Fillmore becomes president • Sept 9: California admitted as free state • Sept 11: Jenny Lind gives first performance in the US -1852 • Sept 18: Fugitive Slave Bill passed
at this site: Stories for Children, Cousin Sarah (abt now) • “The Indian’s Story” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “The King of Ashantee” (Robert Merry’s Museum; March) • “Deer Hunting,” by “Simon Sassafras” (Robert Merry’s Museum; May) • “Adventures with Ghosts,” by Mrs. Hall (Youth’s Cabinet; May) • “Effie Somers,” by W. (Youth’s Companion; May 30) • “Who Will Make a Good Wife” (Youth’s Companion; May 30) • Mary Newell’s letter (August 28) • “Amy’s Holiday” (Youth’s Cabinet; September) • “The Arabian Nights” (Youth’s Cabinet; September) • “Clara Sinclair,” by Caroline Gilman (Youth’s Cabinet; September) • “Caspar Hauser” (Robert Merry’s Museum; October) • “The Change of the Seasons” (Robert Merry’s Museum; November) • “Laughing Bill” (Youth’s Cabinet; November) • “Left-Handed Billy” (Robert Merry’s Museum; December)
Children’s periodicals founded: Christian Sunday School Journal ; The Christian Sunday-School JournalThe Standard-BearerYouth’s MonitorThe Young ChristianThe MyrtleSabbath School Visitor ; Presbyterian Sabbath School VisitorYouth’s Gem and Southern CadetChildren’s Friend ; The Child’s FriendThe Cadet’s CompanionThe Youth’s Temperance Monitor
Katherine Fox’s confession that “spirit rapping” was a fraud is made public • Cast-iron frame building constructed • Boston, Massachusetts: mob rescues fugitive slave • May 15: Erie Railroad opens • August 12: patent for a practical sewing machine granted to Isaac Merrit Singer
at this site:The Adventures of Gilbert Go-ahead” (Robert Merry’s Museum; -1856) • “January” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “The Spelling Lesson” (Youth’s Cabinet; February) • “Hieroglyphical Letter to the Editor” (Youth’s Cabinet; February) • “Join in the Recreation of Your Children,” Stephen T. Allen (The Mother’s Magazine and Family Journal; July) • “The Busy Knitter,” by William Oland Bourne (Youth’s Cabinet; August) • “A Siberian Winter” (Youth’s Cabinet; August) • Stories by Jack Mason, the Old Sailor, Francis Woodworth
Children’s periodicals founded: Youth’s BannerThe Youth’s Instructor ; InstructorThe Child’s PaperThe Youth’s CasketThe SchoolmateThe Favourite Magazine of Instruction and Amusement for Boys and Girls ; The FavoriteThe Genius of YouthYouth’s Instructor ; InsightMonday ExpressYouth’s EnterpriseThe Cadet of TemperanceThe Ohio Cadet
Xenophobic “Young America” movement reaches its peak • Double comet visible
at this site:A Valentine” (Springfield Republican; February 20) • “Wonders of Geology” (The Schoolmate; March) • “Distant Worlds” (Robert Merry’s Museum; July) • “The Bloomer Dress” (Woodworth’s Youth’s Cabinet; October) • “A Very Odd Grandfather” (Robert Merry’s Museum; November) • “Fossil Tree in the Coal Rocks” (Robert Merry’s Museum; December)
Children’s periodicals founded: Der Schul- und HausfreundYouth’s Western BannerForest GarlandLittle TravelerThe Little PilgrimYouth’s GalaxyThe Carrier Dove
Yellow fever epidemic rages in Louisiana and Mississippi until 1855 • Boston Public Library opens • Railroad goes from New York to Chicago • Elisha Kane leads an unsuccessful expedition to find Arctic explorer John Franklin -1855 • Comet • Jan 12: Baltimore & Ohio Railroad completed • Mar 4: Franklin Pierce inaugurated as president • July 8: trade with Japan opened after a show of force by Commodore Matthew C. Perry
at this site:Children and Children’s Parties,” S. B. S. (The Mothers’ Journal and Family Visitant) • “Physical Education of Children” (Tilt’s Elements of Health) • “Early Culture of Children,” G. M. J. (The Mothers’ Journal and Family Visitant) • “Clothing for Girls,” G. M. J. (The Mothers’ Journal and Family Visitant) • “Children’s Rights,” “Fanny Fern” • “Henry Sanford’s Teacher,” by Eliza A. Chase (The Student; May) • “Riddle,” by Samuel Griswold Goodrich (Robert Merry’s Museum; June) • “Parental Duties,” J. W. Guernsey (The Mother’s Assistant and Young Lady’s Friend; July) • “Means of Exercise for Girls” (The Student; July) • “Love of Nature” (The Mother’s Assistant and Young Lady’s Friend; August) • Review of Fern Leaves from Fanny’s Portfolio (The Student; September) • “Novel Reading” (The Western Gem; October) • “Negro Songs—American Music,” by Ser. Longley (Western Gem; October) • “Conversation. To Young Ladies” (The Mother’s Assistant and Young Lady’s Friend; November) • “Placing a Daughter at School,” Motte Hall (The Student; November) • Two pieces on behavior at school (The Student; November) • “Letters About Geology,” by “Professor Pickaxe” (The Student) • Fern Leaves from Fanny’s Portfolio, “Fanny Fern” (Sara Payson Willis) • The Behaviour Book, Eliza Leslie • The Holiday Book, Francis C. Woodworth
Children’s periodicals founded: The Little WolverineThe Little ForesterSchuylkill County School JournalThe Juvenile Temperance Watchman ; Juvenile WatchmanMonthly Instructor and Fire Side Companion ; Forrester’s Playmate ; Youth’s Casket and PlaymateThe Little TravelerThe Children’s Friend ; Friend for Boys and GirlsThe Boys’ Daily Journal ; Boys’ JournalYouth’s National Gazette
Trade treaty between Japan & US • Railroad reaches Mississippi River • Free-Soil party promotes settlement of Kansas (family of Robert Merry’s Museum subscribers Viola & Lawrence Drinkwater move to Kansas Territory in 1855, as Free-Soilers) • Annular eclipse of the sun visible in much of North America • May 26: Kansas-Nebraska bill passed
at this site:Daguerreotypes of the Moon” (The Schoolmate; January) • “Mathematics for Girls,” by Mrs. J. H. Hanaford (The Student; January) • advertisement for Tuttle’s Emporium (Youth’s Cabinet; January) • “Early Training of Children” (The Fireside Miscellany; and Young People’s Encyclopedia; February) • Two pieces about books (The Student; February) • “Curious Rhymes” (Robert Merry’s Museum; March) • “Curiosities of Sleep” (Youth’s Cabinet; April) • “True Courage,” by “Aunt Kate” (Youth’s Companion; August 3) • “Snake Fascination” (Youth’s Companion; August 24) • “The Miser and His Dinner” (Youth’s Cabinet; September) • “The Four Wills” (Youth’s Cabinet; September) • “Indian Youth’s Newspaper” (Youth’s Companion; September 7) • “Novels, Their Meaning and Mission” (Putnam’s Monthly; October) • Ruth Hall, “Fanny Fern” (Sara Payson Willis) • Buds, Blossoms, and Leaves, “Eulalie” [Mary Eulalie Fee Shannon]
Children’s periodicals founded: Schul- und Jugend-ZeitungThe Children’s Book of Choice and Entertaining Reading for the Little Folks at Home (also, The Children’s Monthly Book)The Student and Schoolmate ; The Student and Schoolmate, and Forrester’s Boy’s and Girl’s Magazine ; The Student and Schoolmate ; The SchoolmateThe Pupil: A Monthly Treasury for School ChildrenYoung American
at this site:Carrier’s Address” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “Mrs. Warner’s Prejudice,” by Lesina (Youth’s Companion; August 16) • “Give Your Child a Paper” (Youth’s Companion; August 23) • “Singular Adventure of a Lost Child” (Youth’s Companion; August 23) • Harper Story Books: The Harper Establishment; or, How the Story Books are Made, Jacob Abbott • Star Papers, Henry Ward Beecher
Children’s periodicals founded: Die Glocke (The bell) ; Sonntagschul Glocke (Sunday-school bell)Der Christliche Kinderzeitung ; Christliche KinderfreundThe Young SpectatorYoung AmericaThe Star of Youth
Violence in Kansas by both pro- and anti-slavery factions • Charter Oak in Hartford, Connecticut, where Connecticut’s charter was hidden in 1687 when it was demanded by the power-hungry governor of Massachusetts, falls during a storm; souvenirs are made of its wood • May 22: Preston Brooks, US senator from South Carolina, takes issue with remarks by Massachusetts senator Charles Sumner, & attacks him with a cane on the floor of the Senate; a measure to expell Brooks from the Senate fails to pass • August 18: copyright law passed by Congress
at this site:Carrier’s Address” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “A Happy New Year,” by Francis Forrester (Youth’s Cabinet; January) • adoption ads (New York Daily Tribune; January 14) • “A Literary Man in Distress,” by “Literatus” (New York Daily Tribune; January 14) • “Cross Questions and Crooked Answers,” by Susanna Newbould (Youth’s Cabinet; February) • “Diligent David,” by Francis Forrester (Youth’s Cabinet; February) • “Uncle Frank in Kansas,” by Francis Woodworth (Youth’s Cabinet; June) • “Thanksgiving Memories,” by Francis Woodworth (Youth’s Cabinet; October) • “Who Are the Aggressors?,” by Samuel Griswold Goodrich (New York Evening Post; October 15) • “The Prairies of Kansas,” by Francis Woodworth (Youth’s Cabinet; November) • “Degeneracy of Stature,” Thrace Talmon (National Era; 18 December) • The Travels, Voyages, and Adventures of Gilbert Go-Ahead, Samuel Griswold Goodrich • Recollections of a Lifetime, Samuel Griswold Goodrich
Children’s periodicals founded: Der Lämmer-Hirte ; Der Lämmerhirt ; Der Lämmer Hirte ; Der Lammerhirte ; LammerherteRepublication of Parley’s MagazinePioneerThe Monthly School Visitor ; Clark’s School Visitor ; Our Schoolday Visitor ; The Schoolday Visitor Magazine ; The Schoolday MagazineThe Child’s MagazineBoys’ Monthly GazetteYoung AmericaThe Catholic Youth’s MagazineThe Young AmericanYouth’s Cabinet and Little JokerYoung People’s Illuminated MagazineChildren’s Banner
Company formed by Cyrus W. Field begins to lay Transatlantic Cable between Ireland and Newfoundland • James Edward Allen Gibbs perfects the first practical sewing machine • Mar 4: James Buchanan inaugurated as president • Mar 6: Dred Scott case decided • August 24: financial panic
at this site: The Early Dead, edited by William Chalmers Whitcomb • “Uncle Hiram’s Pilgrimage,” by William C. Cutter (Robert Merry’s Museum; -1860) • “The Sewing-Machine” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “A Crooked Tree (Robert Merry’s Museum; February) • “Skating—Woman’s Rights,” by William C. Cutter (Robert Merry’s Museum; February) • “The Patient Sufferer,” by S. (Robert Merry’s Museum; March) • “Letter From Henry C. Wright: ‘Merry’s Museum’ the Handmaid of Slavery,” by Henry C. Wright (The Liberator; 20 March) • advertisement for The New York Tribune (Robert Merry’s Museum; October) • Parley’s Adventures of Billy Bump, Samuel Griswold Goodrich
Children’s periodicals founded: The ExcelsiorThe Sparkling FountSargent’s School MonthlyYoung America Monthly MagazineYoung People’s Monthly
Religious revival sweeps the nation • May 11: Minnesota admitted as a state • August 5: laying of Transatlantic Cable finished • August 16: first message sent via Transatlantic Cable • Sept-Oct: Comet Donati visible, one of 3 comets in the skies • Oct 9: first cross-country mail delivery
at this site:The Elves of the Forest Centre,” by Pansy [Fanny Seward] (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “The Song of the Snow-Bird” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “Pukkwana,” by Susanna Newbould (Robert Merry’s Museum; April) • “Of What is the Alphabet Composed?,” by Mattie Bell (Robert Merry’s Museum; July) • “Old Times & New,” by Margaret (Robert Merry’s Museum; August) • “The Atlantic Telegraph” (Robert Merry’s Museum; October) • “The Atlantic Telegraph” (Student & Schoolmate; October) • “The Comet” [Comet Donati] (Robert Merry’s Museum; October) • “Our Neighbors” [comets] (Forrester’s Playmate; October) • “The Telegraph Cable,” by Laura Elmer (Robert Merry’s Museum; November) • “The Comet” [Comet Donati] (Robert Merry’s Museum; November)
Children’s periodicals founded: Band of Hope VisitorChildren’s FriendDie TaubeWhat NotThe Boys and Girls Own MagazineSunday-School BannerYoung America and ExcelsiorKinderzeitungThe Weekly MagpieI Will TryThe Little-Pig Monthly (also, The Little Pig Monthly)The Child at HomeYouth’s GazetteYouth’s Evangelist ; The Youth’s EvangelistThe Young AmericanThe Home GemThe Pastor’s Helper ; The Child’s TreasuryThe Maine Spectator ; The SpectatorThe Little Pioneer
Feb 14: Oregon admitted as state • Oct 16: John Brown seizes arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, West Virginia (former Robert Merry’s Museum subscriber R. W. North is member of militia that captures him) • Dec 2: John Brown hanged • 1st commercial oil well dug, Titusville, Pennsylvania
at this site:Dr. Kane’s Boat—the Faith,” by William Hoyt Coleman (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “New Year’s Morning” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “How the Boston Boys Talk,” by Oliver Onley (Robert Merry’s Museum; February) • “The Cold Snap of January 10th,” by William Hoyt Coleman (Robert Merry’s Museum; March) • “Signers of the Declaration of Independence,” by Ralph Wilson (Robert Merry’s Museum; March) • Stories of Rainbow and Lucky: Handie, Jacob Abbott • Stories of Rainbow and Lucky: Rainbow’s Journey, Jacob Abbott
Children’s periodicals founded: The Lutheran Sunday-School HeraldThe Youth’s Temperance VisitorYouth’s GazetteChildren’s GuestYouth’s MagazineThe Deaf Mute CasketThe Fountain
US population = 31,443,321: black = 4,442,000; free black = 488,000 • Pony Express -1861 • Nov 6: Abraham Lincoln wins presidential election • Dec 20: South Carolina secedes from the Union
at this site:Letter to My Daughter Margaretta, with a Set of Merry’s Museum,” by William Ross Wallace (Robert Merry’s Museum; April) • “Death of Samuel Griswold Goodrich” (Littell’s Living Age; 19 June) • “’Peter Parley’—As Known to His Daughter,” Emily Goodrich Smith • Stories of Rainbow and Lucky: The Three Pines, Jacob Abbott • Stories of Rainbow and Lucky: Selling Lucky, Jacob Abbott • Stories of Rainbow and Lucky: Up the River, Jacob Abbott • recipes from The Virginia Housewife, Mary Randolph
Children’s periodicals founded: Young Folks’ Monitor, and The World We Live InThe Sunday School Paper for the SouthThe PortfolioOur Paper
Great Comet • Southern states secede from the Union: January 9: Mississippi; January 10: Florida; January 11: Alabama; January 19: Georgia; January 26: Louisiana • Jan 29: Kansas admitted as a free state • Feb 4: Confederate States of America formed • Feb 8: the Confederate States of America officially formed • Feb 18: Jefferson Davis becomes president of Confederacy • Mar 4: Abraham Lincoln becomes president of Union • April 12-13: Fort Sumter, South Carolina, standing against Confederacy, is fired on until it is surrendered • April 17: Virginia secedes from the Union • April 19: blockade of Southern ports ordered • More states secede: May 6: Arkansas; May 20: North Carolina; June 8: Tennessee
at this site:The Literary Gazette” • Animals in the Civil War (Youth’s Companion) • “The Union” (Student & Schoolmate; January) • “Rules for Winter” (Youth’s Companion; January 3) • “How to Make Boys Love Home” (Arthur’s Home Magazine; February) • “The Opera Cloak” (Youth’s Companion; June 6) • “Crooked Spines in Girls,” Helen C. Lewis (Arthur’s Home Magazine; July) • “The Stars and Stripes,” by John A. Andrews (Student & Schoolmate; July) • “Baby Education” (Arthur’s Home Magazine; August) • “Hail, Columbia!” (Student & Schoolmate; August) • “How a Man Feels When He is Shot” (Youth’s Companion; October 3) • “Children, from One to Three Years of Age” (Arthur’s Home Magazine; December) • “The Knitters” (Youth’s Companion; December 26)
Children’s periodicals founded: Child’s World ; Youth’s WorldMonthly VoiceYoung People’s Helper ; Young People’s Helper and Temperance VisitorThe Children’s FriendThe Child’s Index ; Child’s DelightLittle American
at this site:Renny’s Uniform” (Robert Merry’s Museum) • “Why Have the Indians Disappeared?” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “Who Wants $4 a Day?” (Robert Merry’s Museum; March) • “The Grateful Indian,” by Martha G. (Robert Merry’s Museum; August) • “What is a Darling?” (Robert Merry’s Museum; October)
Children’s periodicals founded: Children’s GuideThe Young PilgrimSabbath School StarThe Sabbath School GemThe Child’s Casket (also, Children’s Casket)
Free delivery of mail established in cities • Jan 1: Emancipation Proclamation takes effect • June 20: West Virginia admitted to the Union • Dec 31-Jan 1864: the American Midwest endures tremendous cold and near-blizzard conditions
at this site:Happiest Days,” “Gail Hamilton” • “Our Heroic Dead” (Student & Schoolmate; February) • editorial from “The Teacher’s Desk” (Student & Schoolmate; February) • “To the Boy Who Will Be President of the United States A. D. 1900,” by Samuel Wilson (Robert Merry’s Museum; April) • “Blessings of Work,” by Julia E. McConaughy (Robert Merry’s Museum; May) • “Independence Day” (Robert Merry’s Museum; July) • “Working Girls” (Robert Merry’s Museum; October) • “Gardening for Ladies” (Robert Merry’s Museum; November) • “Dreaming and Doing,” by Mrs. N. McConaughy (Robert Merry’s Museum; December) • Gala Days, “Gail Hamilton” (Abigail Dodge) • The Good ScholarHoratio Lovejoy’s New Year’s Eve. 1863-1864 (Dec-Jan 1864)
Children’s periodicals founded: California Youths’ Companion ; Pacific Pioneer and Youth’s Literary CompanionThe Experiment: a Juvenile MonthlyThe Youth’s VisitorThe School and Family VisitorSunday School Messenger
Oct 31: Nevada admitted to the Union
at this site:A New-Year’s Welcome” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “White and Colored Slaves (Harper’s Weekly; January 30) • “Beadle’s Dime Books” (North American Review; July) • “Clara’s Medal,” by Christie Pearl (Student & Schoolmate; September) • “The Best Girl in School,” by Phoebe H. Phelps (Student & Schoolmate; October) • “Industry & Idleness,” by William L. Williams (Student & Schoolmate; November) • “Katie’s Sacrifice,” by E. N. H. (Student & Schoolmate; November)
Children’s periodicals founded: Child’s Banner ; The Children’s BannerThe Young Evangelist ; The Junior WorldOur Young FolksThe Little SowerThe Little CorporalOur FriendMissionary Visitor ; Children’s VisitorYoung Catholic’s FriendSt. Alfonso’s Angel (perhaps, St. Alphonsus’ Angel) • Sunday School Herald
Free mail delivery established in cities of more than 50,000 • Mar 4: Abraham Lincoln inaugurated for second term • April 9: General Robert E. Lee capitulates to General Ulysses S. Grant • April 14: Abraham Lincoln assassinated; father of former Robert Merry’s Museum subscriber Fanny Seward also targeted • April 15: Andrew Johnson inaugurated as president • Dec 13: 13th amendment adopted
at this site:Elva Seeking Her Fortune,” by Sophie May (Robert Merry’s Museum) • Eye and Ear Notes, by “Uncle James” (James Redpath) (Youth’s Companion) • Science & technology notes (Youth’s Companion) • Animals in the Civil War (Youth’s Companion) • Children & changing times (Youth’s Companion) • assassination of Abraham Lincoln (Youth’s Companion) • premium portrait of Abraham Lincoln (Little Corporal) • “The Volunteer’s Thanksgiving,” by Lucy Larcom (Our Young Folks; January) • “The Color-Bearer,” by John Townsend Trowbridge (Our Young Folks; January) • “The Capture of Savannah” (Youth’s Companion; January 5) • “Our Exchanged Prisoners” (Youth’s Companion; January 5) • advertisements for Our Young Folks & Robert Merry’s Museum (Youth’s Companion; January 12) • “The Veteran’s Farewell,” by “Blue-Eyed Lora” (Robert Merry’s Museum; February) • memorial page for Adelbert Older, with poetry by Belle P. R. and Adelbert Older (Robert Merry’s Museum; February) • “Adventures of a ‘Merry’ Boy” (Robert Merry’s Museum; February) • “Allie’s Christmas Eve,” by “Lillie Linden” (Robert Merry’s Museum; February) • “Neglected Children” (Youth’s Companion; February 23) • “The City Girl,” by “Gail Hamilton” (Abigail Dodge) (Our Young Folks; March) • “White Slaves (Youth’s Companion; March 9) • “The Inauguration of President Lincoln” (Youth’s Companion; March 9) • “The Would-be Lady and the True One,” by Mrs. P. P. Bonney (Youth’s Companion; March 16) • “A True Story” (reprinted; Youth’s Companion; March 23) • “Turn About, Fair Play,” by Augusta Moore (Youth’s Companion; April 13) • “The Great National Tragedy” (Youth’s Companion; April 27) • “Booth and Bad Literature” (Youth’s Companion; May 11) • “Sugar-Making by the Indians” (Youth’s Companion; May 18) • “Unella,” by Madge (Robert Merry’s Museum; June) • advertisements for Dr. Brown’s Baby-Tender (Robert Merry’s Museum; June & July) • two poems for July 4, 1865 (Robert Merry’s Museum; July) • “July 4, 1865,” by “Lulie” (Student & Schoolmate; July) • “The Boys’ Fourth-of-July,” by Julia Pratt Ballard (Robert Merry’s Museum; July) • “The American Flag,” by Mrs. P. A. Hanaford (Student & Schoolmate; July) • “The Army of the American Eagle” (Little Corporal; July) • editorial comment on July 4, 1865 (Robert Merry’s Museum; July) • editorial from “The Teacher’s Desk” (Student & Schoolmate; July) • “Willie Lincoln,” by Emily J. Bugbee (Little Corporal; July) • “Victory at Last,” by C. C. (Robert Merry’s Museum; July) • “The Conspirators” (Youth’s Companion; July 6) • “Imagination or Affectation (Youth’s Companion; July 13) • “The Execution” (Youth’s Companion; July 20) • “A Soldier To-night is Our Guest” (Youth’s Companion; August 10) • “Going into Business for Himself,” by Mrs. P. P. Bonney (Youth’s Companion; August 11)
Children’s periodicals founded: The Juvenile Instructor ; Instructor ; New EraLittle Bouquet ; Little Bouquets ; Lyceum Banner ; Little BouquetKind Words for the Sunday School Children ; Kind Words, the Child’s DelightSpare HoursThe Youth’s Temperance BannerKe AlaulaThe Children’s FriendFrank Leslie’s Children’s Friend ; Frank Leslie’s Boys’ and Girls’ Illustrated Weekly ; Frank Leslie’s Boys’ and Girls’ WeeklyDemorest’s Young AmericaThe Busy BeeThe Youth’s FriendThe Youth’s Monitor
Cholera epidemic ravages several cities • 14th amendment adopted
at this site:Children’s Books of the Year” (North American Review; January) • “Among the Studios, no. 3,” by T. B. Aldrich & Winslow Homer (Our Young Folks; July) • “How Engravings are Made” (Little Corporal; August) • “Patriotic Eagle” (Youth’s Companion; August 9) • “The Veteran Eagle,” by Maria S. Cummins (Our Young Folks; October) • “The Veteran Eagle: A Correction” (Little Corporal; November) • “The Veteran Eagle; and What the Children Did,” by Alfred Sewell (Little Corporal; December) • “How to Go to School,” by H. E. B. (Little Corporal; December) • Woman’s Rights, John Todd
Children’s periodicals founded: Die Christliche KinderzeitungYoung AmericansThe Children’s HourLittle ChiefThe NurseryRiverside Magazine for Young PeopleSouthern Boys’ and Girls’ MonthlyOliver Optic’s Magazine: Our Boys and Girls ; Oliver Optic’s MagazineThe School and FiresideThe Young Catholic’s GuideBurke’s Weekly for Boys and Girls ; Burke’s Magazine for Boys and GirlsThe Young Christian Soldier ; The Young Christian Soldier and Children’s Guest ; The Young Christian SoldierThe Little GleanerThe Children’s FriendThe Sabbath School GemThe Youth’s EclecticGuardian AngelThe Sparkling GemSunday School GemChildren’s Banner ; The Life Boat
US purchases Alaska from Russia: $7,200,000 • Mar 1: Nebraska admitted as a state • Dec 2: Charles Dickens gives his first reading during his second tour of the US
at this site: Wool-Gathering, by “Gail Hamilton” [Abigail Dodge] • Rogers groups in the Little Corporal • “To All Who Are Interested” (Little Corporal; May) • “Swinging on a Birch-Tree,” by Lucy Larcom & Winslow Homer (Our Young Folks; June) • “Bird-Catching,” by R. H. Stoddard & Winslow Homer (Our Young Folks; August) • “Living in an Omnibus,” by Louisa May Alcott (Robert Merry’s Museum; October) • “The Two Burials,” by Julia Pratt Ballard (Robert Merry’s Museum; November)
Children’s periodicals founded: The Sunday School MessengerYoung People’s MagazineThe Guiding Star: A Sunday Paper for Boys and GirlsLittle MessengerBoys’ and Girls’ New Monthly MagazineGood Words for the YoungThe Young Folks’ NewsBoys’ JournalThe Minnesota Pupil ; The Minnesota Pupil and Youth’s National GazetteChildren of the WestYouth’s Manual ; The Weekly Manual ; The Youth’s Manual ; The Temperance Star ; The Youth’s GuideThe Boys’ and Girls’ Literary Journal (also, The Boys and Girls Literary Journal)The Children’s FriendYoung Folks’ Friend
Sporting-goods store Peck & Snyder features photos of baseball teams on its trade cards, thereby inventing the baseball card (J. T. Crane probably didn’t approve) • Dec 3: trial of Jefferson Davis begins
at this site:Two Ways of Being Manly,” by F. W. A. P. (Robert Merry’s Museum) • Cousin Tribulation’s story, by Louisa May Alcott (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “Watching the Crows,” by John Townsend Trowbridge & Winslow Homer (Our Young Folks; June) • “Strawberries,” by John Townsend Trowbridge & Winslow Homer (Our Young Folks; July) • “Green Apples,” by John Townsend Trowbridge & Winslow Homer (Our Young Folks; August) • Norwood, by Henry Ward Beecher • Woman’s Wrongs, by “Gail Hamilton”
Children’s periodicals founded: Golden HoursThe Little FolksScattered SeedsOnward ; Mayne Reid’s Magazine OnwardThe Bright Side ; Bright Side and Family CircleSunday School CompanionThe Young Crusader ; Young CrusaderThe Young AmericanZion’s HopeThe Sunday School Scholar ; ScholarThe JuniorThe Little Sunbeam (also, Sunbeam)The Youth’s CabinetThe Young Minnesotian
Cross-continental railroad completed • Feb 15: charges against Jefferson Davis dropped • Mar 4: Ulysses S. Grant becomes president (-1877) • Sept 24: speculators attempting to corner the gold market cause economic panic
at this site:Red Riding-Hood,” by Lucy Larcom (Our Young Folks; February) • “A Frightened Tiger” (Youth’s Companion; July 29) • “Not Complimentary to Utah” (Youth’s Companion; October 28) • Review of John Greenleaf Whittier’s Illustrated Ballads of New England (Our Young Folks; November) • “Sissy’s Ride in the Moon,” by Annette Bishop & Mary Ann Hallock (Our Young Folks; November) • Popular Amusements, by J. T. Crane
Children’s periodicals founded: American Boy’s Magazine ; Philadelphia MonthlyDer Jugend-PilgerThe Infants’ Delight ; Infants’ DelightThe Pacific YouthYoung Folks’ MonthlyYoung Folks’ Rural ; Young Folks’ Monthly ; Young Folks’ Rural (also, Young Folks’ Rural Monthly)The Young SportsmanThe Young SportsmanThe Little Corporal’s School Festival ; School Festival ; National School FestivalWork and PlayThe Pious YouthOur Leisure MomentsThe Young CatholicThe Little SchoolmateThe Little WatchmanThe Little MissionaryPicture Lesson Paper ; The Picture Story PaperThe Young Pilot ; Young Pilot and Little MenThe Children’s Argus
US population = 39,818,449 • Jan 26: Virginia readmitted to the Union • Feb 23: Mississippi readmitted to the Union • Mar 30: Texas readmitted to the Union; 15th amendment adopted • July 15: Georgia readmitted to the Union
at this site:The Doctor’s Little Girl,” by C. Alice Baker (Robert Merry’s Museum) • “Young Italy in Boston,” by “Stella” (Robert Merry’s Museum; January) • “Hunting Eggs,” by Mary Ann Hallock (Our Young Folks; January) • “The Chinese in California,” by Lucy St. John (Robert Merry’s Museum; February) • “At Grandma’s Bedside,” by Edgar Fawcett & Mary Ann Hallock (Our Young Folks; May) • “Spring Whistles,” by Lucy Larcom & Mary Ann Hallock (Our Young Folks; May) • “Reform in Juvenile Literature” (Punchinello; 20 August) • “A Young Savage,” by A. Perry (Robert Merry’s Museum; November) • “Freed Children in Virginia,” by “Elizabeth Kilham” (Our Young Folks; December)
Children’s periodicals founded: Apples of GoldEvery Boy’s MagazineDer Kinder-BoteLittle ChristianLutherisches Kinder- und JugendblattThe Sunday-School Magazine ; Church School MagazineYoung Israel ; LibanonMorning LightYoung Folks Journal ; Little ThingsOur Young Folks’ Illustrated PaperOur Little People ; Our Little People QuarterlyHappy HoursLoving Words for ChildrenThe Children’s PaperYouth’s Gazette
May 1: Five planets visible at once in a magnificent display • Oct 8-11: Chicago Fire one of several in drought-dried Midwest (former Robert Merry’s Museum subscriber Daniel H. Burnham among architects who rebuild city)
at this site:The Spendthrift Doll,” by Sarah Orne Jewett (Robert Merry’s Museum; February) • “What a Bore!,” by Helen C. Weeks (Youth’s Companion; February 2) • a planetary alignment (Robert Merry’s Museum; June) • “Declamation—Relief for Chicago,” by Edward Everett Hale (Robert Merry’s Museum; November) • editorial on the Chicago Fire (Robert Merry’s Museum; November) • “Freed Children in Washington,” by “Elizabeth Kilham” (Our Young Folks; November) • “What Ben and the Twins Did for Chicago,” Sara Conant (Robert Merry’s Museum; December) • Thomas Nast honors The Little Corporal (Little Corporal; December) • “Routed But Not Conquered” (Little Corporal; December) • Letters in The Little Corporal about the Chicago Fire • “More About the Fire” (Little Corporal; December) • “The Mammoth” (Children’s Friend [West Chester, Pennsylvania]; Twelfth month)
Children’s periodicals founded: The Child’s FriendHebrew Sabbath School CompanionBoys’ LedgerDer KinderfreundOur Little Ones ; Story WorldDer SchutzengelWhat Next?The Young CadetThe Young Folks GemThe Laurel WreathGood Words for the Children
Nov 5: the Mary Celeste leaves New York, New York, with a crew of seven, the captain, and the captain’s wife & child, bound for Genoa, Italy • Nov 9: Boston Fire; Horace B. Fuller’s publishing offices (he published Robert Merry’s Museum) burn; he never recovers financially • Dec 4: the Mary Celeste is found adrift off the Azores, its cargo intact, but with no one on board; its lifeboat is missing
at this site:The Voyage of the Salt Mackerel,” by Charles Barnard (Robert Merry’s Museum) • “A Picture Story of the Chicago Fire” (Little Corporal; January) • “What Does Johnny Read?” (Little Corporal; January) • “’Relics of the Fire’” (Little Corporal; March) • “Knitting-Work,” by Genie M. Wilde (Our Young Folks; March) • “The Ancient World,” by “Uncle Jacob” (Children’s Friend [West Chester, Pennsylvania]; Fourth month) • “A Quiet Study (Robert Merry’s Museum; May) • Review of Oliver Optic’s Books for Boys (New Englander and Yale Review; July) • “The Year After the Fire” (Little Corporal; November) • announcement of merger (Robert Merry’s Museum; November) • editorial (Robert Merry’s Museum; November)
Children magazines founded: St. Nicholas
at this site:Children’s Magazines” (Scribner’s Monthly; July)
Copyright 1999-2023, Pat Pflieger
To “Nineteenth-Century American Children & What They Read
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Some works for adults, 1800-1872
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